References of "Haubruge, Eric"
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See detailProteomic Investigation of Aphid Honeydew Reveals an Unexpected Diversity of Proteins
Sabri, Ahmed; Vandermoten, Sophie ULg; Leroy, Pascal et al

in PLoS ONE (2013), 8(9),

Aphids feed on the phloem sap of plants, and are the most common honeydew-producing insects. While aphid honeydew is primarily considered to comprise sugars and amino acids, its protein diversity has yet ... [more ▼]

Aphids feed on the phloem sap of plants, and are the most common honeydew-producing insects. While aphid honeydew is primarily considered to comprise sugars and amino acids, its protein diversity has yet to be documented. Here, we report on the investigation of the honeydew proteome from the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum. Using a two-Dimensional <br />Differential in-Gel Electrophoresis (2D-Dige) approach, more than 140 spots were isolated, demonstrating that aphid honeydew also represents a diverse source of proteins. About 66% of the isolated spots were identified through mass spectrometry analysis, revealing that the protein diversity of aphid honeydew originates from several organisms (i.e. the host aphid and its microbiota, including endosymbiotic bacteria and gut flora). Interestingly, our experiments also allowed to identify some proteins like chaperonin, GroEL and Dnak chaperones, elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu), and flagellin that might act as mediators in the plant-aphid interaction. In addition to providing the first aphid honeydew proteome analysis, we propose to reconsider the importance of this substance, mainly acknowledged to be a waste product, from the aphid <br />ecology perspective. [less ▲]

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See detailLes vers à soie malgaches - Enjeux écologiques et socio-économiques
Verheggen, François ULg; Bogaert, Jan ULg; Haubruge, Eric ULg

Book published by Presses agronomiques de Gembloux (2013)

Cet ouvrage reflète les réalisations et activités scientifiques du projet de coopération universitaire « Gestion et valorisation durable du ver à soie endémique Borocera cajani en milieu forestier dans la ... [more ▼]

Cet ouvrage reflète les réalisations et activités scientifiques du projet de coopération universitaire « Gestion et valorisation durable du ver à soie endémique Borocera cajani en milieu forestier dans la région d’Antananarivo » financé par la Commission Universitaire pour le Développement (CUD). Ce projet de recherche est le fruit d’une collaboration étroite entre le Département des Eaux et Forêts de l’école Supérieure des Sciences Agronomiques de l’Université d’Antananarivo, l’Université de Liège et l’Université Libre de Bruxelles. Une première section de l’ouvrage porte sur les aspects biologiques et écologiques des vers à soie endémiques de Madagascar – avec l’accent sur le landibe (Borocera cajani) – notamment sa morphologie, l’estimation de son abondance dans l’aire étudiée, la dynamique de ses populations, ses interactions avec ses plantes hôtes, son comportement d’alimentation et son développement larvaire. La deuxième section étudie les dimensions écologiques et botaniques de l’habitat des vers à soie, à savoir les formations de tapia (Uapaca bojeri), principalement à travers les aspects sylvicoles et botaniques, les causes et indicateurs de dégradation, la discussion autour de sa dénomination, la diversité floristique, la régénération et l’inventaire des ressources sauvages comestibles et leurs caractéristiques chimiques. La troisième section renseigne sur l’état et la valorisation de la filière soie et couvre une diversité d’approches, allant des connaissances et savoir-faire des communautés locales au rôle de la soie dans l’économie rurale. Le contexte socio-institutionnel ainsi que les interactions entre les acteurs concernés par la filière complètent ce volet. L’ouvrage contient 21 contributions scientifiques, rédigées par 34 auteurs, dont certains ont déjà fait l’objet d’une publication dans une revue internationale. Le volume a été composé sous la direction scientifique de François J. Verheggen, Jan Bogaert et éric Haubruge, enseignants à Gembloux Agro-Bio Tech (Université de Liège). Il s’adresse à tous ceux qui s’intéressent à la coopération universitaire et/ou aux recherches écologiques, entomologiques et sociologiques dans un contexte malgache. [less ▲]

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See detailDiversity of forensic rove beetles (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae) associated with decaying pig carcass in a forest biotope
Dekeirsschieter, Jessica ULg; Frederickx, Christine ULg; Verheggen, François ULg et al

in Journal of Forensic Sciences (2013)

Most forensic studies are focused on Diptera pattern colonization while neglecting Coleoptera succession. So far, little information is available on the postmortem colonization by beetles and the ... [more ▼]

Most forensic studies are focused on Diptera pattern colonization while neglecting Coleoptera succession. So far, little information is available on the postmortem colonization by beetles and the decomposition process they initiate under temperate biogeoclimatic countries. These beetles have however been referred to as being part of the entomofaunal colonization of a dead body. Forensic entomologists need increased databases detailing the distribution, ecology and phenology of necrophagous insects, including staphylinids (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae). While pig carcasses are commonly used in forensic entomology studies to surrogate human decomposition and to investigate the entomofaunal succession, very few works have been conducted in Europe on large carcasses. Our work reports the monitoring of the presence of adult rove beetles (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae) on decaying pig carcasses in a forest biotope during four seasons (spring, summer, fall and winter). A total of 23 genera comprising 60 species of rove beetles were collected from pig carcasses. [less ▲]

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See detailIsolation and Cultivation of a Xylanolytic Bacillus subtilis Extracted from the Gut of the Termite Reticulitermes santonensis
Tarayre, Cédric ULg; Brognaux, Alison ULg; Brasseur, Catherine ULg et al

in Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology (2013)

The aim of this work was the isolation of xylanolytic microorganisms from the digestive tract of the termite Reticulitermes santonensis. The reducing sugars released after the hydrolysis of xylans can be ... [more ▼]

The aim of this work was the isolation of xylanolytic microorganisms from the digestive tract of the termite Reticulitermes santonensis. The reducing sugars released after the hydrolysis of xylans can be further fermented to provide bioethanol. A xylanolytic strain of Bacillus subtilis was isolated from the hindgut of the termite and displayed amylase and xylanase activities. The bacterium was grown on media containing agricultural residues: wheat bran, wheat distiller’s grains, and rapeseed oil cake. Wheat bran led to the highest induction of xylanase activity, although the development of the strain was less fast than in the other media. It was possible to reach maximal xylanase activities of 44.3, 33.5, and 29.1 I.U./ml in the media containing wheat bran, wheat distiller’s grains, and rapeseed oil cake, respectively. Mass spectrometry identified a wide range of xylose oligomers, highlighting an endoxylanase activity. The enzyme was stable up to 45 °C and displayed an optimal pH close to 8. [less ▲]

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See detailAre Bogs Reservoirs for Emerging Disease Vectors? Evaluation of Culicoides Populations in the Hautes Fagnes Nature Reserve (Belgium)
Zimmer, Jean-Yves ULg; Smeets, François ULg; Simonon, Grégory et al

in PLoS ONE (2013), 8(6),

Several species of Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) biting midges serve as biological vectors for the bluetongue virus (BTV) and the recently described Schmallenberg virus (SBV) in northern Europe ... [more ▼]

Several species of Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) biting midges serve as biological vectors for the bluetongue virus (BTV) and the recently described Schmallenberg virus (SBV) in northern Europe. Since their recent emergence in this part of the continent, these diseases have caused considerable economic losses to the sheep and cattle industries. Much data is now available that describe the distribution, population dynamics, and feeding habits of these insects. However, little is known regarding the presence of Culicoides in unusual habitats such as peaty marshes, nor their potential vector capacity. This study evaluated Culicoides biting midges present in the bogs of a Belgian nature reserve compared to those residing at a nearby cattle farm. Culicoides were trapped in 2011 at four different sites (broadleaved and coniferous forested areas, open environments, and at a scientific station) located in the Hautes Fagnes Nature Reserve (Belgium). An additional light trap was operated on a nearby cattle farm. Very high numbers of biting midges were captured in the marshy area and most of them (70 to 95%) were Culicoides impunctatus, a potential vector of BTV and other pathogens. In addition, fewer numbers of C. obsoletus/C. scoticus species, C. chiopterus, and C. dewulfi were observed in the bogs compared to the farm. The wet environment and oligotrophic nature of the soil were probably responsible for these changes in the respective populations. A total of 297,808 Culicoides midges belonging to 27 species were identified during this study and 3 of these species (C. sphagnumensis, C. clintoni and C. comosioculatus) were described in Belgium for the first time. [less ▲]

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See detailOccurrence of aphid predator species in both organic and conventional corn and broad bean
Vandereycken, Axel ULg; Joie, Emilie ULg; Francis, Frédéric ULg et al

in Entomologie Faunistique = Faunistic Entomology (2013), 66

Organic farming has been suggested to enhance beneficial species abundance and diversity in agrosystem habitats. In this study, the abundance of aphid predators was compared in organic and conventional ... [more ▼]

Organic farming has been suggested to enhance beneficial species abundance and diversity in agrosystem habitats. In this study, the abundance of aphid predators was compared in organic and conventional corn and broad bean fields during a two-year inventory. In both farming strategies, there were no differences between species diversity. Five aphid predator species were mainly observed: Coccinella septempunctata L. 1758 (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), Propylea quatuordecimpunctata (L. 1758) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), Harmonia axyridis Pallas 1773 (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens 1836) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) and Episyrphus balteatus (De Geer 1776) (Diptera: Syrphidae). Differences in abundance of aphidophagous species between conventional and organic crop fields were observed even if not always in favour of the latter condition. The abundance of the five above- mentioned aphidophagous species varied for the most part according to almost all the observed parameters, including sampled year, crop and agricultural practices. In conclusion, our findings do not support organic practices in corn and broad bean as key options to increase the biodiversity and abundance of aphid natural enemies. [less ▲]

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See detailIsolation and cultivation of cellulolytic and xylanolytic bacteria and molds extracted from the gut of the termite Reticulitermes santonensis (3DV.1.14)
Tarayre, Cédric ULg; Bauwens, Julien ULg; Mattéotti, Christel et al

Poster (2013, June)

Biofuel production can be based on the use of agro-residues, consisting in a complex lignocellulosic structure which is not easily hydrolysable. The digestive tract of the termite Reticulitermes ... [more ▼]

Biofuel production can be based on the use of agro-residues, consisting in a complex lignocellulosic structure which is not easily hydrolysable. The digestive tract of the termite Reticulitermes santonensis contains a diversified microflora able to hydrolyze the wood components. Bacteria, molds and protists form efficient consortia, able to break the lignocellulosic complex by producing enzymes, such as xylanases and cellulases. Our purpose is the isolation of microbial strains from termite guts in order to evaluate their potential for hydrolysis of lignocellulosic materials. Termites were fed using different diets chosen to improve the xylanolytic and cellulolytic microflora: wood, microcristalline cellulose (added with lignin or not), α-cellulose (added with lignin or not) and birchwood xylan. Then, dissections were realized to isolate the potential xylanolytic and cellulolytic strains. This approach led us to isolate and to study several strains of bacteria (Bacillus sp. strain CTGx and Chryseobacterium sp. strain CTGx) and molds (Trichoderma virens strain CTGx and Sarocladium kiliense strain CTGx). These microorganisms were able to hydrolyze starch, xylan, cellulose, carboxymethylcellulose, esculin, β-glucan and Whatman® filter paper. They can produce glucose and xylose monomers and oligomers which can be further fermented to produce bioethanol. [less ▲]

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See detailResearch of New Enzyme Producing Strains in the Gut of the Termite Reticulitermes santonensis
Tarayre, Cédric ULg; Bauwens, Julien ULg; Mattéotti, Christel et al

Poster (2013, June)

Termites contain a complex microflora inside of their guts. Inferior termites contain bacteria, mycetes and protists that interact to degrade vegetable components. These strains act as consortia to break ... [more ▼]

Termites contain a complex microflora inside of their guts. Inferior termites contain bacteria, mycetes and protists that interact to degrade vegetable components. These strains act as consortia to break natural materials by secreting various enzymes. Our aim was the isolation and cultivation of microorganisms in order to produce new enzymes that can be further used in green chemistry. Termites were fed with different diets: pinewood, microcristalline cellulose (added with lignin or not), α-cellulose (added with lignin or not) and birchwood xylan. Then, dissections were realized to isolate interesting strains. All the microorganisms were subjected to enzyme assays. That technique allowed us to isolate and to cultivate various strains of bacteria, molds and protists. Three strains of bacteria, two strains of molds and one strain of protist were isolated and displayed different enzymatic activities. The bacteria Bacillus subtilis strain ABGx, Bacillus sp. strain CTGx and Chryseobacterium sp. strain CTGx displayed amylase, cellulase and xylanase activities. The molds Trichoderma virens strain CTGx and Sarocladium kiliense strain CTGx were also able to produce those enzymes. However, the protist Poterioochromonas sp. was found to produce only amylase. In conlusion, the termite gut is a complex culivation medium that provides a habitat for many microorganisms that show interesting enzymatic activities. [less ▲]

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See detailElectrophysiological and behavioural responses of Thanatophilus sinuatus F. (Coleoptera: Silphidae) to selected cadaveric volatile organic compounds
Dekeirsschieter, Jessica ULg; Frederickx, Christine ULg; Lognay, Georges ULg et al

in Journal of Forensic Sciences (2013)

Soon after death, carcasses release volatile chemicals that attract carrion insects including Silphidae. Nevertheless, it is not known which chemical cues are involved in the attractiveness of the carcass ... [more ▼]

Soon after death, carcasses release volatile chemicals that attract carrion insects including Silphidae. Nevertheless, it is not known which chemical cues are involved in the attractiveness of the carcass. So far, little information is available on the chemical ecology of carrion beetles, particularly concerning the subfamily of Silphinae. The biological role of selected cadaveric volatile organic compounds including: dimethyldisulfide (DMDS), butan-1-ol, n-butanoic acid, indole, phenol, p-cresol, putrescine, and cadaverine on the silphine species, Thanatophilus sinuatus Fabricius, was investigated by using both electrophysiological and behavioural techniques. Among the tested cadaveric compounds, butan-1-ol and DMDS elicited the strongest EAG from both T. sinuatus male and female antennae. In a two-arm olfactometer, males and females were significantly attracted to dimethyldisulfide (DMDS) for both tested doses, whereas only males were attracted to p-cresol at 100 ng. Putrescine was repellent to males at the dose of 1 µg [less ▲]

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See detailLa mortalité de l'abeille domestique : entre communication médiatique et scientifique
Leclercq, Gil ULg; Francis, Frédéric ULg; Haubruge, Eric ULg et al

Conference given outside the academic context (2013)

A l’heure actuelle, plus personne n’ignore que nos populations d’abeilles domestiques subissent de lourdes pertes, chez nous comme dans de nombreux autres pays. Les médias ont axés leur communication sur ... [more ▼]

A l’heure actuelle, plus personne n’ignore que nos populations d’abeilles domestiques subissent de lourdes pertes, chez nous comme dans de nombreux autres pays. Les médias ont axés leur communication sur des messages très simples. On en retient surtout que les pesticides tuent nos abeilles. La conclusion au problème est dès lors évidente : il faut interdire les pesticides. Mais cette problématique est-elle si simple ? Ce message est-il le même que celui communiqué par les scientifiques ? Cette conférence permettra de faire le point sur les pertes en colonies d’abeilles domestiques. On s’intéressera plus particulièrement aux pertes de ces dernières années en Belgique, cartes et chiffres à l’appui. On y verra aussi comment chacun, qu’il soit citoyen, apiculteur, agriculteur,… peut aider à enrayer cette mortalité effrayante. [less ▲]

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See detailThe community of Hymenoptera parasitizing necrophagous Diptera in an urban biotope
Frederickx, Christine ULg; Dekeirsschieter, Jessica ULg; Verheggen, François ULg et al

in Journal of Insect Science [=JIS] (2013), 13(32),

Most reports published in the field of forensic entomology are focused on Diptera and neglect the Hymenoptera community. However, Hymenoptera are part of the entomofaunal colonisation of a dead body. The ... [more ▼]

Most reports published in the field of forensic entomology are focused on Diptera and neglect the Hymenoptera community. However, Hymenoptera are part of the entomofaunal colonisation of a dead body. The use of Hymenoptera parasitoids in forensic entomology can be relevant to evaluate the time of death. Hymenoptera parasitoids of the larvae and pupae of flies may play an important role in the estimation of the post-mortem period, because their time of attack is often restricted to a small, well-defined windows of time in the development of the host insect. However, these parasitoids can interfere with the developmental times of colonising Diptera, and therefore a better understanding of their ecology is needed. The work reported here monitored the presence of adult Hymenoptera parasitoids on decaying pig carcasses in an urban biotope during the summer season (from May to September). Six families and six species were recorded in the field: Aspilota fuscicornis Haliday, Alysia manducator Panzer, Nasonia vitripennis Walker, Tachinaephagus zealandicus Ashmead, Trichopria sp., and Figites sp. In the laboratory, five species emerged from pupae collected in the field: Trichopria sp., Figites sp., A. manducator, N. vitripennis, and T. zealandicus. These five species colonise a broad spectrum of Diptera hosts, including those species associated with decomposing carcasses: Calliphoridae, Muscidae, Fanniidae, and Sarcophagidae [less ▲]

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