A test of the Job Demands-Resources model with alternative measures of strain and well-being
Barbier, Marie ; Hansez, Isabelle
Conference (2009, May)
Since the beginning of the 21st century, the Job Demands-Resources model (Demerouti, Bakker, Nachreiner & Schaufeli, 2001) has given rise to numerous studies aimed at a better understanding of positive ... [more ▼]
Since the beginning of the 21st century, the Job Demands-Resources model (Demerouti, Bakker, Nachreiner & Schaufeli, 2001) has given rise to numerous studies aimed at a better understanding of positive and negative aspects of wellbeing at work. The existence of a motivational and an energetic process leading to, respectively, engagement and strain has been demonstrated several times, as well as cross-links between the two. However, these studies mainly rely on two measurement tools: the MBI-GS as a measure of strain and the UWES as a measure of engagement. The aim of our study is to test the model using alternative measures. Strain was measured using the NOSI subscale, and engagement using the POSI subscale of the PNOSI, a new tool measuring positive and negative wellbeing. Structural and external validity of this tool have been demonstrated previously (Barbier, Peters & Hansez, submitted). According to the JDR model, we hypothesise that high job demands would lead to strain and then to health problems. Our second hypothesis is that job resources would lead to engagement and then to low intent to leave. Structural equation modelling was performed using Lisrel 8.80 on 954 data collected in a Belgian public institution. As regards to measurement model, results show that a six-factor model (demands, resources, strain, engagement, health problems and intent to quit or IQ) shows good fit to data. We first tested the traditional JDR model, but it showed bad fit. Fit was improved when adding a path from resources to strain, from strain to IQ and from engagement to health problems. This alternative model showed better fit than the initial one. This study makes three main contributions. First, it tests the well-established JDR model using alternative measures of positive and negative sides of well-being. Second, it asks questions as to the respective outcomes of strain and engagement. More specifically, the path between engagement and IQ became not significant when a path from strain to IQ was added. That is, IQ seems to be more a product of strain than of (lack of) engagement. Finally, it emphasizes the important role of resources. It may be that the link between resources and low IQ would be mediated by low level of strain rather than by high level of engagement. Similarly, the relation between engagement and health problem is positive, which raises questions as to the pre-supposed positive effects of engagement. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 209 (5 ULg)
Measuring positive and negative aspects of well-being at work: Intern and extern validity of the PNOSI.
Barbier, Marie ; Hansez, Isabelle
Conference (2009, May)
With the emergence of positive psychology, research interest in workers positive responses to work conditions has gained ground fast. In the beginning of the 21st century, our unit developed the PNOSI, a ... [more ▼]
With the emergence of positive psychology, research interest in workers positive responses to work conditions has gained ground fast. In the beginning of the 21st century, our unit developed the PNOSI, a new tool for measuring Positive and Negative Occupational Stress. Negative occupational stress was defined as the response of workers facing demands they feel they have to manage but for which they doubt necessary resources are available. Positive occupational stress was defined as the response of workers facing demands they feel they have to manage and for which they perceive necessary resources are available. Exploratory analyses (Barbier & Hansez, 2008) have identified a two-factor structure, one measuring Positive Occupational Stress (POSI) and the other measuring Negative Occupational Stress (NOSI). The following research has two goals: establishing PNOSI intern structure through a cross-validation strategy using calibration and validation samples (goal 1), and testing its convergent and discriminant validity (goal 2). As regards to goal 1, structural equation modelling using Lisrel 8.80 was performed on 2,713 data collected in a Belgian electricity company. Results show that the two-factor solution suits data best than an alternative one “wellbeing” factor solution. Moreover, eliminating two items leads to better fit. We then fitted this reduced two-factor structure on more than 15,000 data collected in six companies. Results show that the reduced two-factor solution should be preferred to the alternative one in all six samples. PNOSI intern structure is thus replicated. As regards to goal 2, we calculated correlations between NOSI and POSI scales, and constructs of burnout, engagement, workaholism and commitment. Data were collected in a Belgian public institution (N = 954). NOSI was moderately correlated to our burnout measure, and can thus be considered as a different, even if related, construct. POSI was highly correlated to our measure of engagement, challenging our hypothesis that the two are different constructs. Finally, NOSI was moderately and negatively correlated to commitment and positively correlated to workaholism, whereas the reverse was true for POSI. It seems thus that NOSI is distinct from burnout, workaholism and commitment, whereas POSI is distinct from workaholism and commitment. To conclude, we can say that PNOSI two-factor structure is established. NOSI shows convergent validity with the similar construct of burnout, but is distinct from it. Results are less clear concerning POSI and engagement. Finally, NOSI and POSI are differently related to constructs of commitment and workaholism; their discriminant validity is thus established. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 106 (14 ULg)
Measuring positive and negative occupational states (PNOSI) : Structural confirmation of a new Belgian tool
Barbier, Marie ; Peters, Stéphanie ; Hansez, Isabelle
in Psychologica Belgica (2009), 49(4), 227-247
This article reports on the validation of the Positive and Negative Occupational States Inventory (PNOSI), a new tool for measuring positive and negative occupational states. Three goals were defined ... [more ▼]
This article reports on the validation of the Positive and Negative Occupational States Inventory (PNOSI), a new tool for measuring positive and negative occupational states. Three goals were defined: testing the structural validity of the PNOSI, testing its stability, and testing its convergent and discriminant validity with engagement, burnout, commitment, and workaholism. Data were collected in seven different companies (more than 16,000 participants). The factorial validity of the PNOSI was demonstrated using covariance structure analyses. A two-factor model with a negative occupational state factor and a positive occupational state factor fitted the data better than an alternative one-factor model. The two corresponding scales demonstrated good internal consistency. The results confirmed that positive and negative occupational states are distinct constructs and should be measured with different items. Convergent and discriminant validity with related constructs, such as engagement, burnout, commitment, and workaholism, were also demonstrated. The conclusion is that the PNOSI has good psychometric properties. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 52 (18 ULg)
Evaluation des pratiques de diagnostic de stress au sein d'entreprises belges: facteurs bloquants et facteurs stimulants
Hansez, Isabelle ; Bertrand, Françoise ; Barbier, Marie
in Travail Humain (Le) (2009), 72(2), 127-153
Stress at work has become a major problematic in Europe this last decade. The European and national legal framework has been developed, and several methods for stress diagnosis and stress management ... [more ▼]
Stress at work has become a major problematic in Europe this last decade. The European and national legal framework has been developed, and several methods for stress diagnosis and stress management intervention can be listed. In this context, a systematic examination of diagnosis and interventions taking place in companies is necessary. The objectives of the study were 1) the evaluation of work stress diagnosis practices among Belgian companies, and 2) the identification of factors stimulating or blocking the implementation of stress management interventions. A survey was used to collect data about work stress diagnosis practices. The first objective was explored trough qualitative open questions about stress diagnosis and intervention. The second objective was achieved using a specific questionnaire elaborated for the purpose of the study. On the basis of a review of the scientific literature, this questionnaire assessed stimulating and blocking factors for implementing stress management interventions. The sample includes 180 Belgian companies from different sectors of activity and with different size (from 20 to more than 10000 workers). Only one out of six companies had implemented a diagnosis of stress. Among companies with a stress diagnosis, only one out of two had implemented actions, and only one out of four entered in an evaluation stage. Stimulating factors related to the methodology implemented and the communication process were identified, as well as blocking factors concerned with financial/temporal constraints and the context of change in the company, a factor which is rather new regarding the existing literature. The discussion includes four points of analysis. The interventions which are implemented are clearly concerned with the primary approach focusing on the work environment. Second, the results give support to the necessity for a systematic evaluation process of stress management interventions. Moreover the results give evidence for a need of sensitization and publication of best practices about the necessary stages in the stress prevention process as well as about stimulating and blocking factors. This holds especially true for small size companies which realize less diagnosis than bigger ones. It is also important for companies which are not yet involved in a stress diagnosis, that are less aware of the impact of financial and temporal constraints. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 104 (12 ULg)
Qualitative analysis of pilot selection and basic flying training.
Bertrand, Françoise ; ; Hansez, Isabelle
Conference (2008, October 03)Detailed reference viewed: 16 (0 ULg)
Elaboration d'une épreuve d'accession à un niveau supérieur dans le secteur public : processus itératif de validation.
Lothe, Benoit ; ; Bertrand, Françoise et al
Conference (2008, August 22)Detailed reference viewed: 17 (5 ULg)
Conception d'une typologie des actes et services professionels offerts par les psychologues belges.
; ; Hansez, Isabelle
Conference (2008, August 22)Detailed reference viewed: 10 (2 ULg)
Mise en lumière des actes et services offerts par les licenciés belges psychologues ainsi que de leur spécificité par rapport au non licenciés offrant des services similaires.
; ; Lentini, Laura et al
Conference (2008, July 05)Detailed reference viewed: 13 (4 ULg)
Evaluating an ICT-Mediated Innovative Training Service from Users’ Perspective. An Exploratory Case Study
Peters, Stéphanie ; Ledent, Maryse ; Hansez, Isabelle
Conference (2008, July)
By the way of a case study, this paper aims at evaluating the innovative dimension of a training service mediated through Information and Communication Technology (ICT): the so-called e-WOCCQ. The ... [more ▼]
By the way of a case study, this paper aims at evaluating the innovative dimension of a training service mediated through Information and Communication Technology (ICT): the so-called e-WOCCQ. The originality of this article is twofold: (1) to question innovation, and (2) to consider the training more commonly as a service, whose major particularity is the implication of the user in the process. The theoretical framework emphasises on the definition of a service and on the concept of added-value. As this experience took place at the very beginning of the project development, an empirical methodology was developed. We assume that the so-called e-WOCCQ is an innovation as it represents an added value for the users. Results show that e-WOCCQ generates costs and benefits of different order, and that the ratio is influenced by factors mostly linked either with the user. Practical (improvements and targeting) and theoretical (modelisation) implications are discussed. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 34 (3 ULg)
Stress professionnel : les enjeux du diagnostic. Présentation de la méthode WOCCQ
Spitz, Hélène ; Peters, Stéphanie ; Hansez, Isabelle
Conference (2008, June)Detailed reference viewed: 68 (5 ULg)
Statistical validation of the Positive and Negative Occupational Stress Inventory.
Barbier, Marie ; Peters, Stéphanie ; Hansez, Isabelle
Poster (2008, June)
With the emergence of positive psychology a decade ago, focus on psychology has shifted from human weaknesses to human resources. In work psychology, researchers are interested not only in negative ... [more ▼]
With the emergence of positive psychology a decade ago, focus on psychology has shifted from human weaknesses to human resources. In work psychology, researchers are interested not only in negative responses to professional demands, but also in positive responses. The Positive and Negative Occupational Stress Inventory (PNOSI) was designed to measure both constructs with separate items. This idea was later confirmed by Schaufeli, Salanova, Gonzalez-Roma & Bakker (2002) , according to which positive and negative occupational stress are distinct constructs with different causes and consequences, and should be measured with different items. We first asked 150 psychology students to generate words describing positive and negative stress. This enabled us to elaborate 34 items relating to emotional, cognitive, behavioural and physiological stress manifestations. These items were administered to 152 workers. Exploratory factor analyses showed a two-factor underlying structure. The first factor consisted of eleven items measuring Negative Occupational Stress (NOS), the second consisted of eight items measuring Positive Occupational Stress (POS). This structure was tested on another sample of 4666 workers. Exploratory factor analyses confirmed the two-factor structure. The two subscales have good psychometric properties, α = .87 and α = .84 for NOS and POS, respectively. Results show that the PNOSI can be considered a valid tool for measuring positive and negative sides of well-being at work. Further confirmatory factor analyses should first try to confirm and replicate this structure on different samples. Second, convergent and discriminant validity with related concepts, such as burnout and engagement, should also be tested. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 95 (7 ULg)
Perceived safety climate and job resources : relationships with safety behaviour.
; Hansez, Isabelle
Conference (2008, April 12)Detailed reference viewed: 13 (0 ULg)
Après le diagnostic de stress et des risques psychosociaux, quels freins et stimulants à l'intervention?
; Barbier, Marie ; Bertrand, Françoise et al
Conference (2008, April 11)Detailed reference viewed: 22 (6 ULg)
Le WOCCQ : méthode de diagnostic du stress professionnel. Démarche innovante de diffusion vers les utilisateurs.
; Peters, Stéphanie ; Hansez, Isabelle
Conference (2008, April 11)Detailed reference viewed: 19 (2 ULg)
Measuring a conceptual model of early turnover : a longitudinal perspective.
Bertrand, Françoise ; ; Hansez, Isabelle
Conference (2008, January 11)Detailed reference viewed: 8 (0 ULg)
Regulating safety behaviour : job-related effects and perceived safety climate.
Hansez, Isabelle ;
Conference (2008, January 11)Detailed reference viewed: 7 (0 ULg)
Demandes et ressources au travail, stress, engagement et intention de quitter: Comparaison entre les travailleurs âgés et les jeunes travailleurs
Bertrand, Françoise ; Hansez, Isabelle ; Dardenne, Benoît
Conference (2008)Detailed reference viewed: 22 (5 ULg)
Le questionnaire de Stress Professionnel Positif et Négatif: Validation interne.
Barbier, Marie ; Hansez, Isabelle
in Pettersen, N.; Boudrias, J. S.; Savoie, A. (Eds.) Entre tradition et innovation, comment transformons-nous l’univers du travail ? Actes du 15ème Congrès de Psychologie du Travail et des Organisations de Langue Française. (2008)
L’émergence du courant de la psychologie positive coïncide, en psychologie du travail, avec le développement d’un intérêt pour les réponses positives des travailleurs à leurs conditions de travail ... [more ▼]
L’émergence du courant de la psychologie positive coïncide, en psychologie du travail, avec le développement d’un intérêt pour les réponses positives des travailleurs à leurs conditions de travail. Parallèlement, le modèle Job Demands-Resources de Schaufeli & Bakker (2004) postule que stress positif et stress négatif sont deux facettes différentes du bien-être au travail, qui sont causées par des conditions et des processus différents, et doivent donc être mesurées par des items différents. Cette étude porte sur la validation interne du questionnaire SPPN, permettant de mesurer le Stress Professionnel Positif et Négatif vécu par les travailleurs. Des analyses factorielles exploratoires ont été réalisées sur un échantillon de 4666 travailleurs, provenant de 9 entreprises belges et françaises actives dans différents secteurs. Les résultats mettent en évidence qu’une structure à deux dimensions, l’une mesurant le Stress Professionnel Positif, l’autre mesurant le Stress Professionnel Négatif, sous-tend le questionnaire. Les qualités psychométriques de ces deux sous-échelles satisfont les critères recommandés. La conclusion insiste sur la nécessité de compléter ces analyses exploratoires par des analyses confirmatoires et des analyses de validité externe. Les apports conceptuels et empiriques de l’outil sont également développés. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 641 (28 ULg)
Le WOCCQ : méthode de diagnostic du stress professionnel
Hansez, Isabelle ; Peters, Stéphanie
in Haubold, B. (Ed.) Les risques psychosociaux. Identifier, analyser, prévenir les risques humains (2008)Detailed reference viewed: 39 (7 ULg)
The Working Conditions and Control Questionnaire (WOCCQ) : Towards a structural model of psychological stress
in European Review of Applied Psychology = Revue Européenne de Psychologie Appliquée (2008), 58
This paper examined the structural model of subjective stress considering the job control dimensions of the WOrking Conditions and Control Questionnaire (WOCCQ), a psychosocial risk diagnosis widely used ... [more ▼]
This paper examined the structural model of subjective stress considering the job control dimensions of the WOrking Conditions and Control Questionnaire (WOCCQ), a psychosocial risk diagnosis widely used in French-speaking countries. Two research questions were investigated: (1) Do all the control facets influence subjective stress in the same way?, and (2) Are certain control scales more important than others in the prediction of stress? The sample used includes 816 workers of a public employment agency. First, not all of the facets of job control influence stress in the same way. The control of resources dimension is important in indirectly influencing the stress process. Planning control is a partial mediator between control of resources and other dimensions of control. The model suggests considering future control as an exogenous variable. Finally, the direct effect of the four job control subscales on stress is identical in terms of R-square. These results are discussed not only in the theoretical perspective of stress at work but also in the stress intervention perspective. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 196 (2 ULg)