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See detailLa mortalité de l'abeille domestique : entre communication médiatique et scientifique
Leclercq, Gil ULg; Francis, Frédéric ULg; Haubruge, Eric ULg et al

Conference given outside the academic context (2013)

A l’heure actuelle, plus personne n’ignore que nos populations d’abeilles domestiques subissent de lourdes pertes, chez nous comme dans de nombreux autres pays. Les médias ont axés leur communication sur ... [more ▼]

A l’heure actuelle, plus personne n’ignore que nos populations d’abeilles domestiques subissent de lourdes pertes, chez nous comme dans de nombreux autres pays. Les médias ont axés leur communication sur des messages très simples. On en retient surtout que les pesticides tuent nos abeilles. La conclusion au problème est dès lors évidente : il faut interdire les pesticides. Mais cette problématique est-elle si simple ? Ce message est-il le même que celui communiqué par les scientifiques ? Cette conférence permettra de faire le point sur les pertes en colonies d’abeilles domestiques. On s’intéressera plus particulièrement aux pertes de ces dernières années en Belgique, cartes et chiffres à l’appui. On y verra aussi comment chacun, qu’il soit citoyen, apiculteur, agriculteur,… peut aider à enrayer cette mortalité effrayante. [less ▲]

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See detailThe community of Hymenoptera parasitizing necrophagous Diptera in an urban biotope
Frederickx, Christine ULg; Dekeirsschieter, Jessica ULg; Verheggen, François ULg et al

in Journal of Insect Science [=JIS] (2013), 13(32),

Most reports published in the field of forensic entomology are focused on Diptera and neglect the Hymenoptera community. However, Hymenoptera are part of the entomofaunal colonisation of a dead body. The ... [more ▼]

Most reports published in the field of forensic entomology are focused on Diptera and neglect the Hymenoptera community. However, Hymenoptera are part of the entomofaunal colonisation of a dead body. The use of Hymenoptera parasitoids in forensic entomology can be relevant to evaluate the time of death. Hymenoptera parasitoids of the larvae and pupae of flies may play an important role in the estimation of the post-mortem period, because their time of attack is often restricted to a small, well-defined windows of time in the development of the host insect. However, these parasitoids can interfere with the developmental times of colonising Diptera, and therefore a better understanding of their ecology is needed. The work reported here monitored the presence of adult Hymenoptera parasitoids on decaying pig carcasses in an urban biotope during the summer season (from May to September). Six families and six species were recorded in the field: Aspilota fuscicornis Haliday, Alysia manducator Panzer, Nasonia vitripennis Walker, Tachinaephagus zealandicus Ashmead, Trichopria sp., and Figites sp. In the laboratory, five species emerged from pupae collected in the field: Trichopria sp., Figites sp., A. manducator, N. vitripennis, and T. zealandicus. These five species colonise a broad spectrum of Diptera hosts, including those species associated with decomposing carcasses: Calliphoridae, Muscidae, Fanniidae, and Sarcophagidae [less ▲]

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See detailSubstrate Marking by an Invasive Ladybeetle: Seasonal Changes in Hydrocarbon Composition and Behavioral Responses
Durieux, Delphine ULg; Fassotte, Bérénice ULg; Vanderplanck et al

in PLoS ONE (2013), 8(4),

The multicolored Asian ladybeetle, Harmonia axyridis (Pallas), aggregates inside dwellings during the winter to survive the cold. Recent published reports have highlighted that overwintering individuals ... [more ▼]

The multicolored Asian ladybeetle, Harmonia axyridis (Pallas), aggregates inside dwellings during the winter to survive the cold. Recent published reports have highlighted that overwintering individuals use hydrocarbon markings deposited on surfaces by conspecifics to orient toward aggregation sites. In the current study, monthly GC-MS analyses revealed seasonal modifications in the chemical profile of substrate markings deposited by moving individuals. The markings of overwintering ladybeetles contained larger proportions of heptacosadiene, nonacosadiene, hentriacontadienes, and methyl-nonacosanes, along with a lower proportion of heptacosene and nonacosene. This finding suggests the importance of the unsaturated and/or branched hydrocarbons in the H. axyridis aggregation process. Subsequently, we conducted behavioral assays to test whether (1) there is seasonal variation in the behavioral response of H. axyridis individuals toward substrate markings deposited by conspecifics in the same physiological state and (2) the observed behavioral modification is due to a change in ladybeetle sensitivity and/or a change in the chemical composition of the substrate marking. The results indicate that overwintering individuals exhibit a stronger ‘‘following’’ response toward conspecific substrate markings. This behavior is linked to both the physiological state of ladybeetles and the specific chemical profile of the marking biomolecules deposited under overwintering conditions. [less ▲]

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See detailEvaluation de la diversité de l’entomofaune en cultures maraîchères dans l’est de la Chine
Polo Lozano, Damien ULg; Bosquée, Emilie ULg; Chevalier Mendes Lopes, Thomas ULg et al

in Entomologie Faunistique = Faunistic Entomology (2013), 66

Within the framework of research aimed at developing biological control in vegetable crops in Shandong province in China, a pest and associated auxiliary entomophagous insects monitoring was conducted to ... [more ▼]

Within the framework of research aimed at developing biological control in vegetable crops in Shandong province in China, a pest and associated auxiliary entomophagous insects monitoring was conducted to determine entomological groups of agricultural interest and compare them to the situation in Belgium. The diversity and abundance of the entomofauna were assessed in potato and zucchini fields between May 9th and June 13th, 2011, using yellow traps and in situ observations on host plants. A total of 36 466 and 34 806 insects were trapped or observed on the plants in zucchini and potato fields, respectively. Ten orders and more than sixty families in each crop were identified. Aphids widely predominated in the traps and exerted a strong pressure on both crops early in the season. Other families of pests have been identified but no specific pest of these two crops and the investigated region is among the collections. [less ▲]

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See detailConsumption of Immature Stages of Colorado Potato Beetle by Chrysoperla Carnea (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) Larvae in the Laboratory
Sablon, Ludovic ULg; Haubruge, Eric ULg; Verheggen, François ULg

in American Journal of Potato Research (2013), 90(1), 51-57

The Colorado potato beetle (CPB), Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say), has been an important defoliator of potatoes for 150 years. Although the use of insecticides allowed drastic reductions of CPB ... [more ▼]

The Colorado potato beetle (CPB), Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say), has been an important defoliator of potatoes for 150 years. Although the use of insecticides allowed drastic reductions of CPB populations, resistance development against active substances has been observed. In this context, biological control using predatory larvae of the lacewing may represent a good alternative. CPB egg and larval consumption rates have been evaluated for all Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens) instars for 24 h. While first and second C. carnea instars only consumed eggs (1.3 and 1.8), first (1.5 and 2.4) and second (0.6 and 0.8) CPB instars, third instar of lacewing consumed all CPB immature stages: 6.8 CPB eggs, 8.5 first, 4 s, 0.5 third and 0.1 fourth CPB instars. This third instar killed 4-fold more CPB larvae than other larval stages. Handling time for third instar lacewing has been evaluated at 52 min on first instar CPB, 102 min on second instar and 164 min on third instar. Our laboratory assays highlight a potential for lacewing larvae to control CPB immature stages with a greater efficiency on young CPB larval stages. Fields assays are however needed to confirm efficiency of this CPB natural enemy under field conditions. [less ▲]

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See detailPropensity of the Tomato Leafminer, Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), to Develop on Four Potato Plant Varieties
Caparros Megido, Rudy ULg; Brostaux, Yves ULg; Haubruge, Eric ULg et al

in American Journal of Potato Research (2013), 90

The tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), is now considered to be one of the most damaging invasive pests of tomatoes in the world. Tomato is regarded as the main host of T. absoluta ... [more ▼]

The tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), is now considered to be one of the most damaging invasive pests of tomatoes in the world. Tomato is regarded as the main host of T. absoluta, but the pest can also feed, develop and reproduce on other cultivated Solanaceae, such as potato (Solanum tuberosum L). In the present study, we examined the ability of T. absoluta to develop on four commonly cultivated varieties of potato, under laboratory conditions. The survival rate of T. absoluta did not differ between the five tested host plants (tomato: Solanum lycopersicum cv. Moneymaker; and potato: Solanum tuberosum cv. Spunta, Charlotte, Nicola, and Bintje), but its development time (egg to pupation) was significantly affected. Compared to tomato, development times were longer on Bintje and shorter on Nicola, Charlotte, and Spunta. These results show the high capacity of T. absoluta to develop on potato crops. [less ▲]

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See detailWireworms’ Management: An Overview of the Existing Methods, with Particular Regards to Agriotes spp. (Coleoptera: Elateridae)
Barsics, Fanny ULg; Haubruge, Eric ULg; Verheggen, François ULg

in Insects (2013), 4(1), 117-152

Wireworms (Coleoptera: Elateridae) are important soil dwelling pests worldwide causing yield losses in many crops. The progressive restrictions in the matter of efficient synthetic chemicals for health ... [more ▼]

Wireworms (Coleoptera: Elateridae) are important soil dwelling pests worldwide causing yield losses in many crops. The progressive restrictions in the matter of efficient synthetic chemicals for health and environmental care brought out the need for alternative management techniques. This paper summarizes the main potential tools that have been studied up to now and that could be applied together in integrated pest management systems and suggests guidelines for future research. [less ▲]

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See detailForensic Entomology Investigations From Doctor Marcel Leclercq (1924-2008): A Review ofCases From lg69 to 2005
Dekeirsschieter, Jessica; Frederickx, Christine; Verheggen, François ULg et al

in Journal of Medical Entomology (2013), 50(5), 935-954

Doctor Marcel Leclercq was a pioneer in the field of forensic entomology. He has provided his knowledge of insect biology to many forensic cases, and most of them have found the way to publication. Most ... [more ▼]

Doctor Marcel Leclercq was a pioneer in the field of forensic entomology. He has provided his knowledge of insect biology to many forensic cases, and most of them have found the way to publication. Most of the papers he has written were focused on individual cases, and despite the abundance of entomoforensic investigations he conducted, no synthesis has been published. This paper summarizes 36 years of forensic entomological investigations in temperate Europe, mainly in Belgium. Leclercq’s work includes 132 entomological cases involving 141 human corpses found in various death scenes. Under certain conditions, insect specimens found on death scene can provide information on when (postmortem interval estimation), where and how a person died. More or less one hundred insect species associated to a dead body have been identified by Marcel Leclercq. [less ▲]

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See detailInfluence de la plante nourricière sur différents paramètres du développement larvaire du ver à soie, Borocera cajani : un cas d’étude sur plants de tapia et de voafotsy
Wilmet, Leslie ULg; Haubruge, Eric ULg; Verheggen, François ULg

in Verheggen, François; Bogaert, Jan; Haubruge, Eric (Eds.) Les vers à soie malgaches : Enjeux écologiques et socio-économiques (2013)

Many plant and animal species are endemic in Madagascar. Among them, the silk moth Borocera cajani, commonly named landibe, and which belongs to the Lasiocampidae family. It is a pholyphageous insect ... [more ▼]

Many plant and animal species are endemic in Madagascar. Among them, the silk moth Borocera cajani, commonly named landibe, and which belongs to the Lasiocampidae family. It is a pholyphageous insect, with five larval stages followed by a complete metamorphosis in the pupal stage to turn into an adult; a nocturnal butterfly. Landibe’s principal habitat is composed of an endemic plant species in Madagascar: tapia (Uapaca bojeri, Euphorbiaceae). For a long time, this ecosystem was disturbed and seriously threatened. Today, in the area of Arivonimamo, procedures to ensure its protection exist and the “Associations Communautaires de Base” (COBA) are in charge of their respect. Activities related to silk industry can consist in important incomes for many families in the area of Antananarivo, increasing their standard of living. This research aims at increasing our general knowledge on Borocera cajani and more especially on its larvae cycle. We studied the influence of two feeding plants; tapia and voafotsy (Aphloia theaeformis), on several parameters of larvae development cycle, and we compared wild and laboratory breeding. Preference tests have also been carried out in the laboratory. Results showed that feeding plants have influence on some of the parameters of the landibe’s cycle development. Wild and laboratory breeding comparison revealed an influence on animals’ size. Preference tests showed that larvae, which grow up on voafotsy, developed a preference for this feeding plant. Current publications and scientific knowledge on Borocera cajani are still too small. This study brings complementary and essential information on landibe, which should receive legal protection status in order to avoid its disappearance. [less ▲]

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See detailForensic Cadaveric Decomposition Profiling by GC×GC-TOFMS Analysis of VOCs
Focant, Jean-François ULg; Stefanuto, Pierre-Hugues ULg; Brasseur, Catherine ULg et al

in Chemical Bulletin of Kazakh National University (2013), 72(4), 177-186

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See detailCharacterization of volatile organic compounds emitted by Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) roots and their attractiveness to wireworms
Gfeller, Aurélie; Laloux, Morgan; Barsics, Fanny ULg et al

in Journal of Chemical Ecology (2013), 39(8), 1129-1139

Root volatile organic compounds (VOCs), their chemistry and ecological functions have garnered less attention than aboveground emitted plant VOCs. We report here for the first time on the identification ... [more ▼]

Root volatile organic compounds (VOCs), their chemistry and ecological functions have garnered less attention than aboveground emitted plant VOCs. We report here for the first time on the identification of VOCs emitted by barley roots (Hordeum vulgare L.). Twenty nine VOCs were identified from isolated 21-d-old roots. The detection of root volatiles was dependent on the medium used for root cultivation. From 7-d-old roots cultivated on sterile Hoagland gelified medium, 24 VOCs were identified, on sterile vermiculite 33 VOCs, and on non-sterile vermiculite 34 VOCs. The major VOCs identified were fatty acid derived compounds, including hexanal, methyl hexanoate, (E)-hex-2-enal, 2-pentylfuran, pentan-1-ol, (Z)-2-(pentenyl)-furan, (Z)-pent-2-en-1-ol, hexan-1-ol, (Z)-hex-3-en-1-ol, (E)-hex-2-en-1-ol, oct-1-en-3-ol, 2-ethylhexan-1-ol (likely a contaminant), (E)-non-2-enal, octan-1-ol, (2E,6Z)-nona-2,6-dienal), methyl (E)-non-2-enoate, nonan-1-ol, (Z)-non-3-en-1-ol, (E)-non-2-en-1-ol, nona-3,6-dien-1-ol and nona-2,6-dien-1-ol. In an olfactometer assay, wireworms (larvae of Agriotes sordidus Illiger, Coleoptera: Elateridae) were attracted to chemical cues emanating from barley seedlings. We discuss the role of individual root volatiles or a blend of the root volatiles detected here and their interaction with CO2for wireworm attraction. [less ▲]

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See detailSymbiont Diversity in Reticulitermes santonensis (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae): Investigation Strategy Through Proteomics.
Bauwens, Julien ULg; Millet, Catherine ULg; Tarayre, Cédric ULg et al

in Environmental entomology (2013), 42(5), 882-7

The complex microbial community living in the hindgut of lower termites includes prokaryotes, flagellates, yeasts, and filamentous fungi. Many microorganisms are found in the termite gut, but only a few ... [more ▼]

The complex microbial community living in the hindgut of lower termites includes prokaryotes, flagellates, yeasts, and filamentous fungi. Many microorganisms are found in the termite gut, but only a few are thought to be involved in symbiotic association to participate in cellulose digestion. Proteomics provides analyses from both taxonomical and functional perspectives. We aimed to identify symbiont diversity in the gut of Reticulitermes santonensis (Feytaud), via complementary electrospray ionization associated to ion trap tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis associated to matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry analysis. One specific challenge to the study of lower termites is the relatively few data available on abundant symbiotic flagellates. Analysis based on LC-MS/MS revealed few protein families showing assignments to eukaryotes and the taxonomic origin of highly represented actins could not be established. Tubulins proved to be the most suitable protein family with which to identify flagellate populations from hindgut samples using LC-MS/MS, compared with other protein families, although this method targeted few prokaryotes in our assay. Similarly, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis associated to matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry did not succeed in identifying flagellate populations, but did permit the identification of most of the prokaryotic components of the symbiotic system. Finally, fungi and yeasts were identified by both methods. Owing to the lack of sequenced genes in flagellates, targeting tubulins for LC-MS/MS could allow fingerprints of flagellate populations to be established. Experimental and technical improvements might increase the efficiency of identification of prokaryotic populations in the near future, based on metaproteomic development. [less ▲]

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See detailAnalyse des facteurs anthropiques de dégradation des bois de tapia (Uapaca bojeri) d'Arivonimamo
Rakotondrasoa, Olivia Lovanirina; Ayral, Astrid; Stein, Julien et al

in Verheggen, François; Bogaert, Jan; Haubruge, Eric (Eds.) Les vers à soie malgaches : Enjeux écologiques et socio-économiques (2013)

The tapia woodland, an endemic ecosystem of Madagascar, plays an important role in the household economy of the local communities. The dependence of local people on the tapia woodland has led to the ... [more ▼]

The tapia woodland, an endemic ecosystem of Madagascar, plays an important role in the household economy of the local communities. The dependence of local people on the tapia woodland has led to the disturbance and degradation of this ecosystem. In this context, the current study aimed to identify and analyze the anthropogenic factors leading to the degradation of the tapia woodland in Arivonimamo. The working hypothesis was that fire constitutes today the main disturbance factor of the tapia woodland in Arivonimamo, leading to the deforestation and to a continuous degradation of this ecosystem. A typology of indicators of vegetation disturbance was established based upon literature; it was followed by an inventory of these indicators along four transects situated orthogonally around the six villages of the study site. This study showed that fire is no longer the main cause of deforestation and degradation of tapia woodlands in Arivonimamo. The continuing degradation of the woodland is mainly caused by illegal logging by the local population. These results provide key information to improve the management of the tapia woodlands in Arivonimamo. [less ▲]

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See detailActivité journalière et comportement d’alimentation de Borocera cajani Vinson 1863 (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae) sur deux de ses plantes hôtes : Uapaca bojeri Baillon 1874 et Aphloia theiformis (Vahl) Bennett 1840
Razafimanantsoa, Tsiresy; Raminosoa, Noromalala; Rakotondrasoa, Olivia et al

in Verheggen, François; Bogaert, Jan; Haubruge, Eric (Eds.) Les vers à soie malgaches : Enjeux écologiques et socio-économiques (2013)

Borocera cajani or landibe is a wild silk-moth, which silk is the most widely used in the textile industry in Madagascar. This endemic species is found throughout the island, but colonizes especially the ... [more ▼]

Borocera cajani or landibe is a wild silk-moth, which silk is the most widely used in the textile industry in Madagascar. This endemic species is found throughout the island, but colonizes especially the tapia forest in the central Highlands. The species has an important economic, culinary and cultural role in the Island. It is polyphagous and frequents several host plants. The daily activity of the larvae of B. cajani has been studied in their natural habitat on two native host plants of the tapia forest: Uapaca bojeri and Aphloia theiformis. Continuous observations during 24 hours on 54 individuals of the last instar of B. cajani have been conducted. Daily periods of activity were found to vary according to the host plant species. Larvae feeding on U. bojeri allocate 6.9% of their time to feed, while the larvae feeding on A. theiformis spend 3.3% of their time. Only 1.0% (15 minutes) and 0.7% (10 minutes) of the observed periods were allocated to movement, in the larvae feeding on U. bojeri et A. theiformis, respectively. Larvae observed on A. theiformis took an average of 3.1 ± 0.2 meals a day, which lasted 15,4 ± 1,3 min. Larvae observed on U. bojeri took an average of 1.9 ± 0.1 meals a day, which lasted 54.8 ± 5.2 min. [less ▲]

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