References of "Gerard, Christiane"
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See detailHepatitis C virus genotype 5 in southern Belgium: Epidemiological characteristics and response to therapy
Delwaide, Jean ULg; Gerard, Christiane ULg; Reenaers, Catherine ULg et al

in Digestive Diseases & Sciences (2005), 50(12), 2348-2351

Data are scarce on patients infected with hepatitis C virus of genotype 5, due to the low prevalence of this genotype around the world. To better define the characteristics of these patients, we reviewed ... [more ▼]

Data are scarce on patients infected with hepatitis C virus of genotype 5, due to the low prevalence of this genotype around the world. To better define the characteristics of these patients, we reviewed the files of 16 genotype 5 patients. Mean age was 38 +/- 14. All patients were of European origin. Most of them (75%) had been contaminated by transfusion within a short time period (between 1980 and 1991). There were no intravenous drug addicts. Seven patients received treatment. One patient did not respond to interferon (IFN) monotherapy. Of four patients treated with IFN and ribavirin, three became sustained viral responders. Two patients treated with pegylated IFN and ribavirin became sustained viral responders. In our region, genotype 5 patients seem to have been contaminated within a relatively short time period. Treatment with IFN or pegylated IFN and ribavirin gave a high rate (83%) of sustained viral responses. [less ▲]

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See detailHepatitis C infection: eligibility for antiviral therapies
Delwaide, Jean ULg; El Saouda, R.; Gerard, Christiane ULg et al

in European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology (2005), 17(11), 1185-1189

Background Current treatments of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) are effective, but expensive and susceptible to induce significant side effects. Objectives To evaluate the proportion of HCV patients who ... [more ▼]

Background Current treatments of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) are effective, but expensive and susceptible to induce significant side effects. Objectives To evaluate the proportion of HCV patients who are eligible for a treatment. Methods In a database comprising 1726 viraemic HCV patients, the files of 299 patients who presented to the same hepatologist for an initial appointment between 1996 and 2003 were reviewed. Results Patients' characteristics were age 43.1 +/- 15.6 years, 53% male and 92% Caucasian. The main risk factors were transfusion (43%) and drug use (22%). Genotypes were mostly genotype 1 (66%), genotype 3 (12%) and genotype 2 (10%). These characteristics were not different from those of the whole series of 1726 patients. A total of 176 patients (59%) were not treated, the reasons for non-treatment being medical contraindications (34%), non-compliance (25%) and normal transaminases (24%). In addition, 17% of patients declined therapy despite being considered as eligible, mainly due to fear of adverse events. Medical contraindications were psychiatric (27%), age (22%), end-stage liver disease (15%), willingness for pregnancy (13%), cardiac contraindication (7%) and others (16%). Only 123 patients (41%) were treated. A sustained viral response was observed in 41%. The treatment was interrupted in 16% for adverse events. Conclusions The majority of HCV patients are not eligible for treatment. This implies that, with current therapies, only 17% of patients referred for chronic HCV become sustained responders. Some modifications of guidelines could extend the rate of treatment (patients with normal transaminases), but an important barrier remains the patients' and the doctors' fear of adverse events. [less ▲]

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See detailHCV genotypes 2 and 3: the predominant genotypes at the horizon 2020?
Delwaide, Jean ULg; Gerard, Christiane ULg; Vaira, Dolorès ULg et al

in Acta Gastro-Enterologica Belgica (2005, January), 68(1), 25

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See detailEvolution over a 10 year period of the epidemiological profile of 1,726 newly diagnosed HCV patients in Belgium.
Gerard, Christiane ULg; Delwaide, Jean ULg; Vaira, Dolorès ULg et al

in Journal of Medical Virology (2005), 76(4), 503-10

In order to evaluate the future burden of hepatitis C, there is a need to quantify the evolution with time of some crucial parameters such as disease frequency and age, modes of infection and infecting ... [more ▼]

In order to evaluate the future burden of hepatitis C, there is a need to quantify the evolution with time of some crucial parameters such as disease frequency and age, modes of infection and infecting genotypes of patients presenting for the first time at consultation. The yearly evolution of these parameters was analyzed retrospectively in a cohort of 1,726 patients living in Belgium, who were diagnosed as hepatitis C virus (HCV) carriers by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) between 1992 and 2002. The epidemiological profile of HCV patients showed significant changes during this period. The number of new patients increased with time. The proportion of patients under 50 increased linearly at a rate of 3% per year. The rate of newly presenting patients infected by transfusion before 1990 decreased, but only by 2.7% per year. The proportion of intravenous (IV) drug users increased by 2.5% per year. Patients presenting "undefined" risk factors increased by 2.1% per year. Nosocomial acquisition of HCV infection exhibited a disturbing relative stability in time whereas dialysis tended to disappear as a cause of infection. There was a significant linear annual decrease of 2.3% in the frequency of genotype 1b, which was counterbalanced by a significant increase of 0.7% for genotype 1a and 1.1% for genotype 4. Genotypes 2 and 3 did not vary significantly with time. Such figures are useful for evaluating the epidemiological changes of C virus infection and for anticipating the future economical cost of hepatitis C treatment in the next few years. [less ▲]

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See detailTreatment of acute hepatitis C with interferon alpha-2b: early initiation of treatment is the most effective predictive factor of sustained viral response
Delwaide, Jean ULg; Bourgeois, N.; Gerard, Christiane ULg et al

in Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics (2004), 20(1), 15-22

AIM: To evaluate the efficacy of early interferon alpha-2b in non-post-transfusion acute hepatitis C virus: a prospective study with historical comparison. PATIENTS: Group A: 28 patients prospectively ... [more ▼]

AIM: To evaluate the efficacy of early interferon alpha-2b in non-post-transfusion acute hepatitis C virus: a prospective study with historical comparison. PATIENTS: Group A: 28 patients prospectively treated for acute hepatitis C virus with daily regimen of interferon 5 million units for 2 months. Group B: historical series of 16 patients with untreated acute hepatitis C virus. RESULTS: There was no significant difference between the two groups with regard to gender, age, icterus, alanine aminotransferase, or genotypes. In group B, hepatitis spontaneously resolved in three of 16 (19%) patients (follow-up 1-7 years). In group A, 21 of 25 patients became sustained viral responders (75%; P = 0.0003 vs. group B). Factors include not predictive of sustained viral response: age, gender, sources of infection, presence of icterus, alanine aminotransferase peak, bilirubin peak, incubation period, presence of hepatitis C virus antibodies at presentation, or genotypes. The time from presentation to the start of therapy was, however, significantly shorter in sustained viral responders (43 +/- 31 days) than in relapsers or non-responders (88 +/- 52 days) (P = 0.016). CONCLUSIONS: Early treatment of acute hepatitis C virus with interferon prevents chronicity. A short waiting time from presentation to treatment appears as the most relevant predictive factor for sustained response. [less ▲]

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See detailHpatitis C infection: eligibility for antiviral therapies
El souda, R; DELWAIDE, Jean ULg; GERARD, Christiane ULg et al

in Acta Gastro-Enterologica Belgica (2004), 67

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See detailHCV genotype 5: an easy to treat population
REENAERS, Catherine ULg; DELWAIDE, Jean ULg; GERARD, Christiane ULg et al

in Acta Gastro-Enterologica Belgica (2004), 67

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See detailHCV genotype 4 in Belgium: epidemiological characteristics
REENAERS, Catherine ULg; DELWAIDE, Jean ULg; GERARD, Christiane ULg et al

in Acta Gastro-Enterologica Belgica (2004), (67), 03

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See detailAnalyse de 516 rapports de reaction apres transfusion de produits sanguins labiles
Frere, M.C.; Rapaille, A.; Bouillenne, C. et al

in Transfusion Clinique et Biologique (2001), 8(4), 333-42

BACKGROUND: In order to assess the implemented preventive measures of transfusion reactions (TR) and to make a study of residual reactions, we analyzed 516 TR reports from 14 hospitals, for three years ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: In order to assess the implemented preventive measures of transfusion reactions (TR) and to make a study of residual reactions, we analyzed 516 TR reports from 14 hospitals, for three years since 1996 to 1998. METHODS: Clinical signs were classified according to seven etiologic categories. Systematic anti-erythrocyte and anti-leucocyte detection, as well as bacterial control of the returned bag were performed. RESULTS: The TR incidence is 3.7 per 1.000 products. Platelet concentrates (PC) provoke 7.4 TR per 1.000 transfusions, and red cell concentrates (RCC) 3.8. There are as many TR with apheresis platelets (AP), pre-storage leuco-depleted, as with random platelets, post-storage leuco-depleted, and as many with leuco-depleted RCC as with non leuco-depleted RCC. Leuco-depleted AP provoke more allergic reactions than other blood components. TR with AP are much more frequent in children than in adults. Plasma removal from AP before transfusion decreases reaction frequency. CONCLUSIONS: The lack in efficacy failure of pre-storage deleucocytation in TR prevention should be due to related patient factors. Etiology of AP allergic reactions deserves further study. PC suspension in synthetic medium before transfusion is an efficient means for RT decreasing. Hemovigilance system has to be improved so that all TR be reported. [less ▲]

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See detailComment je traite une ascite
Gielen, S.; Delwaide, Jean ULg; Detry, Olivier ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2001), 56(12), 809-815

Ascites is the most common of the major complications of cirrhosis. The initial evaluation of a patient with ascites should include a history, physical evaluation and some investigations. Treatment should ... [more ▼]

Ascites is the most common of the major complications of cirrhosis. The initial evaluation of a patient with ascites should include a history, physical evaluation and some investigations. Treatment should consist of treating the underlying liver disease, sodium restricted diet (2 g of Na+/day) and diuretics. This regimen is effective in 90 % of patients. The treatment options for the diuretic-resistant patients include serial therapeutic paracentesis, peritoneovenous shunting, TIPSand liver transplantation. The treatment and prophylaxis of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis which is a frequent and severe complication in cirrhotic patients with ascites is also important. The differential diagnosis with secondary bacterial peritonitisis is essential because the latter usually does not resolve unless patients are surgically treated. [less ▲]

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See detailEvidence-Based Medicine: traitement de l'hépatite chronique C. GLEVHE. Groupe Liégeois d'Etude des Virus Hépatotropes.
Delwaide, Jean ULg; Gerard, Christiane ULg; Belaiche, Jacques ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2000), 55(5), 337-340

The Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infects nearly 170 million people in the world. The major characteristic of virus C is its tendency to chronicity in more than 85% of cases. Generally asymptomatic, HCV ... [more ▼]

The Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infects nearly 170 million people in the world. The major characteristic of virus C is its tendency to chronicity in more than 85% of cases. Generally asymptomatic, HCV infection may also evolve with time to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. During the last few years, HCV-related end-stage cirrhosis has become the first cause of liver transplantation. In 10 years only, very significant progress has been made in the knowledge of the virus, not only in the field of diagnosis but also in therapy. Several consensus conferences taking last discoveries into account have been organized in order to promote recommendations useful for the management of hepatitis C patients. The aim of this short overview is to summarize practical recommendations that emerged recently from consensus meetings. [less ▲]

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See detailTreatment of acute hepatitis C with interferon alpha 2b prevents chronicity.
Delwaide, Jean ULg; Bourgeois, N.; Gerard, Christiane ULg et al

in Gut (2000), 47(3), 14

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See detailDelayed massive immune hemolysis mediated by minor ABO incompatibility after allogeneic peripheral blood progenitor cell transplantation.
Salmon, Jean ULg; Michaux, S.; Hermanne, J. P. et al

in Transfusion (1999), 39(8), 824-7

BACKGROUND: Bone marrow transplantation with minor ABO incompatibility may be followed by moderate delayed hemolysis of the recipient's red cells by donor-derived ABO antibodies. This reaction may be more ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Bone marrow transplantation with minor ABO incompatibility may be followed by moderate delayed hemolysis of the recipient's red cells by donor-derived ABO antibodies. This reaction may be more severe after transplantation of peripheral blood progenitor cells (PBPCs). CASE REPORT: A 16-year-old boy underwent an allogeneic PBPC transplant from his HLA-mismatched mother as treatment for acute myeloblastic leukemia that had proved resistant to induction chemotherapy. Transfusion of the unmanipulated PBPCs proceeded without any complication, despite the difference in ABO blood group (donor, O Rh-positive; recipient, A Rh-positive). On Day 7, a rapid drop in hemoglobin to 4 g per dL was observed, which was attributed to a massive hemolysis. All the recipient's group A red cells were destroyed within 36 hours. This delayed and rapidly progressive hemolytic anemia was not associated with the transfusion of the donor's plasma. Rather, the anti-A titer increased in parallel with marrow recovery, which suggested an active synthesis of these antibodies by immunocompetent cells from the donor against the recipient's red cells. The mother's anti-A titer was retrospectively found to be 2048. Her unusually high titer is probably due to prior sensitization during pregnancies. On Day 12, the patient developed grade IV graft-versus-host disease, which proved resistant to all treatments instituted and led to his death on Day 35. CONCLUSION: PBPC transplantation with minor ABO incompatibility may be associated with significant risk of massive delayed hemolysis. [less ▲]

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See detailLa transmission du virus de l’hépatite C en milieu hospitalier
Delwaide, Jean ULg; Gerard, Christiane ULg; Belaiche, Jacques ULg et al

in Médecine et Hygiène (1999), 57

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See detailHepatitis C virus transmission following invasive medical procedures
Delwaide, Jean ULg; Gerard, Christiane ULg; Vaira, Dolorès ULg et al

in Journal of Internal Medicine (1999), 245(1), 107-108

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See detailPrevalence of hepatitis G virus in a haemodialysis unit
Lamproye, Anne ULg; Delwaide, Jean ULg; Vaira, Dolorès ULg et al

in Acta Gastro-Enterologica Belgica (1999), 62(1), 13-15

Background : Recently, a novel blood-borne virus has been identified and named hepatitis G virus. Transfusion is the main route of transmission. It is known that patients on maintenance dialysis are more ... [more ▼]

Background : Recently, a novel blood-borne virus has been identified and named hepatitis G virus. Transfusion is the main route of transmission. It is known that patients on maintenance dialysis are more susceptible to infections with parenterally-transmitted viruses than the general population. The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of hepatitis G infection in a Belgian dialysis unit. Methods: The entire population of our dialysis unit (82 patients) was tested for the presence of hepatitis G virus (HGV) by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. History of transfusion or renal transplantation coinfections with hepatitis B and C viruses, and serum aminotransferase levels were also tested. Results: Thirteen patients (16%) were found positive for HGV-RNA. Among these patients, 69.2% were infected by the G virus alone, 15.4% were coinfected with B virus, and 15.4% with C virus. All but one patient had a history of transfusion. Ten of the thirteen infected patients (77%) had normal aminotransferase (< 30 UI/l). Three patients had elevated aminotransferase levels (23%); one was coinfected with B virus, one with C virus, and the last one had a diabetes-induced fatty liver infiltration. No liver biopsies were performed. Conclusions :It is concluded that infection with C virus is common among dialyzed patients. This high rate of infection could be related to previous transfusions, but may as well be due to nosocomial transmission. In our series, at least one patient has been contaminated by another road than transplantation or transfusion. Finally, it does not appear clearly that chronic infection with hepatitis G virus induces Liver disease, as defined by elevated aminotransferase level. [less ▲]

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See detailHépatite à virus G: mythe ou réalité? VHG/GBV-C: diagnostic, épidémiologie, risque transfusionnel et pathogénicité
Gerard, Christiane ULg; Vaira, Dolorès ULg; Delwaide, Jean ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (1998), 53(9), 524-528

The recently discovered G virus (also called either GBV-C or HGV) is transmitted by blood transfusion as well as by sexual intercourse. The global prevalence of GBV-C is high, not only in those groups ... [more ▼]

The recently discovered G virus (also called either GBV-C or HGV) is transmitted by blood transfusion as well as by sexual intercourse. The global prevalence of GBV-C is high, not only in those groups classically known to be exposed to parenteral risks (i.v. drug users, polytransfused patients), but also in the blood donors population. The diagnosis of active infection lies on the search of GBV-C RNA by Polymerase Chain Reaction whereas that of resolved (past) infection lies on the presence of specific antibodies. Till now, it has not been possible to correlate convincingly the presence of GBV-C RNA with any acute or chronic hepatopathy. On the contrary, a lot of arguments tend to suggest that the GBV-C is not pathogenic for the liver, although some modes of transmission are common with those of other (known and probably not known) hepatotropic viruses. According to the actual knowledge of the consequences of GBV-C infection, it appears as non relevant to instaure a systematic screening of this new virus in blood donors. [less ▲]

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See detailTransmission du virus de l'hépatite C par examens médicaux invasifs
DELWAIDE, Jean ULg; Gerard, Christiane ULg; Vaira, Dolorès ULg et al

in Gastroentérologie Clinique et Biologique (1998), 22(2), 172

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See detailLes modes de transmission du virus de l'hépatite C
Delwaide, Jean ULg; Gerard, Christiane ULg; Sondag, D. et al

in NOSO-info (1998), 2(1), 7-10

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