References of "Grulke, Sigrid"
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See detailThe Effect of Colic on Oxygen Extraction in Horses
Cambier, Carole ULg; Wierinckx, Maude ULg; Grulke, Sigrid ULg et al

in Veterinary Journal (2008), 175(1), 102-107

Blood oxygen transport and oxygen extraction were assessed in horses with colic. A gravity score (GS) ranging from 1 to 3 was attributed to each colic case with healthy horses used as controls. Jugular ... [more ▼]

Blood oxygen transport and oxygen extraction were assessed in horses with colic. A gravity score (GS) ranging from 1 to 3 was attributed to each colic case with healthy horses used as controls. Jugular venous and carotid arterial blood samples were collected and concentrations of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate, adenosine triphosphate, inorganic phosphate and chloride were determined. pH and partial pressures of carbon dioxide (PCO(2)), and oxygen (PO(2)) were also measured. Oxygen equilibrium curves (OEC) were constructed under standard conditions and oxygen extraction ratios calculated. Haemoglobin oxygen affinity measured under standard conditions (P50(std)) was unchanged in colic horses compared with healthy controls. Horses with the highest GS, i.e. 3 had lower blood pH values than healthy animals. Arterial and venous partial pressures of oxygen at 50% haemoglobin saturation (P50(a) and P50(v)) were significantly higher in horses suffering from colic (GS=3) than in healthy horses. The oxygen extraction ratio was also significantly increased in colic horses with a GS of 3. A rise in the oxygen extraction ratio detected in the most severely affected animals seemed to reflect the compensatory properties of the oxygen transport system where extraction of oxygen from the blood increases when systemic oxygen delivery decreases, as might be anticipated in horses with colic. [less ▲]

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See detailTetanus in the equine species: a retrospective study of 31 cases.
Van Galen, Gaby ULg; Delguste, Catherine ULg; Sandersen, Charlotte ULg et al

in Tijdschrift voor Diergeneeskunde (2008), 133(12), 512-7

BACKGROUND: Few studies exist about factors affecting the outcome of horses with tetanus. ANIMALS: 31 equids (30 horses and 1 donkey) with a clinical diagnosis of tetanus admitted to the Equine Clinic of ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Few studies exist about factors affecting the outcome of horses with tetanus. ANIMALS: 31 equids (30 horses and 1 donkey) with a clinical diagnosis of tetanus admitted to the Equine Clinic of the University of Liege between 1991 and 2006. The cases were divided into two groups according to the outcome (survivors and non-survivors). METHODS: The clinical data of survivors and non-survivors were compared using an ANOVA (continuous data) or a Fisher's test (discrete data). RESULTS: The survival rate was 32%. Most animals were 5 years or younger, and none had been appropriately vaccinated. The non-survivors were significantly younger than the survivors. The development of dyspnoea, recumbency, and the combination of dysphagia, dyspnoea, and recumbency was observed significantly more in the non-survivors than in the survivors. The timing of tetanus antitoxin administration (either immediately after the onset of suggestive signs or after a delay) was not different between the two groups. The time between the occurrence of a wound and the first signs ranged from 2 days to 2 months and was not significantly different between groups. All non-survivors died within 8 days of the first signs. CONCLUSIONS & CLINICAL IMPORTANCE: This study suggests that young animals are affected more often and more severely by tetanus than older animals. Dyspnoea, recumbency, and the combination of dysphagia, dyspnoea, and recumbency can be considered as indicators of a poor prognosis in equids suffering from tetanus. [less ▲]

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See detailThe use of radial extracorporeal shockwave therapy in the treatment of urethral urolithiasis in the horse: a preliminary study.
Verwilghen, Denis ULg; Ponthier, Jérôme ULg; Van Galen, Gaby ULg et al

in Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine (2008), 22(6), 1449-51

BACKGROUND: Radial extracorporeal shockwave therapy (ESWT) is widely used in equine practice for the treatment of orthopedic problems. However, its original use as a lithotripsy device in human and canine ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Radial extracorporeal shockwave therapy (ESWT) is widely used in equine practice for the treatment of orthopedic problems. However, its original use as a lithotripsy device in human and canine urology led us to postulate that it could be used as an alternative to the surgical treatment of urethral calculi in horses. HYPOTHESIS: Radial ESWT can easily and safely fragment calculi in the distal urethra of the horse. ANIMALS: Two postmortem cases and 1 live case of obstructive urinary disease admitted at the Veterinary Teaching Hospital of Liege. METHODS: A radial shockwave device was directly applied to the urethra in an attempt to fragment calculi. An ex vivo trial was performed on the same retrieved calculi to investigate pressure settings in order to obtain complete fragmentation of the calculus. RESULTS: In all cases, radial ESWT was able to fragment the calculus partially, enabling retrieval of the remaining fragments via the urethra. Much higher pressure settings than those used for in vivo partial fragmentation were necessary to obtain complete destruction of the calculi ex vivo. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL IMPORTANCE: This brief report suggests the use of radial ESWT as a safe and useful alternative to more invasive surgical management of urethral calculi in horses. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of Unfractionated and Fractionated Heparins on Myeloperoxidase Activity and Interactions with Endothelial Cells: Possible Effects on the Pathophysiology of Equine Laminitis
de la Rebière de Pouyade, Geoffroy ULg; Franck, Thierry ULg; Dupont, Ginette ULg et al

in Veterinary Journal (2007), 178(1), 62-69

As heparins are sometimes used to prevent equine laminitis, the interactions between equine neutrophil myeloperoxidase (MPO), unfractionated (UFH) and fractionated low molecular weight (LMWH) heparins and ... [more ▼]

As heparins are sometimes used to prevent equine laminitis, the interactions between equine neutrophil myeloperoxidase (MPO), unfractionated (UFH) and fractionated low molecular weight (LMWH) heparins and digital endothelium have been investigated. The effects of the heparins on purified equine MPO activity were tested by immunocapture followed by enzymatic detection. Endothelium-MPO interactions were assessed by measuring total and active MPO uptake by arterial and venous digital endothelial cells in culture with or without the addition of heparins. A dose-dependent MPO inhibition by UFH and LMWH was seen, with the greatest reduction in MPO activity noted with the highest concentration of LMWH. The MPO capture was greater in arterial cells, but heparins better inhibited MPO capture in venous cells. The activity of cell-bound MPO was almost completely suppressed by the heparins, and no differences were observed between UFH and LMWH. The results confirm the anti-inflammatory properties of heparins and allow a better understanding of the potential role of MPO in laminitis. [less ▲]

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See detailIncidence of incisional complications after colic surgery.
Grulke, Sigrid ULg; Caudron, Isabelle; Verwilghen, Denis ULg et al

in Veterinary Surgery : The Official Journal of the American College of Veterinary Surgeons (2007, July)

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See detailA type II-collagen derived peptide and its nitrated form as new markers of inflammation and cartilage degradation in equine osteochondral lesions.
Gangl, Monika; Deberg, Michelle ULg; Lejeune, Jean-Philippe ULg et al

in Research in Veterinary Science (2007), 82

Markers of cartilage breakdown enable studying the degradation of cartilage matrix in equine joint pathologies. This study was designed to determine the levels of Coll2-1, a peptide of the triple helix of ... [more ▼]

Markers of cartilage breakdown enable studying the degradation of cartilage matrix in equine joint pathologies. This study was designed to determine the levels of Coll2-1, a peptide of the triple helix of type II collagen, and Coll2-1NO(2), its nitrated form in the plasma of healthy horses (controls; n=37) and horses suffering from osteochondrosis (n=34). Clinical and arthroscopic scores were attributed reflecting the severity of lesions and were related to the plasma levels of Coll2-1 and Coll2-1NO(2). The median of Coll2-1 was significantly higher in the control group, whereas the mean of Coll2-1NO(2) showed significant elevation in the pathological group. However, the measurement means of scoring classes did not vary significantly. The markers were able to differentiate the group of horses suffering from osteochondrosis from the group of healthy horses. The elevation of Coll2-1NO(2) in the pathological group indicates an inflammation, mediated through reactive oxygen species and/or increased myeloperoxidase activity. [less ▲]

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See detailA non-traumatic case of intracranial haemorrhage in a horse
Verwilghen, Denis ULg; Van Galen, Gaby ULg; Peters, Fabrice et al

Poster (2006, August)

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See detailA specific method for measurement of equine active myeloperoxidase in biological samples and in in vitro tests
Franck, Thierry ULg; Kohnen, Stephan ULg; Deby-Dupont, Ginette et al

in Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation (2006), 18(4), 326-334

An original method called SIEFED (specific immunological extraction followed by enzymatic detection) was developed for the specific detection of the activity of equine myeloperoxidase (MPO). The method ... [more ▼]

An original method called SIEFED (specific immunological extraction followed by enzymatic detection) was developed for the specific detection of the activity of equine myeloperoxidase (MPO). The method consists of the extraction of MPO from aqueous solutions by immobilized anti-MPO antibodies followed by washing (to eliminate proteins and interfering molecules) and measurement of MPO activity using a detection system containing a fluorogenic substrate, hydrogen peroxide, and nitrite as reaction enhancer. The SIEFED technique was applied to study active MPO in horse biological fluids and the effects of 2 polyphenolic molecules, curcumin and resveratrol, on MPO activity. The detection limit of the SIEFED was 0.23 mU/ml. The SIEFED exhibited good precision with intra-assay and interassay coefficients of variation below 10% and 20%, respectively, for MPO activities ranging from 0.25 to 6.4 mU/ml. The activity of MPO was generally higher than 1 mU/ml in the fluids collected from horses with inflammatory diseases. Curcumin and resveratrol exerted a dose-dependent inhibition on MPO activity and, as they were removed before the enzymatic detection of MPO, the results suggest a direct drug-nzyme interaction or an enzyme structure modification by the drug. The SIEFED is a new tool that would be useful for specific detection of active MPO in complex media and for selection of MPO activity modulators. [less ▲]

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See detailGastrointestinal prokinetics'efficiency and risk factors of development of postoperative ileus: clinical study.
Salciccia, Alexandra ULg; Péters, Fabrice; Gangl, Monika et al

Conference (2006, June 29)

Because of the lack of clinical data in the area, this clinical study was performed to evaluate gastrointestinal prokinetics’ efficiency. Material used includes 2 groups composed each one by 25 horses ... [more ▼]

Because of the lack of clinical data in the area, this clinical study was performed to evaluate gastrointestinal prokinetics’ efficiency. Material used includes 2 groups composed each one by 25 horses which underwent surgery for small intestinal lesions in the University of Liège between january 1997 and august 2005. The 2 groups were formed by a selection resulting in similar (or not significantly different) mean values for the age, gravity score, shock score, packed cell volume on admission in the clinic and length of resected intestine when an enterectomy was performed. Between the 2 groups, we searched also equal (or not significantly different) proportions of Belgian Warmblood, of females/males, of horses wich underwent an enterectomy, of horses which had a concomitant lesion of the large intestine and of horses wich needed 1 or more sedative α2 agonist drug during the postoperative period. One group was treated with gastrointestinal prokinetics (lidocaine, erythromycin, metoclopramide) systematically, whereas the other one not and the incidence and duration of postoperative ileus was evaluated. No significant difference in the incidence or the duration of postoperative ileus was found between the 2 groups. Because our results did not show any effect of prokinetics, a statistical analysis searched in these 50 horses the risk factors of postoperative ileus among the following parameters: breed, age, sex, gravity score, shock score, packed cell volume on admission in the clinic, protocol of induction of anaesthesia, duration of anaesthesia, performing an enterectomy and length of the resected intestine, concomitant lesion of the large intestine, and administration of sedative α2 agonists during the postoperative period. Only the Belgian warmblood breed and the administration of sedative α2 agonist drugs after the recovery from anaesthesia were significantly more important in the group where horses developed a postoperative ileus. Undoubdtedly, this study includes only 50 cases selected for the homogeneity of their parameters and not all the cases of small intestine surgery during the test period. In view of these results, it would be interesting performing this study again on a larger number of cases in a prospective manner. [less ▲]

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See detailEquine oesophageal obstruction : a retrospective study on 143 cases
Seguin, A; Peters, F; Lopez, D et al

in Proceedings of the 45th Congress of the British Equine Veterinary Association (2006)

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See detailPrognostic value of white blood cell drop in horses undergoing post-colic surgery intensive care.
Chiavaccini, Ludovica; Péters, Fabrice; Gangl, Monika et al

Conference (2006)

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See detailComment réaliser une immobilisation avec des support externes rigides ? Description de deux techniques
Gangl, Monika; Verwilghen, Denis ULg; Piccot-Crezollet, Cyrille et al

Poster (2006)

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See detailDevelopment of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for specific equine neutrophil myeloperoxidase measurement in blood
Franck, Thierry ULg; Grulke, Sigrid ULg; Deby-Dupont, Ginette et al

in Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation (2005), 17(5), 412-419

Equine inflammatory disease is accompanied by a neutrophil activation resulting in the release of granulocytic enzyme myeloperoxidase (MPO). To measure MPO in horse plasma as marker of neutrophil ... [more ▼]

Equine inflammatory disease is accompanied by a neutrophil activation resulting in the release of granulocytic enzyme myeloperoxidase (MPO). To measure MPO in horse plasma as marker of neutrophil activation, the authors purified equine neutrophil MPO and developed a specific enzyme immunoassay using 2 specific polyclonal antibodies obtained from rabbit (primary antibody) and guinea pig (secondary antibody). The sandwich complex "primary antibody-MPO-secondary antibody" was detected using a goat anti-guinea pig immunoglobulin antibody conjugated to alkaline phosphatase. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) showed good precision and accuracy, with intra- and interassay coefficients of variation below 10% for MPO concentrations ranging from 0.78 to 50 ng/ml. A stable plasma MPO value, unaffected by time elapsed between blood collection and centrifugation, was obtained with plasma from EDTA anticoagulated blood. The mean MPO value measured in 38 healthy horses was 181.80 +/- 64.74 ng/ml. In 20 horses suffering from obstruction of the large or small intestine, MPO concentrations measured at the time of arrival at the intensive care unit were significantly higher than mean normal value, ranging from 477.88 to 2,748.13 ng/ml. Work is in progress to apply this MPO ELISA technique to other biological fluids and other equine diseases. [less ▲]

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See detailA case of Rhodococcus equi infection in an adult probably immuno-compromised horses
Bertrand, P; Sandersen, Charlotte ULg; Cassart, Dominique ULg et al

in Proceedings of the Leipziger Tierärzte Kongress (2005)

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See detailPrognostic value of clinical signs and blood parameters in equids suffering from hepatic diseases
Amory, Hélène ULg; Perron, M. F.; Sandersen, Charlotte ULg et al

in Journal of Equine Veterinary Science (2005), 25(1), 18-25

The purpose of this retrospective study was to further identify in the equine species the clinical signs and blood parameters that could be useful to identify a hepatic disease and act as predictors of ... [more ▼]

The purpose of this retrospective study was to further identify in the equine species the clinical signs and blood parameters that could be useful to identify a hepatic disease and act as predictors of the outcome in animals suffering from an acute hepatic insufficiency. The study included 31 equids that were hospitalized at the University of Liege and that suffered from a hepatic (group 1, 17 cases of hepatitis; group 2, 11 cases of hyperlipemia) or post-hepatic (group 3, 3 cases of cholelithiasis) disease. Frequency of the clinical signs and values of selected blood parameters on admission were compared statistically between surviving and non-surviving animals. The most frequently presented clinical signs were depression, decreased appetite or anorexia, fever, tachycardia, polypnea, icterus, and congested mucous membranes. Frequency of the clinical signs and blood parameter values were not statistically different in surviving and non-surviving animals, with the exception of gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP), which were significantly higher in animals with fatal outcome, with a cutoff value of 224 and 820 IU/L, respectively. [less ▲]

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See detailDesign of an ELISA specific for the measurement of equine neutrophil myeloperoxidase in biological fluids
Couderc, S.; Franck, Thierry ULg; Bougoussa, M. et al

in Clinical Chemistry (2005), 51(Suppl. 6), 211-212

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