References of "Gustin, Pascal"
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See detailSpécificités fonctionnelles du système respiratoire des bovins hyperviandeux
Gustin, Pascal ULg

Post doctoral thesis (1989)

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See detailRegulation of Bronchomotor Tone in Conscious Calves
Gustin, Pascal ULg; Dhem, A. R.; Lekeux, Pierre ULg et al

in Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology & Therapeutics (1989), 12(1), 58-64

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of some alpha and beta sympathomimetic and sympatholytic drugs on respiratory impedance in healthy conscious calves. Ten Friesian calves were ... [more ▼]

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of some alpha and beta sympathomimetic and sympatholytic drugs on respiratory impedance in healthy conscious calves. Ten Friesian calves were investigated in this study. The forced oscillation technique was used to measure the resistance (Rrs) and the reactance (Xrs) of the respiratory system at frequencies ranging from 4 to 26 Hz. Isoprenaline (1 microgram/kg i.v.), propranolol (3 micrograms/kg i.v.), noradrenaline (2 micrograms/kg i.v.), xylazine (20 micrograms/kg i.v.) and yohimbine (0.25 mg/kg i.v.) were were administered. Isoprenaline induced a significant decrease of Rrs. An increase of Rrs after administration of propranolol was observed but without any change of the frequency dependence of Rrs. A small increase in the resonant frequency was also recorded. A decrease of Rrs was recorded after yohimbine injection. Noradrenaline and xylazine administration increased the resistances and the resonant frequency and induced a negative frequency dependence of Rrs. These results suggest that (1) the major effects of beta adrenergic drugs are on the central airways, (2) the alpha adrenergic system may play a role on the regulation of bronchomotor tone in calves, (3) the effects of alpha adrenergic drugs are on both central and peripheral airways and (4) the forced oscillation technique allows the differentiation of calibre changes occurring in small and large airways. [less ▲]

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See detailMeasurements of total respiratory impedance in dogs during nasal obstruction by the forced oscillation method
Clercx, Cécile ULg; Gustin, Pascal ULg; Lekeux, Pierre ULg et al

in 7th Comparative Respiratory Society Meeting - Liège - Belgique (1989)

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See detailThe use of the forced oscillation method in dogs: preliminary results
Clercx, Cécile ULg; Gustin, Pascal ULg; Lekeux, Pierre ULg et al

in 3rd IVENTA Meeting, Harrogate, Great-Britain (1989)

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See detailMeasurement of pulmonary inertance in Equids
Art, Tatiana ULg; Lekeux, Pierre ULg; Gustin, Pascal ULg et al

in European Respiratory Journal (1989), 2

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See detailInertial pressures in exercising ponies
Art, Tatiana ULg; Lekeux, Pierre ULg; Gustin, Pascal ULg et al

in Archives Internationales de Physiologie et de Biochimie (1989)

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See detailEffects of intrapleural pressure changes on pulmonary haemodynamics measurements in unsedated cattle
Amory, Hélène ULg; Rollin, Frédéric ULg; Art, Tatiana ULg et al

in Archives Internationales de Physiologie et de Biochimie (1989)

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See detailEffect of acute hypoxia on the pulmonary haemodynamics in two different breeds of cattle
Amory, Hélène ULg; Rollin, Frédéric ULg; Art, Tatiana ULg et al

in Archives Internationales de Physiologie et de Biochimie (1989)

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See detailInertance of the Respiratory System in Ponies
Art, Tatiana ULg; Lekeux, Pierre ULg; Gustin, Pascal ULg et al

in Journal of Applied Physiology (Bethesda, Md. : 1985) (1989), 67(2), 534-540

The purpose of the present work was to measure the pulmonary inertance (IL) in ponies and to analyze its potential influence on the mechanics of breathing and on their aptitude to increase ventilation ... [more ▼]

The purpose of the present work was to measure the pulmonary inertance (IL) in ponies and to analyze its potential influence on the mechanics of breathing and on their aptitude to increase ventilation during exercise. Five healthy ponies 2.4-4 yr old [mean wt 255 +/- 15 (SE) kg] were used. On the one hand, inertance of the respiratory system (Irs) was computed from the value of the resonant frequency (fr) measured by the forced oscillation technique. On the other hand, respiratory airflow, tidal volume (VT), and transpulmonary pressure (PL) changes were recorded while the ponies were performing a light treadmill exercise, and IL was calculated as the ratio of the associated differences in inertial pressure (delta Pin) to volume acceleration (delta V). Respiratory airflow and VT were measured with a Fleisch pneumotachograph (no. 5) and PL with an intraesophageal balloon catheter. First, the protocol was carried out with the ponies breathing air and He-O2, second, while the ponies breathed through two additional tubes (100 cm long, 3 cm ID), then one, and finally none, fixed on the Fleisch pneumotachograph. Finally, the contribution of the extra- vs. the intrathoracic airways to IL was estimated by measuring the lateral midtracheal pressure recorded simultaneously with the aforementioned parameters. The values of Irs calculated with fr and of IL calculated on the basis of the delta Pin-delta V ratio were 29.8 +/- 0.4 and 19.8 +/- 1.0.10(-4) kPa.l-1.s-2, respectively. During He-O2 breathing IL decreased about three times; this result was similar to the predicted decrease based on gas density only.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) [less ▲]

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See detailLa pharmacologie et le problème des résidus des agonistes 2 adrénergiques chez les bovins
Gustin, Pascal ULg; Ansay; Maghuin-Rogister, Guy ULg

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (1989), 133

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See detailCardio-pulmonary function values in double-muscled cattle during muscular exercise.
Gustin, Pascal ULg; Dhem, A. R.; Lomba, F. et al

in Veterinary Research Communications (1988), 12(4-5), 407-416

Eleven double-muscled calves of the Belgian White and Blue breed and eleven Friesian calves have been investigated at rest, during exercise on a treadmill (11% incline; speed 1.3 m.sec-1) and 10 and 30 ... [more ▼]

Eleven double-muscled calves of the Belgian White and Blue breed and eleven Friesian calves have been investigated at rest, during exercise on a treadmill (11% incline; speed 1.3 m.sec-1) and 10 and 30 minutes after the end of this exercise. Blood gases and acid-base status were determined in mixed venous and arterial blood sampled from the pulmonary and the carotid artery respectively. Expired gases were collected in a balloon. The time of collection, volume of expired gases and fractional O2 and CO2 concentrations in expired gases were measured. In double-muscled calves, inadequate oxygen intake and carbon dioxide elimination were demonstrated by the increase in the carbon dioxide tension (PaCO2) and in the hydrogen ion concentration [H+]a and the decrease in the oxygen tension (PaO2) in arterial blood during exercise. In Friesian calves, an adequate increase in oxygen intake occurred and no acidosis was recorded. A metabolic acidosis explained by only a 1.5-fold increase in the cardiac output and by the small increase in haemoglobin concentration was recorded in double-muscled calves. It was concluded that some aspects of the cardio-pulmonary and metabolic responses to exercise in double-muscled calves can be related to their inability to greatly increase their O2 consumption. [less ▲]

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See detailMechanics of Breathing in Goats
Bakima, M.; Gustin, Pascal ULg; Lekeux, Pierre ULg et al

in Research in Veterinary Science (1988), 45(3), 332-336

Common pulmonary function tests used in man and domestic mammals were adapted to the goat. Requirements for intrathoracic pressure record and pulmonary function investigation were determined. The ... [more ▼]

Common pulmonary function tests used in man and domestic mammals were adapted to the goat. Requirements for intrathoracic pressure record and pulmonary function investigation were determined. The elastance of the mid-thoracic portion of the oesophagus was measured in 17 healthy goats. The calculated percentage error in identifying the endoesophageal intrathoracic pressure decreased with somatic growth, and was found to be smaller than 2 per cent for adult goats. The location of the oesophageal balloon catheter used to measure the intrathoracic pressure was standardised. The following regression equation calculated between the length of catheter (Lcat) and the thoracic circumference (TC) was found: Lcat (cm) = 6.19 +/- 0.7163 X TC (cm) (R2 = 0.96). The influence of the dead space of a face mask on respiration pattern and arterial blood gas were studied. There were no significant changes in arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2) and carbon dioxide (PaCO2), pHa, breathing frequency and intrathoracic pressures. The influence of head and neck position was investigated. Upper airway resistance (Ruaw), measured with the head in a normal position did not significantly differ from values obtained with the head in a horizontal position. Ruaw measured with the head in a vertical position was considerably increased. Arterial blood gas tension and pulmonary mechanics were measured to assess the reproducibility of pulmonary function measurements. Variability in blood gas tension, tidal volume and minute volume is small. The variability of peak to peak intrathoracic pressure change (max delta Plp), dynamic lung compliance (Cdyn), total pulmonary resistance (RL) and Rt were relatively large. [less ▲]

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See detailInfluence of Inertance on Measurements of the Mechanical Properties of the Bovine Respiratory System
Lekeux, Pierre ULg; Art, Tatiana ULg; Clercx, Cécile ULg et al

in Veterinary Research Communications (1988), 12(1), 61-66

The observation that dynamic compliance (Cdyn) tended to rise with respiratory frequency (f) in adult cattle led us to reassess the importance of inertial pressures in measuring Cdyn in large animals ... [more ▼]

The observation that dynamic compliance (Cdyn) tended to rise with respiratory frequency (f) in adult cattle led us to reassess the importance of inertial pressures in measuring Cdyn in large animals. Five healthy Friesian cows were selected for their ability to show an increase of f without significant change in tidal volume (VT). Dynamic compliance was measured three times, both at the resting f (21 +/- 1 cpm), and at higher f (49 +/- 3 cpm), obtained by an artificial increase in the dead space of the breathing mask. Frequency-response characteristics of the measuring instruments were matched up to 12 Hz. The inertia of the lungs and gas stream (In) was calculated as the ratio of the accelerative pressure change to the simultaneous change in volume acceleration. Inertance was also estimated from the dimensions of the bovine airways and from the relative linear flow velocities reported by Rohrer (1915). Dynamic compliance measured during rapid breathing was significantly higher (p less than or equal to 0.01) than base-line values. Dynamic compliance was strongly correlated with f (r = +0.96). Measured and estimated In were 0.002 and 0.003 kPa.sec2.L-1 respectively. Dynamic compliance did not differ significantly from base-line values when it was corrected for the estimated inertance effect. [less ▲]

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See detailMeasurement of Total Respiratory Impedance in Calves by the Forced Oscillation Technique
Gustin, Pascal ULg; Dhem, A.R.; Lomba, Fernand et al

in Journal of Applied Physiology (Bethesda, Md. : 1985) (1988), 64(5), 1786-1791

We have determined the resistance (Rrs) and the reactance (Xrs) of the total respiratory system in unsedated spontaneously breathing calves at various frequencies. A pseudorandom noise pressure wave was ... [more ▼]

We have determined the resistance (Rrs) and the reactance (Xrs) of the total respiratory system in unsedated spontaneously breathing calves at various frequencies. A pseudorandom noise pressure wave was produced at the nostrils of the animals by means of a loudspeaker adapted to the nose by a tightly fitting mask. A Fourier analysis of the pressure in the nostrils and flow signals yielded mean Rrs and Xrs, over 16 s, at frequencies of 2-26 Hz. A good correlation was found between values of pulmonary resistances measured by the isovolume method at the respiratory frequency of animals and values obtained at a frequency of 6 Hz by use of our technique. The linearity of the respiratory system, the reproducibility of the technique, and the effects of upper airways on results have been studied. In healthy calves, Rrs increases with frequency. Mean resonant frequency is 7.5 Hz. Bronchospasm was induced in six calves by administration of intravenous organophosphates. Rrs tended to decrease with increasing frequency. Resonant frequency exceeded 26 Hz. All parameters returned to initial values after administration of atropine. In healthy calves, atropine produces a decrease in Rrs, especially at low frequencies. Values of resonant frequency are not modified. [less ▲]

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See detailInvestigation of the effects of histamine inhalation on the tracheobronchial tree of calves by the forced oscillation technique.
Gustin, Pascal ULg; Dhem, A.R.; Lekeux, Pierre ULg et al

in Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology & Therapeutics (1988), 11(4), 374-380

Effects of histamine inhalation were investigated with two different techniques in nine conscious, healthy calves. The oesophageal balloon technique was used to measure the dynamic respiratory compliance ... [more ▼]

Effects of histamine inhalation were investigated with two different techniques in nine conscious, healthy calves. The oesophageal balloon technique was used to measure the dynamic respiratory compliance (Cdyn) and the pulmonary resistance (RL). The reactance (Xrs) and the resistance (Rrs) of the respiratory system were measured at high frequencies by the forced oscillation technique. These parameters were recorded before and after histamine inhalation. Three histamine dihydrochloride solution concentrations were used (16 mg/ml; 32 mg/ml; 64 mg/ml). Histamine inhalation induced a decrease in Cdyn and Xrs an increase in Rrs, RL and of the resonant frequency and a negative frequency dependence of Rrs. Some of these changes were satisfactorily correlated with the histamine solution concentrations. The resonant frequency was well correlated with Cdyn. It was concluded that histamine inhalation induces a decrease of the calibre of small and large airways and a non-homogeneous behaviour of the pulmonary ventilation in awake calves. The forced oscillation technique can be used to perform an inhalation provocation test in unsedated animals. [less ▲]

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See detailOxygen Transport Properties of Blood in Two Different Bovine Breeds
Gustin, Pascal ULg; Clerbaux, T.; Willems, Evelyne ULg et al

in Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. A : Comparative Physiology (1988), 89(4), 553-558

1. The whole oxygen dissociation curve of oxyhemoglobin has been determined in double-muscled cattle of the Belgian White Blue breed and in Friesian cattle of different body weight. 2. In calves, P50 ... [more ▼]

1. The whole oxygen dissociation curve of oxyhemoglobin has been determined in double-muscled cattle of the Belgian White Blue breed and in Friesian cattle of different body weight. 2. In calves, P50 values are low and DPG level is high (4-20 mumol/g Hb). 3. P50 values of 25 +/- 1.4 mm Hg (mean +/- SD) and a level of DPG less than 1.5 mumol/g Hb have been found in animals weighing more than 80 kg. 4. Effects of temperature and pH on the oxygen dissociation curve have been measured at all levels of saturation. The temperature coefficient (dlog P50/dT) and the Bohr effect expressed as dlog P50/dpH were 0.017 and -0.40, respectively. 5. Hematocrit, hemoglobin concentrations and oxygen capacity of hemoglobin have been measured. 6. No difference between both breeds has been observed. 7. These data can be used to correct measured values of oxygen tension for temperature and pH and to measure oxygen content of blood in cattle. [less ▲]

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See detailPulmonary Function Values and Growth in Belgian White and Blue Double-Muscled Cattle
Gustin, Pascal ULg; Bakima, M.; Art, Tatiana ULg et al

in Research in Veterinary Science (1988), 45(3), 405-410

Seventy-five double-muscled cattle of the Belgian white and blue breed, two days to 50 months old and weighing 45 to 680 kg, were investigated. Transpulmonary pressure changes, measured with an ... [more ▼]

Seventy-five double-muscled cattle of the Belgian white and blue breed, two days to 50 months old and weighing 45 to 680 kg, were investigated. Transpulmonary pressure changes, measured with an oesophageal balloon, variations of air flow and volume at the mouth were obtained during spontaneous breathing to calculate pulmonary function data. Oxygen and carbon dioxide tensions in arterial blood were also recorded. Growth related changes of the pulmonary function values were similar to those observed in other bovine breeds. Total pulmonary resistance, specific total pulmonary resistance, viscous work, power of breathing, specific viscous work, respiratory frequency and peak-to-peak change in transpulmonary pressure were greater in Belgian white and blue cattle than in Friesian cattle. In the former, tidal volume, specific tidal volume, lowest transpulmonary pressure during expiration, transpulmonary pressure at the functional residual capacity level, dynamic lung compliance and oxygen tension in arterial blood were smaller. Airflow, minute volume and carbon dioxide tension in arterial blood were similar in the Belgian white and blue and Friesian cattle. These results were related to the great sensitivity of double-muscled cattle of the Belgian white and blue breed to laryngitis and bronchopneumonia. [less ▲]

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See detailCould pulmonary inertance be a limiting factor of ventilation during exercise in the equine species ?
Art, Tatiana ULg; Lekeux, Pierre ULg; Gustin, Pascal ULg et al

in Proceedings of the 7th Comparative Respiratory Society Meeting (1988)

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See detailInfluence of the intrapleural pressure on the variability of the pulmonary arterial pressures measurements in calves
Amory, Hélène ULg; Art, Tatiana ULg; Gustin, Pascal ULg et al

in Proceedings of 7th comparative Respiratory Society Meeting, Chicago (USA) (1988)

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See detailThe topographical distribution of the inhalation-to-perfusion ratio in double-muscled and Friesian calves.
Gustin, Pascal ULg; Clercx, Cécile ULg; Lomba, F. et al

in Veterinary Research Communications (1988), 12(4-5), 401-5

Five healthy Friesian calves and five double-muscled Belgian White and Blue calves were studied, using a 99m Technetium (99mTc) aerosol inhalation combined with a 99mTc macroaggregate injection and ... [more ▼]

Five healthy Friesian calves and five double-muscled Belgian White and Blue calves were studied, using a 99m Technetium (99mTc) aerosol inhalation combined with a 99mTc macroaggregate injection and collimated scintillation counters. The inhalation-to-perfusion ratio (I/P) was calculated for both left and right sides of the thorax at four sites situated at three different levels in the auscultatory area on the same vertical axis and at a more anterior site just behind the scapulohumeral joint. I/P was higher in the left than in the right hemithorax. In both breeds, a vertical and a horizontal gradient were observed. I/P was higher in the lower and in the more cranial zones of the lungs. However the vertical gradient was more pronounced in Friesian calves while the horizontal one was greater in Belgian White and Blue animals. It was concluded that the factors affecting the topographical distribution of pulmonary ventilation and perfusion seem to be different in calves as compared to other species. [less ▲]

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