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See detailPhysicochemical properties of lipids extracted from Tenebrio molitor larvae
Danthine, Sabine ULg; Blecker, Christophe ULg; Paul, Aman ULg et al

Poster (2013, December)

Objectives: To determine the physicochemical properties of the oil obtained from Tenebrio molitor Larvae and explore its potential as edible oil. Methodology: Oils obtained from five batches of Tenebrio ... [more ▼]

Objectives: To determine the physicochemical properties of the oil obtained from Tenebrio molitor Larvae and explore its potential as edible oil. Methodology: Oils obtained from five batches of Tenebrio molitor Larvae were investigated. Among the samples, three were produced directly in the lab (3 different productions) and 2 were purchased from a local supplier. In addition to the total lipid content (solvent extraction), both FA (GC) and TAG (HPLC) profiles were determined. Thermal properties by DSC were also estimated. Results and conclusion: The fresh Larvae from the lab contained 52% of total proteins (% dry matter). Their total fat content was around 36% (% dry matter). The commercial samples contained more proteins, but less fat: around 58% of total proteins and 30% of total fat (% dry matter). All the extracted oils contained high amount of unsaturated fatty acids. However, the chemical composition and the thermal properties of the samples varied according to their origin. The level and quality of lipid content offer potential as a substitute of oilseeds. [less ▲]

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See detailGrasshoppers: Food Security & Nutrition
Paul, Aman ULg; Danthine, Sabine ULg; Frederich, Michel ULg et al

Scientific conference (2013, December)

Rising economies and rapid urbanization in developing countries, particularly in Asia, are creating shifts in the composition of global food demand, so it is necessary to explore new sources of food with ... [more ▼]

Rising economies and rapid urbanization in developing countries, particularly in Asia, are creating shifts in the composition of global food demand, so it is necessary to explore new sources of food with better nutritional profile. Among the alternative food that exists are the grasshoppers, about 80 species of which are consumed worldwide. Grasshoppers are not only rich source of proteins and lipids but also some important minor component like vitamins and minerals. Apart from being nutritionally superior to most conventional meats their production results in lower emission of greenhouse gases & ammonia, risk of zoonotic infections in humans is much lower, water requirement for production is much less and have higher feed conversion ratio. Edible species of grasshopper in Belgium were identified, attempts were made for the lab rearing of meadow grasshopper (Chorthippus parallelus) and fat as well as protein contents of meadow grasshopper (Chorthippus parallelus) & long winged conehead (Conocephalus discolor) were investigated. [less ▲]

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See detailSome natural products from aerial parts of Scrophularia imerethica
Getia, M; Mshvildadze, V; Dekanosidze, G et al

Poster (2013, June 17)

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See detailLes substances naturelles dans la lutte contre le paludisme
Frederich, Michel ULg

Scientific conference (2013, May 25)

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See detailFalsification des médicaments: mythe ou réalité ?
Marini Djang'Eing'A, Roland ULg; Fillet, Marianne ULg; Vancauwenberghe, Roy et al

Conference (2013, April 24)

La santé publique est de nos jours minée par la problématique des médicaments falsifiés ou de qualité inférieure, avec plusieurs conséquences sanitaires, économiques voire professionnelles. On estime à 7 ... [more ▼]

La santé publique est de nos jours minée par la problématique des médicaments falsifiés ou de qualité inférieure, avec plusieurs conséquences sanitaires, économiques voire professionnelles. On estime à 7% la part du marché pharmaceutique mondial que représenterait ce fléau; l’Afrique, l’Asie et de nombreux pays d'Amérique latine étant les régions les plus touchées avec plus de 30% de médicaments falsifiés. D’après l'OMS, plus de 50% des médicaments achetés à partir des sites internet illégaux sont contrefaits, annihilant très fortement les chances de succès thérapeutique. Ces médicaments viennent dans la plupart des cas des pays asiatiques et de l’Eurasie. Le trafic de faux médicaments est un crime contre l'humanité qui représente environ 50 milliards de dollars par an (10-15 % de plus que le marché de la drogue). Au travers de deux leçons, la situation de la falsification des médicaments sera présentée au grand public dans le but de le sensibiliser à ce fléau. La première leçon présentera la situation en Europe avec un accent sur la Belgique. La problématique du droit à la propriété intellectuelle et de l’encadrement législatif sera abordée, ainsi que la falsification des médicaments modernes et des phytomédicaments, ces derniers étant utilisés par plus de 40% de la population en Europe et aux Etats-Unis. Dans la seconde leçon sera abordée la situation vécue en Afrique. L’approvisionnement en médicaments de qualité par le partage de l’information sera présenté ainsi que les moyens analytiques à la disposition de ce continent pour combattre ce fléau. Des membres du Département de Pharmacie de l’Université de Liège, de l’Agence Fédérale des Médicaments et des Produits de Santé ainsi que du programme QUAMED (Quality Medicines for All) feront partager leur expérience sur cette question d’une brûlante actualité.  [less ▲]

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See detailUnusual Amino Acids and Monofluoroacetate from Dichapetalum michelsonii (Umutambasha), a Toxic Plant from Rwanda
Esters, Virginie ULg; Karangwa, Charles; Tits, Monique ULg et al

in Planta Medica (2013), 79

In the course of our investigations on Umutambasha in order to identify its convulsant principles, small quantities of monofluoroacetate were observed in stem bark, leaves, and fruits of this plant newly ... [more ▼]

In the course of our investigations on Umutambasha in order to identify its convulsant principles, small quantities of monofluoroacetate were observed in stem bark, leaves, and fruits of this plant newly identified as Dichapetalum michelsonii Hauman. Conclusive evidence for a monofluoroacetate presence came from its isolation from the freeze-dried extract of stem bark. Three free unusual amino acids, named N-methyl-α-alanine, N-methyl-β-alanine, and 2,7-diaminooctan-1,8-dioic acid, described for the first time in a plant, and known trigonelline were also isolated from the stem bark of D. michelsonii. Structure elucidations were mainly achieved by spectroscopic methods (1H-NMR, 2D-NMR, MS) and by comparison with authentic references. These unusual amino acids were detected by a fast, reliable TLC analysis in all our batches of Umutambasha, suggesting that they could be used for identification purposes in case of human or livestock intoxications. Finally, EEG recordings and behavioural observations performed in mice suggested that the convulsive patterns produced by Umutambasha are the consequence of monofluoroacetate presence in D. michelsonii. [less ▲]

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See detailIdentification and structure elucidation of four cannabimimetic compounds in seized products
Denooz, Raphaël ULg; VAN HEUGEN, Jean-Claude ULg; Frederich, Michel ULg et al

in Journal of Analytical Toxicology (2013), 37(2), 56-63

Since 2008, herbal mixtures with synthetic cannabinoid compounds have been sold as incense throughout the world. Although these new drugs are labeled as not for human consumption, these products are ... [more ▼]

Since 2008, herbal mixtures with synthetic cannabinoid compounds have been sold as incense throughout the world. Although these new drugs are labeled as not for human consumption, these products are smoked for their cannabis-like effects. This study reports the structural and spectral elucidation of four cannabimimetic compounds seized in Belgium: (4-methoxyphenyl)-1-(pentyl-1H-indol-3-yl)methanone (RCS-4), 1-(5-fluoropentyl)-3-(1-naphtoyl)indole (AM-2201), 2-(2-chlorophenyl)-1-(1-pentylindol-3-yl)ethanone (JWH-203) and 4-ethylnaphthalen-1-yl-(1-pentylindol-3-yl)methanone (JWH-210). Laboratory investigations were conducted by liquid chromatography (LC)–ultraviolet spectroscopy, high-resolution accurate mass detection and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis. This combined analytical approach allowed the detection of illicit compounds for which reference materials were not available. To facilitate identification and to complete existing databases, ultraviolet spectra and NMR data of all seized products are presented. Additionally, LC–quadrupole time-of-flight data were recorded to provide absolute identification. [less ▲]

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See detailIsolation, pharmacological activity and structure determination of physalin B and 5[beta],6[beta]-ep­oxy­physalin B isolated from Congolese Physalis angulata L.
Mangwala Kimpende, P.; Lusakibanza, M.; Mesia, K. et al

in Acta Crystallographica Section C-Crystal Structure Communications (2013), C69

Physalis angulata L., an annual herb from the Solanaceae family, is widely used in popular medicine in tropical countries to treat a variety of diseases. Two products, (X) and (Y), were isolated from a ... [more ▼]

Physalis angulata L., an annual herb from the Solanaceae family, is widely used in popular medicine in tropical countries to treat a variety of diseases. Two products, (X) and (Y), were isolated from a crude CH2Cl2 extract of dried Congolese Physalis angulata L. plants and crystallized from acetone for structure elucidation. Compound (X) corresponds to a physalin B dimer acetone solvate hydrate (2C28H30O9·C3H6O·0.22H2O), while compound (Y) crystallizes as a mixed crystal containing two physalin B mol­ecules which overlap with 5[beta],6[beta]-ep­oxy­physalin B, also known as physalin F, and one acetone mol­ecule in the asymmetric unit (1.332C28H30O9·0.668C28H30O10·C3H6O). Anti­­plasmodial activity, cytotoxic activity and selectivity indices were determined for crude extracts and the two isolated products (X) and (Y). [less ▲]

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See detailPhenolic acid-rich extract of sweet basil restores cholesterol and triglycerides metabolism in high fat diet-fed mice: A comparison with fenofibrate
Harnafi, H.; Ramchoun, M.; Tits, Monique ULg et al

in Biomedicine & Preventive Nutrition (2013), 3(4), 393-397

Many spices are often added to foods as additives to enhance organoleptic qualities, such as flavor, aroma and color. Sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) family of Lamiaceae is widely used in cooking for ... [more ▼]

Many spices are often added to foods as additives to enhance organoleptic qualities, such as flavor, aroma and color. Sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) family of Lamiaceae is widely used in cooking for its culinary attributes. In this study, we aimed at the investigation of the hypocholesterolemic and hypotriglyceridemic activities of the basil phenolic acid-rich extract in high fat diet-induced hyperlipemic mice. Hyperlipemia was developed by a high fat diet containing cholesterol, lard and cholic acid. At the beginning of the experiment, animals were divided into three groups, one of them served as normolipidemic control group (NCG), the second hyperlipidemic control group (HCG) and the third basil-treated group (BTG). After 5 weeks of treatment, basil phenolic acid-rich extract significantly decreased plasma total cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL-cholesterol (-42%,-42% and -86%, respectively, P < 0.001). However, HDL-cholesterol was increased (+79%, P < 0.001). The extract reduced the atherogenic index and LDL/HDL-C ratio (-88% and -94%, respectively, P < 0.001). The reductions of liver total cholesterol and triglycerides were of -50% (P < 0.01) and -58% (P < 0.01), respectively. The hypolipemic effect of the phenolic acid-rich extract is comparable to that exerted by fenofibrate. This drug significantly reduced plasma total cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL-cholesterol (-25.5%, -51%, and -83.5%, respectively, P < 0.001) and increased plasma HDL-cholesterol (+136%, P < 0.001). On the other hand, fenofibrate significantly decreased atherogenic index and LDL/HDL-cholesterol ratio (-91% and -93%, respectively, P < 0.001). The fenofibrate decreased hepatic total cholesterol by 59.5% and triglycerides by 72%, respectively (P < 0.01). HPLC analysis led to identify four major compounds: caftaric acid, cafeic acid, chicoric acid and rosmarinic acid. In conclusion, the Sweet basil contains phenolic products that are able to lower hyperlipidemia and prevent atherosclerosis. © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailIdentification and Quantification of the Main Active Anticancer Alkaloids from the Root of Glaucium flavum
bournine, Lamine; Bensalem, Sihem; Wauters, Jean-Noël ULg et al

in International Journal of Molecular Sciences (2013), 14

Glaucium flavum is used in Algerian folk medicine to remove warts (benign tumors). Its local appellations are Cheqiq el-asfar and Qarn el-djedyane. We have recently reported the anti-tumoral activity of ... [more ▼]

Glaucium flavum is used in Algerian folk medicine to remove warts (benign tumors). Its local appellations are Cheqiq el-asfar and Qarn el-djedyane. We have recently reported the anti-tumoral activity of Glaucium flavum root alkaloid extract against human cancer cells, in vitro and in vivo. The principal identified alkaloid in the extract was protopine. This study aims to determine which component(s) of Glaucium flavum root extract might possess potent antitumor activity on human cancer cells. Quantitative estimation of Glaucium flavum alkaloids was realized by HPLC-DAD. Glaucium flavum effect on human normal and cancer cell viability was determined using WST-1 assay. Quantification of alkaloids in Glaucium flavum revealed that the dried root part contained 0.84% of protopine and 0.07% of bocconoline (w/w), while the dried aerial part contained only 0.08% of protopine, glaucine as the main alkaloid, and no bocconoline. In vitro evaluation of the growth inhibitory activity on breast cancer and normal cells demonstrated that purified protopine did not reproduce the full cytotoxic activity of the alkaloid root extract on cancer cell lines. On the other hand, bocconoline inhibited strongly the viability of cancer cells with an IC50 of 7.8 µM and only a low cytotoxic effect was observed against normal human cells. Our results showed for the first time that protopine is the major root alkaloid of Glaucium flavum. Finally, we are the first to demonstrate a specific anticancer effect of Glaucium flavum root extract against breast cancer cells, which can be attributed, at least in part, to bocconoline. [less ▲]

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See detailApplication de la résonance magnétique nucléaire (RMN) en toxicologie judiciaire
Denooz, Raphaël ULg; Frederich, Michel ULg; Charlier, Corinne ULg et al

in Acta Clinica Belgica (2013), 68(6), 470

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See detailIdentification and determination of alkaloids in Fumaria Species from Romania
Paltinean, Ramona; Toju, A; Wauters, Jean-Noël ULg et al

in Digest Journal of Nanomaterials & Biostructures [=DJNB] (2013), 8(2), 817-824

Four Fumaria species (F. vaillantii Loisel, F. parviflora Lam., F. rostellata Knaf and F. jankae Hausskn.) were analysed in order to determine the presence of the isoquinoline alkaloids allocryptopine ... [more ▼]

Four Fumaria species (F. vaillantii Loisel, F. parviflora Lam., F. rostellata Knaf and F. jankae Hausskn.) were analysed in order to determine the presence of the isoquinoline alkaloids allocryptopine, chelidonine, protopine, bicuculline, sanguinarine, cheleritrine, stylopine, and hydrastine through an HPLC-DAD method. Protopine and sanguinarine were present in all extracts. Bicuculline and stylopine were found in F. vaillantii and F. parviflora, whilst chelidonine was identified only in F. vaillantii and hydrastine in F. jankae, so they represent potential taxonomic markers that differentiate the four plants. The richest species in isoquinoline alkaloids was F. parviflora. Our study showed significant differences between the four Fumaria species, both qualitative and quantitative. [less ▲]

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See detailComparative morphological studies on some species of the genus Fumaria
Paltinean, Ramona; Wauters, Jean-Noël ULg; Tits, Monique ULg et al

in Farmacia (2013), 61(2), 371-377

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See detailAntiparasitic hybrids of Cinchona alkaloids and bile acids.
Leverrier, Aurelie; Bero, Joanne; Frederich, Michel ULg et al

in European journal of medicinal chemistry (2013), 66

A series of 16 hybrids of Cinchona alkaloids and bile acids (4a-h, 5a-h) was prepared by means of a Barton-Zard decarboxylation reaction. Quinine, quinidine, cinchonine and cinchonidine were ... [more ▼]

A series of 16 hybrids of Cinchona alkaloids and bile acids (4a-h, 5a-h) was prepared by means of a Barton-Zard decarboxylation reaction. Quinine, quinidine, cinchonine and cinchonidine were functionalized at position C-2 of the quinoline nucleus by radical attack of a norcholane substituent. The newly synthesized hybrids were evaluated in vitro for their antitrypanosomal, antileishmanial and antiplasmodial activities, along with their cytotoxicity against WI38, a normal human fibroblast cell line. Seven compounds (4d, 4f, 4h, 5b, 5d, 5f, 5h) showed promising trypanocidal activity with IC(5)(0) values in the same range as the commercial drug suramine. Moreover all the 16 hybrids showed antiplasmodial activity (IC(5)(0) </= 6 mug/ml), particularly those containing a nor-chenodeoxycholane moiety (4b, 4d, 4f, 4h, 5b, 5d, 5f, 5h) with IC(5)(0) values comparable to those of the natural alkaloids, and selectivity indices in the range of 5.6-15.7. [less ▲]

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See detailRevealing the anti-tumoral effect of Algerian Glaucium flavum roots against human cancer cells.
Bournine, Lamine; Bensalem, Sihem; Peixoto, Paul ULg et al

in Phytomedicine : International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology (2013), 20(13), 1211-1218

Glaucium flavum (G. flavum) is a plant from the Papaveraceae family native to Algeria where it is used in local traditional medicine to treat warts. G. flavum root crude alkaloid extract inhibited breast ... [more ▼]

Glaucium flavum (G. flavum) is a plant from the Papaveraceae family native to Algeria where it is used in local traditional medicine to treat warts. G. flavum root crude alkaloid extract inhibited breast cancer cell proliferation and induced G2/M phase cycle arrest and apoptosis without affecting normal cells, which is a highly awaited feature of potential anti-cancer agents. G. flavum significantly reduced growth and vascularization of human glioma tumors on chicken chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) in vivo. The chromatographic profile of the dichloromethane extract of G. flavum root showed the presence of different constituents including the isoquinoline alkaloid protopine, as the major compound. We report for the first time that G. flavum extract may represent a new promising agent for cancer chemotherapy. [less ▲]

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See detailIn vivo antimalarial activity of Keetia leucantha twigs extracts and in vitro antiplasmodial effect of their constituents.
Bero, Joanne; Herent, Marie-France; Schmeda-Hirschmann, Guillermo et al

in Journal of Ethnopharmacology (2013), 149(1), 176-83

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The West African tree Keetia leucantha (Rubiaceae) is used in traditional medicine in Benin to treat malaria. The twigs dichloromethane extract was previously shown to ... [more ▼]

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The West African tree Keetia leucantha (Rubiaceae) is used in traditional medicine in Benin to treat malaria. The twigs dichloromethane extract was previously shown to inhibit in vitro Plasmodium falciparum growth with no cytotoxicity (>100microg/ml on human normal fibroblasts). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The dichloromethane and aqueous extracts of twigs of K. leucantha were evaluated in vivo against Plasmodium berghei NK 173 by the 4-day suppressive test and in vitro against a chloroquine-sensitive strain of Plasmodium falciparum (3D7) using the measurement of the plasmodial lactate dehydrogenase activity. Bioguided fractionations were realized and compounds were structurally elucidated using extensive spectroscopic analysis. RESULTS: The in vivo antimalarial activity of K. leucantha dichloromethane and aqueous twigs extracts were assessed in mice at the dose of 200mg/kg/day. Both extracts exhibited significant effect in inhibiting parasite growth by 56.8% and 53.0% (p<0.0001) on day 7-postinfection. An LC-MS analysis and bioguided fractionations on the twigs dichloromethane extract led to the isolation and structural determination of scopoletin (1), stigmasterol (2), three phenolic compounds: vanillin (3), hydroxybenzaldehyde (4) and ferulaldehyde (5), eight triterpenic esters (6-13), oleanolic acid and ursolic acid. The antiplasmodial activity of the mixture of the eight triterpenic esters showed an antiplasmodial activity of 1.66+/-0.54microg/ml on the 3D7 strain, and the same range of activity was observed for isolated isomers mixtures. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report on the in vivo activity of K. leucantha extracts, the isolation of thirteen compounds and analysis of their antiplasmodial activity. The results obtained may partially justify the traditional use of K. leucantha to treat malaria in Benin. [less ▲]

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See detailIs artemisinin the only antiplasmodial compound in the Artemisia annua tea infusion? An in vitro study.
Mouton, Julia; Jansen, Olivia ULg; Frederich, Michel ULg et al

in Planta Medica (2013), 79(6), 468-70

In our ongoing investigation into Artemisia annua for the treatment of malaria, we decided to study the possibility that synergism might enhance the efficacy of artemisinin. Our main objective was to test ... [more ▼]

In our ongoing investigation into Artemisia annua for the treatment of malaria, we decided to study the possibility that synergism might enhance the efficacy of artemisinin. Our main objective was to test tea infusions and nonpolar extracts prepared from different A. annua varieties against Plasmodium falciparum in vitro in order to determine if synergism will increase the effectiveness of artemisinin in the samples as compared to pure artemisinin. We found that the IC50 of artemisinin in the tea and nonpolar extracts was not significantly different to the IC50 of pure artemisinin. We could show that the year and country of harvest or storage conditions did not have any influence on the activity and that it narrowly followed the concentration of artemisinin in all the extracts. In conclusion, based on these in vitro results, artemisinin seems to be the only active antiplasmodial compound in A. annua. [less ▲]

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See detailDimeric bisindole alkaloids from the stem bark of Strychnos nux-vomica L.
Jonville, Marie-Caroline ULg; Dive, Georges ULg; Angenot, Luc ULg et al

in Phytochemistry (2013), 87

Strychnos nux-vomica L. (Loganiaceae) is famous for its monomeric alkaloid content, such as strychnine, a convulsant poison. The stem bark of the tree is traditionally used to treat intermittent fever in ... [more ▼]

Strychnos nux-vomica L. (Loganiaceae) is famous for its monomeric alkaloid content, such as strychnine, a convulsant poison. The stem bark of the tree is traditionally used to treat intermittent fever in South East Asia. In various studies, it appeared that dimeric indolo-monoterpenic alkaloids possess a promising activity on Plasmodium falciparum. Three bisindolomonoterpenic alkaloids together with strychnochrysine, previously identified in the root bark of S. nux-vomica, were isolated from the stem bark. The structures of these compounds were established using NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. Stereochemistry of the compounds was confirmed by molecular modelling. This then allowed the structural determination of strychnoflavine, a coloured bisindole alkaloid previously isolated from the root bark of the tree. Moreover, the conformational inversion in alkaloids possessing an ether bond in the strychnane moiety could be easily predicted by specific δ 13C NMR values. These longicaudatine-type alkaloids were found to display in vitro antiplasmodial activity against a chloroquine resistant strain and a chloroquine sensitive strain. The most interesting was strychnochrysine showing an IC 50 value at around 10 μM. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailPlantes Médicinales Antipaludiques de l'île de la Réunion
Frederich, Michel ULg; Jonville, Marie-Caroline ULg; Grondin, Isabelle et al

Conference (2012, November 06)

Detailed reference viewed: 28 (3 ULg)