Le maintien dans l’emploi des travailleurs âgés dans trois entreprises belges
Bertrand, Françoise ; ; Barbier, Marie et al
in Relations Industrielles = Industrial Relations (2010), 65(3), 400-423
Future economic growth requires the employment of a greater number of workers above 55 years old. To deal with this increasing problem, it is important to identify the preferred solutions of older workers ... [more ▼]
Future economic growth requires the employment of a greater number of workers above 55 years old. To deal with this increasing problem, it is important to identify the preferred solutions of older workers in order to promote the retention of these workers in their jobs. Older workers of three enterprises have been interrogated on this subject. The aim of this study was to identify the best solutions for the workers. A distinction was made between the solutions proposed by the literature and those proposed by the workers in a spontaneous way. We also tried to determine whether the solutions differed as a function of socio-professional category, working time and type of working hours. Finally, this study determined the actions that need to be undertaken: actions regarding discrimination, working conditions, working time and professional development. In particular, this study established that the actions against discrimination are requested more by manual workers, part-time workers and those with variable hours. Therefore, we suggest that the requests of manual workers should be considered differently from those of executives. The latter are searching for more opportunities for development, whereas the manual workers prefer an improvement of working conditions. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 75 (20 ULg)
Facteurs d'insatisfaction incitant au départ et intention de quitter le travail : analyse comparative des groupes d'âge.
Bertrand, Françoise ; Peters, Stéphanie ; Pérée, Francis et al
in Travail Humain (Le) (2010), 73(1), 215-239
The aim of this paper is to identify reasons why workers would resign from their jobs early and to what extent the reasons for retirement are really encountered. A number of non satisfaction factors ... [more ▼]
The aim of this paper is to identify reasons why workers would resign from their jobs early and to what extent the reasons for retirement are really encountered. A number of non satisfaction factors either personal or job-related were considered in an age comparison dimension. A questionnaire has been elaborated for the purpose of this study and includes items related to job intention to quit and (potential vs encountered) non satisfaction factors. These factors consider both personal leaving factors and job related leaving factors. The latter include three theoretical sub-dimensions: working conditions, organizational and structural changes and job recognition. Exploratory factor analysis of the 58 items produced eight usable leaving factors: (1) lack of resources and autonomy; (2) work pressure; (3) lack of personal development; (4) job insecurity; (5) personal reasons; (6) organizational changes; (7) a hostile work environment and (8) a poor image of the company. The sample includes 1772 workers from 11 Belgian companies. The response rate is 50.23 per cent. All sectors of activity are included in the survey. We consider five categories of age (under 25 years old, between 25 and 35, between 36 and 45, between 45 and 55, and over 55 years). As far as the results are concerned, first of all, organizational changes encountered by a large majority of workers appear to be an important leaving factor, especially for older workers. Second the lack of personal development, though experienced by the oldest workers in a larger extent, is the main reason for leaving in all age groups. Third personal factors are also important for the younger and the oldest workers. Moreover work pressure is a phenomenon encountered by all workers, particularly the youngest, but it is less of a reason for leaving. Another result is that job insecurity factor is experienced by youngest workers. Finally, the differences between the young and the not so young are not very clear-cut, supporting the idea of the age management perspective. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 126 (30 ULg)
Safety Behavior: Job Demands, Job Resources, and Perceived Management Commitment to Safety
Hansez, Isabelle ;
in Journal of Occupational Health Psychology (2010), 15(3), 267-278
The job demands-resources model posits that job demands and resources influence outcomes through job strain and work engagement processes. We test whether the model can be extended to effort-related ... [more ▼]
The job demands-resources model posits that job demands and resources influence outcomes through job strain and work engagement processes. We test whether the model can be extended to effort-related “routine” safety violations and “situational” safety violations provoked by the organization. In addition we test more directly the involvement of job strain than previous studies which have used burnout measures. Structural equation modeling provided, for the first time, evidence of predicted relationships between job strain and “routine” violations and work engagement with “routine” and “situational” violations, thereby supporting the extension of the job demands-resources model to safety behaviors. In addition our results showed that a key safety specific construct ‘perceived management commitment to safety’ added to the explanatory power of the job demands-resources model. A predicted path from job resources to perceived management commitment to safety was highly significant, supporting the view that job resources can influence safety behavior through both general motivational involvement in work (work engagement) and through safety-specific processes. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 59 (3 ULg)
The impact of expectations on commitment of newcomers.
Bertrand, Françoise ; ; Hansez, Isabelle
Conference (2009, November 05)Detailed reference viewed: 10 (2 ULg)
Professional acts and services rendered by psychologists : a Belgian study.
Hansez, Isabelle ; ;
Conference (2009, July 10)Detailed reference viewed: 7 (1 ULg)
A test of the Job Demands-Resources model: A social identity theory perspective.
Barbier, Marie ; Hansez, Isabelle
Conference (2009, June 03)
The Job Demands-Resources mode has given rise to numerous studies aimed at a better understanding of positive and negative aspects of wellbeing at work. The existence of a motivational and an energetic ... [more ▼]
The Job Demands-Resources mode has given rise to numerous studies aimed at a better understanding of positive and negative aspects of wellbeing at work. The existence of a motivational and an energetic process leading to, respectively, engagement and exhaustion has been demonstrated. The aim of our study is to test this model using predictors derived from Social Identity Theory (or SIT). We hypothesize that working in a negatively valued occupation is associated with exhaustion and health problems, whereas a high identification with one’s occupational group is associated to engagement and low intent to quit the organisation (or IQ). Structural equation modelling was performed on data collected in a public administration (N = 954). We collected measures of occupation value, group identification, exhaustion, engagement, health problems and IQ. Items were parcelled based on their skewness. Excepted from Chi² being significant (p = .00), fit indices were satisfactory. The link between engagement and IQ is not significant but all other links go in the expected direction. We conclude that a test of the JDR model using SIT brings conclusive results. As a further step, it might be interesting to test interactive effects: results suggest that identification might buffer the relation between occupation value and exhaustion. Second, it might be interesting to introduce boundaries permeability, another key concept of SIT, as a third predictor. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 160 (12 ULg)
Situational Judgment Tests : Illustration od Item analysis by Classical Test Theory and Item Response Theory Approaches.
Lothe, Benoit ; Bertrand, Françoise ; Hansez, Isabelle
Conference (2009, May 16)Detailed reference viewed: 50 (4 ULg)
Extending the job Demands-Resources Model : safety behaviour and perceived safety climate.
Hansez, Isabelle ;
Conference (2009, May 16)Detailed reference viewed: 18 (2 ULg)
Work-Home Interaction and commitment of newcomers : the impact of expectations.
Bertrand, Françoise ; Hansez, Isabelle
Conference (2009, May 16)Detailed reference viewed: 7 (0 ULg)
Organizational determinants of job stress and reported incidents : a qualitative comparison among anaesthetists.
Nyssen, Anne-Sophie ; Hansez, Isabelle
Conference (2009, May 12)Detailed reference viewed: 20 (1 ULg)
A test of the Job Demands-Resources model with alternative measures of strain and well-being
Barbier, Marie ; Hansez, Isabelle
Conference (2009, May)
Since the beginning of the 21st century, the Job Demands-Resources model (Demerouti, Bakker, Nachreiner & Schaufeli, 2001) has given rise to numerous studies aimed at a better understanding of positive ... [more ▼]
Since the beginning of the 21st century, the Job Demands-Resources model (Demerouti, Bakker, Nachreiner & Schaufeli, 2001) has given rise to numerous studies aimed at a better understanding of positive and negative aspects of wellbeing at work. The existence of a motivational and an energetic process leading to, respectively, engagement and strain has been demonstrated several times, as well as cross-links between the two. However, these studies mainly rely on two measurement tools: the MBI-GS as a measure of strain and the UWES as a measure of engagement. The aim of our study is to test the model using alternative measures. Strain was measured using the NOSI subscale, and engagement using the POSI subscale of the PNOSI, a new tool measuring positive and negative wellbeing. Structural and external validity of this tool have been demonstrated previously (Barbier, Peters & Hansez, submitted). According to the JDR model, we hypothesise that high job demands would lead to strain and then to health problems. Our second hypothesis is that job resources would lead to engagement and then to low intent to leave. Structural equation modelling was performed using Lisrel 8.80 on 954 data collected in a Belgian public institution. As regards to measurement model, results show that a six-factor model (demands, resources, strain, engagement, health problems and intent to quit or IQ) shows good fit to data. We first tested the traditional JDR model, but it showed bad fit. Fit was improved when adding a path from resources to strain, from strain to IQ and from engagement to health problems. This alternative model showed better fit than the initial one. This study makes three main contributions. First, it tests the well-established JDR model using alternative measures of positive and negative sides of well-being. Second, it asks questions as to the respective outcomes of strain and engagement. More specifically, the path between engagement and IQ became not significant when a path from strain to IQ was added. That is, IQ seems to be more a product of strain than of (lack of) engagement. Finally, it emphasizes the important role of resources. It may be that the link between resources and low IQ would be mediated by low level of strain rather than by high level of engagement. Similarly, the relation between engagement and health problem is positive, which raises questions as to the pre-supposed positive effects of engagement. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 230 (5 ULg)
Measuring positive and negative aspects of well-being at work: Intern and extern validity of the PNOSI.
Barbier, Marie ; Hansez, Isabelle
Conference (2009, May)
With the emergence of positive psychology, research interest in workers positive responses to work conditions has gained ground fast. In the beginning of the 21st century, our unit developed the PNOSI, a ... [more ▼]
With the emergence of positive psychology, research interest in workers positive responses to work conditions has gained ground fast. In the beginning of the 21st century, our unit developed the PNOSI, a new tool for measuring Positive and Negative Occupational Stress. Negative occupational stress was defined as the response of workers facing demands they feel they have to manage but for which they doubt necessary resources are available. Positive occupational stress was defined as the response of workers facing demands they feel they have to manage and for which they perceive necessary resources are available. Exploratory analyses (Barbier & Hansez, 2008) have identified a two-factor structure, one measuring Positive Occupational Stress (POSI) and the other measuring Negative Occupational Stress (NOSI). The following research has two goals: establishing PNOSI intern structure through a cross-validation strategy using calibration and validation samples (goal 1), and testing its convergent and discriminant validity (goal 2). As regards to goal 1, structural equation modelling using Lisrel 8.80 was performed on 2,713 data collected in a Belgian electricity company. Results show that the two-factor solution suits data best than an alternative one “wellbeing” factor solution. Moreover, eliminating two items leads to better fit. We then fitted this reduced two-factor structure on more than 15,000 data collected in six companies. Results show that the reduced two-factor solution should be preferred to the alternative one in all six samples. PNOSI intern structure is thus replicated. As regards to goal 2, we calculated correlations between NOSI and POSI scales, and constructs of burnout, engagement, workaholism and commitment. Data were collected in a Belgian public institution (N = 954). NOSI was moderately correlated to our burnout measure, and can thus be considered as a different, even if related, construct. POSI was highly correlated to our measure of engagement, challenging our hypothesis that the two are different constructs. Finally, NOSI was moderately and negatively correlated to commitment and positively correlated to workaholism, whereas the reverse was true for POSI. It seems thus that NOSI is distinct from burnout, workaholism and commitment, whereas POSI is distinct from workaholism and commitment. To conclude, we can say that PNOSI two-factor structure is established. NOSI shows convergent validity with the similar construct of burnout, but is distinct from it. Results are less clear concerning POSI and engagement. Finally, NOSI and POSI are differently related to constructs of commitment and workaholism; their discriminant validity is thus established. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 138 (14 ULg)
Rapport de recherche : Confection des examens constituant les concours d'accession aux niveaux 1, 2+ et 2 pour le personnel des Services du Gouvernement wallon et des Organismes d'intérêt public dépendant de la Région wallonne et soumis au Code de la fonction publique wallonne (Marché public n° DR2006.01, Visa n° 06-14520, Région wallonne, Direction du Recrutement et de la Formation, 2007-2008).
Lothe, Benoit ; ; Hansez, Isabelle
Report (2009)Detailed reference viewed: 18 (1 ULg)
Measuring positive and negative occupational states (PNOSI) : Structural confirmation of a new Belgian tool
Barbier, Marie ; Peters, Stéphanie ; Hansez, Isabelle
in Psychologica Belgica (2009), 49(4), 227-247
This article reports on the validation of the Positive and Negative Occupational States Inventory (PNOSI), a new tool for measuring positive and negative occupational states. Three goals were defined ... [more ▼]
This article reports on the validation of the Positive and Negative Occupational States Inventory (PNOSI), a new tool for measuring positive and negative occupational states. Three goals were defined: testing the structural validity of the PNOSI, testing its stability, and testing its convergent and discriminant validity with engagement, burnout, commitment, and workaholism. Data were collected in seven different companies (more than 16,000 participants). The factorial validity of the PNOSI was demonstrated using covariance structure analyses. A two-factor model with a negative occupational state factor and a positive occupational state factor fitted the data better than an alternative one-factor model. The two corresponding scales demonstrated good internal consistency. The results confirmed that positive and negative occupational states are distinct constructs and should be measured with different items. Convergent and discriminant validity with related constructs, such as engagement, burnout, commitment, and workaholism, were also demonstrated. The conclusion is that the PNOSI has good psychometric properties. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 91 (25 ULg)
Evaluation des pratiques de diagnostic de stress au sein d'entreprises belges: facteurs bloquants et facteurs stimulants
Hansez, Isabelle ; Bertrand, Françoise ; Barbier, Marie
in Travail Humain (Le) (2009), 72(2), 127-153
Stress at work has become a major problematic in Europe this last decade. The European and national legal framework has been developed, and several methods for stress diagnosis and stress management ... [more ▼]
Stress at work has become a major problematic in Europe this last decade. The European and national legal framework has been developed, and several methods for stress diagnosis and stress management intervention can be listed. In this context, a systematic examination of diagnosis and interventions taking place in companies is necessary. The objectives of the study were 1) the evaluation of work stress diagnosis practices among Belgian companies, and 2) the identification of factors stimulating or blocking the implementation of stress management interventions. A survey was used to collect data about work stress diagnosis practices. The first objective was explored trough qualitative open questions about stress diagnosis and intervention. The second objective was achieved using a specific questionnaire elaborated for the purpose of the study. On the basis of a review of the scientific literature, this questionnaire assessed stimulating and blocking factors for implementing stress management interventions. The sample includes 180 Belgian companies from different sectors of activity and with different size (from 20 to more than 10000 workers). Only one out of six companies had implemented a diagnosis of stress. Among companies with a stress diagnosis, only one out of two had implemented actions, and only one out of four entered in an evaluation stage. Stimulating factors related to the methodology implemented and the communication process were identified, as well as blocking factors concerned with financial/temporal constraints and the context of change in the company, a factor which is rather new regarding the existing literature. The discussion includes four points of analysis. The interventions which are implemented are clearly concerned with the primary approach focusing on the work environment. Second, the results give support to the necessity for a systematic evaluation process of stress management interventions. Moreover the results give evidence for a need of sensitization and publication of best practices about the necessary stages in the stress prevention process as well as about stimulating and blocking factors. This holds especially true for small size companies which realize less diagnosis than bigger ones. It is also important for companies which are not yet involved in a stress diagnosis, that are less aware of the impact of financial and temporal constraints. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 138 (18 ULg)
Qualitative analysis of pilot selection and basic flying training.
Bertrand, Françoise ; ; Hansez, Isabelle
Conference (2008, October 03)Detailed reference viewed: 32 (0 ULg)
Elaboration d'une épreuve d'accession à un niveau supérieur dans le secteur public : processus itératif de validation.
Lothe, Benoit ; ; Bertrand, Françoise et al
Conference (2008, August 22)Detailed reference viewed: 27 (5 ULg)
Conception d'une typologie des actes et services professionels offerts par les psychologues belges.
; ; Hansez, Isabelle
Conference (2008, August 22)Detailed reference viewed: 13 (2 ULg)
Mise en lumière des actes et services offerts par les licenciés belges psychologues ainsi que de leur spécificité par rapport au non licenciés offrant des services similaires.
; ; Lentini, Laura et al
Conference (2008, July 05)Detailed reference viewed: 15 (4 ULg)
Evaluating an ICT-Mediated Innovative Training Service from Users’ Perspective. An Exploratory Case Study
Peters, Stéphanie ; Ledent, Maryse ; Hansez, Isabelle
Conference (2008, July)
By the way of a case study, this paper aims at evaluating the innovative dimension of a training service mediated through Information and Communication Technology (ICT): the so-called e-WOCCQ. The ... [more ▼]
By the way of a case study, this paper aims at evaluating the innovative dimension of a training service mediated through Information and Communication Technology (ICT): the so-called e-WOCCQ. The originality of this article is twofold: (1) to question innovation, and (2) to consider the training more commonly as a service, whose major particularity is the implication of the user in the process. The theoretical framework emphasises on the definition of a service and on the concept of added-value. As this experience took place at the very beginning of the project development, an empirical methodology was developed. We assume that the so-called e-WOCCQ is an innovation as it represents an added value for the users. Results show that e-WOCCQ generates costs and benefits of different order, and that the ratio is influenced by factors mostly linked either with the user. Practical (improvements and targeting) and theoretical (modelisation) implications are discussed. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 37 (4 ULg)