References of "Gérard, Jean-Claude"
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See detailAuroral signatures of injections in the magnetosphere of Saturn
Radioti, Aikaterini ULg; Roussos, E.; Grodent, Denis ULg et al

Poster (2011, July 11)

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See detailInside the Jupiter Main Auroral Emissions: Flares, Spots, Arc...and Satellite Footprints?
Bonfond, Bertrand ULg; Vogt, M. F.; Yoneda, M. et al

Conference (2011, July 11)

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See detailThe multiple spots of the Ganymede footprint
Bonfond, Bertrand ULg; Hess, S.; Grodent, Denis ULg et al

Poster (2011, July 11)

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See detailAurora : Global features
Gérard, Jean-Claude ULg

Conference (2011, July)

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See detailOxygen Nightglow Investigation in the Visible Spectral Range, Using VIRTIS/Venus Express Data
Migliorini, A.; Piccioni, G.; Drossart, P. et al

Conference (2011, March 01)

Oxygen emissions in the visible spectral range, detected with VIRTIS on board Venus Express, in the upper atmosphere of Venus.

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See detailEUV spectroscopy of the Venus dayglow with UVIS on Cassini
Gérard, Jean-Claude ULg; Hubert, Benoît ULg; Gustin, Jacques ULg et al

in Icarus: International Journal of Solar System Studies (2011), 211

We analyze EUV spatially-resolved dayglow spectra obtained at 0.37 nm resolution by the UVIS instrument during the Cassini flyby of Venus on 24 June 1999, a period of high solar activity level. Emissions ... [more ▼]

We analyze EUV spatially-resolved dayglow spectra obtained at 0.37 nm resolution by the UVIS instrument during the Cassini flyby of Venus on 24 June 1999, a period of high solar activity level. Emissions from OI, OII, NI, CI and CII and CO have been identified and their disc average intensity has been determined. They are generally somewhat brighter than those determined from the observations made with the HUT spectrograph at a lower activity level, We present the brightness distribution along the foot track of the UVIS slit of the OII 83.4 nm, OI 98.9 nm, Lyman-ß + OI 102.5 nm and NI 120.0 nm multiplets, and the CO C-X and B-X Hopfield-Birge bands. We make a detailed comparison of the intensities of the 834 nm, 989 nm, 120.0 nm multiplets and CO B-X band measured along the slit foot track on the disc with those predicted by an airglow model previously used to analyze Venus and Mars ultraviolet spectra. This model includes the treatment of multiple scattering for the optically thick OI, OII and NI multiplets. It is found that the observed intensity of the OII emission at 83.4 nm is higher than predicted by the model. An increase of the O[SUP]+[/SUP] ion density relative to the densities usually measured by Pioneer Venus brings the observations and the modeled values into better agreement. The calculated intensity variation of the CO B-X emission along the track of the UVIS slit is in fair agreement with the observations. The intensity of the OI 98.9 nm emission is well predicted by the model if resonance scattering of solar radiation by O atoms is included as a source. The calculated brightness of the NI 120 nm multiplet is larger than observed by a factor of ˜2-3 if photons from all sources encounter multiple scattering. The discrepancy reduces to 30-80% if the photon electron impact and photodissociation of N[SUB]2[/SUB] sources of N([SUP]4[/SUP]S) atoms are considered as optically thin. Overall, we find that the O, N[SUB]2[/SUB] and CO densities from the empirical VTS3 model provide satisfactory agreement between the calculated and the observed EUV airglow emissions. [less ▲]

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See detailA layer of ozone detected in the nightside upper atmosphere of Venus
Montmessin, Franck; Bertaux, J.-L.; Lefèvre, F. et al

in Icarus: International Journal of Solar System Studies (2011)

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See detailHubble Space Telescope/Advanced Camera for Surveys Observations of Europa's Atmospheric Ultraviolet Emission at Eastern Elongation
Saur, Joachim; Feldman, Paul D; Roth, Lorenz et al

in Astrophysical Journal (2011), 738

We report results of a Hubble Space Telescope (HST) campaign with the Advanced Camera for Surveys to observe Europa at eastern elongation, i.e., Europa's leading side, on 2008 June 29. With five ... [more ▼]

We report results of a Hubble Space Telescope (HST) campaign with the Advanced Camera for Surveys to observe Europa at eastern elongation, i.e., Europa's leading side, on 2008 June 29. With five consecutive HST orbits, we constrain Europa's atmospheric O I 1304 Å and O I 1356 Å emissions using the prism PR130L. The total emissions of both oxygen multiplets range between 132 ± 14 and 226 ± 14 Rayleigh. An additional systematic error with values on the same order as the statistical errors may be due to uncertainties in modeling the reflected light from Europa's surface. The total emission also shows a clear dependence of Europa's position with respect to Jupiter's magnetospheric plasma sheet. We derive a lower limit for the O[SUB]2[/SUB] column density of 6 × 10[SUP]18[/SUP] m[SUP]-2[/SUP]. Previous observations of Europa's atmosphere with the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph in 1999 of Europa's trailing side show an enigmatic surplus of radiation on the anti-Jovian side within the disk of Europa. With emission from a radially symmetric atmosphere as a reference, we searched for an anti-Jovian versus sub-Jovian asymmetry with respect to the central meridian on the leading side and found none. Likewise, we searched for departures from a radially symmetric atmospheric emission and found an emission surplus centered around 90° west longitude, for which plausible mechanisms exist. Previous work about the possibility of plumes on Europa due to tidally driven shear heating found longitudes with strongest local strain rates which might be consistent with the longitudes of maximum UV emissions. Alternatively, asymmetries in Europa's UV emission can also be caused by inhomogeneous surface properties, an optically thick atmospheric contribution of atomic oxygen, and/or by Europa's complex plasma interaction with Jupiter's magnetosphere. [less ▲]

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See detailSmall-scale structures in Saturn's ultraviolet aurora
Grodent, Denis ULg; Gustin, Jacques ULg; Gérard, Jean-Claude ULg et al

in Journal of Geophysical Research. Space Physics (2011), 116

On 26 August 2008, the Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph Subsystem (UVIS) instrument onboard the Cassini spacecraft recorded a series of spatially resolved spectra of the northern auroral region of Saturn ... [more ▼]

On 26 August 2008, the Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph Subsystem (UVIS) instrument onboard the Cassini spacecraft recorded a series of spatially resolved spectra of the northern auroral region of Saturn. Near periapsis, the spacecraft was only five Saturn radii (R[SUB]S[/SUB]) from the surface and spatially resolved auroral structures as small as 500 km across (0.5° of latitude). We report the observation of two types of UV auroral substructures at the location of the main ring of emission, bunches of spots and narrow arcs. They are found in the noon and dusk sectors, respectively, at latitudes ranging from 73 to 80° corresponding to equatorial regions located beyond 16 R[SUB]S[/SUB]. Their brightness ranges from 1 to 30 kR and their characteristic size varies from 500 km to several thousands of km. These small-scale substructures are likely associated with patterns of upward field aligned currents resulting from nonuniform plasma flow in the equatorial plane. It is suggested that magnetopause Kelvin-Helmholtz waves trigger localized perturbations in the flow, like vortices, able to give rise to the observed UV auroral substructures. [less ▲]

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See detailBifurcations of the main auroral ring at Saturn: ionospheric signatures of consecutive reconnection events at the magnetopause
Radioti, Aikaterini ULg; Grodent, Denis ULg; Gérard, Jean-Claude ULg et al

in Journal of Geophysical Research. Space Physics (2011), 116

This work reports for the first time on bifurcations of the main auroral ring at Saturn observed with the UVIS instrument onboard Cassini. The observation sequence starts with an intensification on the ... [more ▼]

This work reports for the first time on bifurcations of the main auroral ring at Saturn observed with the UVIS instrument onboard Cassini. The observation sequence starts with an intensification on the main oval, close to noon, which is possibly associated with dayside reconnection. Consecutive bifurcations appear with the onset of dayside reconnection, between 11 and 18 magnetic local time, while the area poleward of the main emission expands to lower latitudes. The bifurcations depart with time from the main ring of emission, which is related to the open-closed field line boundary. The augmentation of the area poleward of the main emission following its expansion is balanced by the area occupied by the bifurcations, suggesting that these auroral features represent the amount of newly open flux and could be related to consecutive reconnection events at the flank of the magnetopause. The observations show that the open flux along the sequence increases when bifurcations appear. Magnetopause reconnection can lead to significant augmentation of the open flux within a couple of days and each reconnection event opens ∼10% of the flux contained within the polar cap. Additionally, the observations imply an overall length of the reconnection line of ∼4 hours of local time and suggest that dayside reconnection at Saturn can occur at several positions on the magnetopause consecutively or simultaneously. [less ▲]

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See detailLes planètes géantes, leur composition et leur environnement magnétique
Gérard, Jean-Claude ULg

Scientific conference (2011)

Nous présentons un résumé de résultats récents et de programmes en développement relatifs à l'exploration du système solaire.

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See detailQuasi-periodic polar flares at Jupiter: A signature of pulsed dayside reconnections?
Bonfond, Bertrand ULg; Vogt, M. F.; Gérard, Jean-Claude ULg et al

in Geophysical Research Letters (2011), 38

The most dynamic part of the Jovian UV aurora is located inside the main auroral oval. This region is known to regularly show localized but dramatic enhancements on timescales of several tens of seconds ... [more ▼]

The most dynamic part of the Jovian UV aurora is located inside the main auroral oval. This region is known to regularly show localized but dramatic enhancements on timescales of several tens of seconds, called polar flares. They have often been associated with the polar cusp, based on their location in the polar cap. The present study is based on the longest high-time resolution image sequences ever acquired by the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph aboard the Hubble Space Telescope. We report the first observations of a regularity in the occurrence of these flares, with a timescale of 2-3 minutes. We use a magnetic flux mapping model to identify the region corresponding to these emissions in the equatorial plane: the radial distance ranges from 55 to 120 Jovian radii and the local times are between 10: 00 and 18: 00. The analogy with similar phenomena observed at Earth suggests that these quasi-periodic auroral flares could be related to pulsed reconnections at the dayside magnetopause. Indeed, the flares' projected location in the equatorial plane and their rate of re-occurrence show some similarities with the properties of the flux transfer events observed by the Pioneer and Voyager probes. [less ▲]

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See detailDiscovery and characterization of an ozone layer in Venus’atmosphere
Montmessin, F.; Bertaux, J.-L.; Lefèvre, F. et al

Conference (2011)

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See detailAtomic oxygen distributions in the Venus thermosphere: Comparisons between Venus Express observations and global model simulations
Brecht, A.; Bougher, S. W.; Gérard, Jean-Claude ULg et al

in Icarus: International Journal of Solar System Studies (2011)

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See detailNightside reconnection at Jupiter: Auroral and magnetic field observations from 26 July 1998
Radioti, Aikaterini ULg; Grodent, Denis ULg; Gérard, Jean-Claude ULg et al

in Journal of Geophysical Research. Space Physics (2011), 116

In this study we present ultraviolet and infrared auroral data from 26 July 1998, and we show the presence of transient auroral polar spots observed throughout the postdusk to predawn local time sector ... [more ▼]

In this study we present ultraviolet and infrared auroral data from 26 July 1998, and we show the presence of transient auroral polar spots observed throughout the postdusk to predawn local time sector. The polar dawn spots, which are transient polar features observed in the dawn sector poleward of the main emission, were previously associated with the inward moving flow resulting from tail reconnection. In the present study we suggest that nightside spots, which are polar features observed close to the midnight sector, are related to inward moving flow, like the polar dawn spots. We base our conclusions on the near-simultaneous set of Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and Galileo observations of 26 July 1998, during which HST observed a nightside spot magnetically mapped close to the location of an inward moving flow detected by Galileo on the same day. We derive the emitted power from magnetic field measurements along the observed plasma flow bubble, and we show that it matches the emitted power inferred from HST. Additionally, this study reports for the first time a bright polar spot in the infrared, which could be a possible signature of tail reconnection. The spot appears within an interval of 30 min from the ultraviolet, poleward of the main emission on the ionosphere and in the postdusk sector planetward of the tail reconnection x line on the equatorial plane. Finally, the present work demonstrates that ionospheric signatures of flow bursts released during tail reconnection are instantaneously detected over a wide local time sector. [less ▲]

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See detailThe auroral footprint of Enceladus on Saturn
Pryor, Wayne R; Rymer, Abigail M; Mitchell, Donald G et al

in Nature (2011), 472

Although there are substantial differences between the magnetospheres of Jupiter and Saturn, it has been suggested that cryovolcanic activity at Enceladus could lead to electrodynamic coupling between ... [more ▼]

Although there are substantial differences between the magnetospheres of Jupiter and Saturn, it has been suggested that cryovolcanic activity at Enceladus could lead to electrodynamic coupling between Enceladus and Saturn like that which links Jupiter with Io, Europa and Ganymede. Powerful field-aligned electron beams associated with the Io-Jupiter coupling, for example, create an auroral footprint in Jupiter's ionosphere. Auroral ultraviolet emission associated with Enceladus-Saturn coupling is anticipated to be just a few tenths of a kilorayleigh (ref. 12), about an order of magnitude dimmer than Io's footprint and below the observable threshold, consistent with its non-detection. Here we report the detection of magnetic-field-aligned ion and electron beams (offset several moon radii downstream from Enceladus) with sufficient power to stimulate detectable aurora, and the subsequent discovery of Enceladus-associated aurora in a few per cent of the scans of the moon's footprint. The footprint varies in emission magnitude more than can plausibly be explained by changes in magnetospheric parameters--and as such is probably indicative of variable plume activity. [less ▲]

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