References of "Franssen, Jean-Marc"
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See detailDesign of Tubular Steel Sections. Training and Education for the Implementation of Eurocode 3
Boissonnade, Nicolas; Fleischer, Oliver; Franssen, Jean-Marc ULg et al

Learning material (2009)

Both steel and concrete suffer a progressive reduction in both strength and stiffness as their temperature increases in fire conditions. Eurocode 3 and Eurocode 4 provide material models for both ... [more ▼]

Both steel and concrete suffer a progressive reduction in both strength and stiffness as their temperature increases in fire conditions. Eurocode 3 and Eurocode 4 provide material models for both materials over an extensive range of temperatures; Fire resistance of structural elements is quoted as the time at which they cannot maintain their load bearing capacity; It is possible to assess the severity of a natural fire for a particular steel element as a time-equivalent between the peak temperature in the steel element and the same temperature in the element submitted to the ISO834 standard curve; The behaviour of separate elements is very different from that of a complete building frame, but the only practical way of assessing whole-structure behaviour is to use advanced calculation models; Traditional fire protection of steelwork is by covering it with insulating material during construction. However it may be possible under Eurocode 3 to use a combination of passive and active strategies to ensure fire resistance; Eurocode 3 calculation of fire resistance takes account of the loading level on the element, with values of the safety factors lower than those used at room temperatures; Fire resistance may be calculated in terms of time, as a load-bearing resistance at a certain time, or as a critical element temperature appropriate to the load level and required time of exposure; Critical temperature is calculated from a single equation in terms of the load level in fire for members of Classes 1, 2 or 3 sections if there is no instability phenomena involved. Class 4 sections are universally assumed to have a critical temperature of 350°C, but higher critical temperatures can be obtained by calculation; Eurocode 3 provides simple calculations for the load resistance in fire of all types of elements. In cases where the strength is controlled by buckling, a buckling curve that is particular for the fire situation has to be used. The slenderness of the element is temperature dependent; It is possible to calculate the temperature growth of protected or unprotected members in small time increments, in a way which can easily be implemented on a spreadsheet. [less ▲]

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See detailInfluence of gas species on backdraft probability using a diffusion flame limits criterion
Pérez Jiménez, Christian; Franssen, Jean-Marc ULg; Karlsson, Bjorn

in Journal of Fire Sciences (2009), 27(2), 143-156

Backdraft is a limited-ventilation fire phenomenon closely linked to the unburnt gases accumulated in the fire compartment just before creating an opening that allows a new supply of oxygen to enter the ... [more ▼]

Backdraft is a limited-ventilation fire phenomenon closely linked to the unburnt gases accumulated in the fire compartment just before creating an opening that allows a new supply of oxygen to enter the compartment. The aim of this article is to help understanding the influence of gas species such as hydrocarbon CmHn, water, carbon dioxide, oxygen, and nitrogen on backdraft probability. The influence of increasing the number of moles of the above gas species as well as the number of atoms of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in the fuel composition is analyzed. For this purpose, a diffusion flame limit criterion based on Le Chatelier's rule is used. In order to verify the obtained results, validation with 41 backdraft experiments is carried out. [less ▲]

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See detailInfluence of ostacles on the development of gravity current prior to backdraft
Pérez-Jiménez, Christian; Guigay, Georges Jan; Horvat, Andrej et al

in Fire Technology (2009)

The phenomenon of backdraft is closely linked to the formation of a flammable region due to the mixing process between the unburned gases accumulated in the compartment and the fresh air entering the ... [more ▼]

The phenomenon of backdraft is closely linked to the formation of a flammable region due to the mixing process between the unburned gases accumulated in the compartment and the fresh air entering the compartment through a recently created opening. The flow of incoming fresh air is called the gravity current. Gravity current prior to backdraft has already been studied, Fleischmann (1993, Backdraft phenomena, NIST-GCR-94-646. University of California, Berkeley) and Fleischmann (1999, Numerical and experimental gravity currents related to backdrafts, Fire Safety Journal); Weng et al. (2002, Exp Fluids 33:398–404), but all simulations and experiments found in the current literature are systematically based on a perfectly regular volume, usually parallelipedic in shape, without any piece of furniture or equipment in the compartment. Yet, various obstacles are normally found in real compartments and the question is whether they affect the gravity current velocity and the level of mixing between fresh and vitiated gases. In the work reported here, gravity current prior to backdraft in compartment with obstacles is investigated by means of three-dimensional CFD numerical simulations. These simulations use as a reference case the backdraft experiment test carried out by Gojkovic (2000, Initial Backdraft. Department of Fire Safety Engineering, Lunds Tekniska Ho¨ gskola Universitet, Report 3121). The Froude number, the transit time and the ignition time are obtained from the computations and compared to the tests in order to validate the model. [less ▲]

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See detailRecherches menées à l'Université de Liège dans le domaine du béton en 2008-2009
Dotreppe, Jean-Claude ULg; Franssen, Jean-Marc ULg; Somja, Hugues et al

Conference given outside the academic context (2009)

Composite steel-concrete columns made of CFSHS filled with self compacting concrete under ambaint temperature and in the fire situation. Design equation for the buckling of high strength concrete columns ... [more ▼]

Composite steel-concrete columns made of CFSHS filled with self compacting concrete under ambaint temperature and in the fire situation. Design equation for the buckling of high strength concrete columns subkected to compression and bending. Improvement of the textural quality of concrete with hydraulic binders. Influence of the reutilisation of OSB panels shuttering on the colour and texture of concrete surfaces. Non destructive methods for the detection of delamination in the decks of concrete bridges [less ▲]

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See detailStructural Fire Engineering of Building Assemblies and Frames
Franssen, Jean-Marc ULg; Iwankiw, Nestor

in DiNenno, Philip J.; Drysdale, Douglas; Beyler, Craig L. (Eds.) et al The SFPE Handbook of Fire Protection Engineering (Fourth Edition) (2009)

Use of the temperature-dependent, thermophysical material properties, shape geometry, and fundamental heat transfer and structural principles, in combination with available fire test data, can enable ... [more ▼]

Use of the temperature-dependent, thermophysical material properties, shape geometry, and fundamental heat transfer and structural principles, in combination with available fire test data, can enable several distinct levels of engineering/calculation methods of fire resistance. The simpler computational methods, such as those in ASCE/SFPE 29-99,1 are semi-empirically based on standard fire test results. They provide an efficient and generally conservative way to provide fire resistance ratings for members and assemblies that do not directly match listed assemblies to meet prescriptive code requirements. Higher order fire simulations and structural analyses can also be used as performance-based design alternatives to achieve a more accurate solution to overall fire safety. Substantial fire-induced damage is expected after a severe (fully developed or postflashover) fire exposure, not only to the building contents and finish but also to the structural elements. It is not uncommon for well-designed, ductile, and properly functioning fire-resistive framing systems to experience visible distortions, cracking, permanent damage, and deflections in floor, walls, or columns than can be on the order of 12 to 24 inches (300 to 600 mm), or more, without collapse. In the following sections, several computational approaches to the determination of the fire resistance of building construction are summarized, independent of any requirements of a particular building code or design standard. These can be considered generally applicable to any structural material. The specific provisions of the governing building code and design standard(s) for a given project must be consulted for any engineering applications. [less ▲]

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See detailDesigning Steel Structures for Fire Safety
Franssen, Jean-Marc ULg; Kodur, Venkatesh; Zaharia, Raul

Book published by Taylor & Françis Ed. (2009)

In this book the information relevant to fire design of steel structures is presented in a systematic way in seven chapters. Each Chapter begins with an introduction of various concepts to be covered and ... [more ▼]

In this book the information relevant to fire design of steel structures is presented in a systematic way in seven chapters. Each Chapter begins with an introduction of various concepts to be covered and follows with detailed explanation of the concepts. The calculation methods as relevant to code provisions (in Europe, North America or other continents) are discussed in detail. Worked examples relevant to calculation methodologies on simple structural elements are presented. For the case of complete structures guidance on how analysis can be carried out is presented. Chapter 1 of the book is devoted to providing relevant background information to codes and standards and principles of fire resistance design. The chapter discusses the fire safety design philosophies, prescriptive and performance-based design fire safety design issues. Chapter 2 deals with basis of design and mechanical loads. The load combinations to be considered for fire design of structures, as per European and North American codes and standards, are discussed. Chapter 3 discusses the detailed steps involved in establishing the fire scenarios for various cases. Both Eurocode and North American temperature-time relationships are discussed. Procedures in this section allow the designer to establish the time-temperature relationships or heat flux evolutions under a specified design fire. Chapter 4 deals with steps associated in establishing the temperature history in the steel structure, resulting from fire temperature. The various approaches for undertaking thermal analysis by simple calculation models are discussed. Chapter 5 presents the steps associated for establishing the mechanical response of a structure exposed to fire. The possibilities for analysis at different levels: member level, sub-structure level and global level are discussed. Full details related to simple calculation methods for undertaking strength analysis at member level are presented. Chapter 6 is devoted to fire resistance issues associated with design of joints. The steps associated with the fire resistance of a bolted or a welded joint through simplified and detailed procedure are discussed. Chapter 7 deals with thermal and mechanical analysis through advanced calculation models. The procedures involved in the sub-structure analysis or global structural analysis under fire exposure is fully discussed. Case studies are presented to illustrate the detailed fire resistance analysis of various structures. Chapter 8 presents four design examples showing how a complex structure can be designed using the concept of element or sub-structure analysis. The book concludes with two Annexes which present some of the design information related to material properties and temperature profiles. Annex 1 focuses on thermal properties of structural steel and commonly used insulation materials and resulting temperature profiles in steel. Annex 2 focuses on mechanical properties of structural steel. [less ▲]

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See detailComparison between the charring rate model and the conductive model of Eurocode 5
Cachim, Paulo B.; Franssen, Jean-Marc ULg

in Fire & Materials (2009), 33

Eurocode 5, Part 1-2, presents several models for the calculation of fire resistance of timber structures. These models are based on the hypothesis that for temperatures above 300°C, wood is no longer ... [more ▼]

Eurocode 5, Part 1-2, presents several models for the calculation of fire resistance of timber structures. These models are based on the hypothesis that for temperatures above 300°C, wood is no longer able to sustain any stress, which makes the determination of the location of the 300°C isotherm decisive for the result provided by the models. In this paper, the charring rate model and the conductive model presented in Eurocode 5, part 1-2 are compared regarding the determination of the location of 300°C isotherm. The main wood parameters investigated are density, moisture content and anisotropy. the almost complete independence of the charring rate model from these parameters leads to some inconsistencies between the models. To reduce thse inconsistencies some proposals to improve the conductive and the charring rate models are presented. [less ▲]

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See detailNumerical Evaluation of Load induced Thermal Strain in restraint Structures compared with an Experimental Study on reinforced Concrete Columns
Schneider, Ulrich; Schneider, Martin; Franssen, Jean-Marc ULg

in Conference Proceedings Fire and Materials 2009 (2009)

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See detailCalculation of a Tunnel Cross Section Subjected to Fire
Schneider, U.; Schneider, M.; Franssen, Jean-Marc ULg

in Acta Polytechnica (2009), 49(1/2009), 44-55

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See detailNumerical modelling of timber connections under fire loading using a component model
Cachim, Paulo B.; Franssen, Jean-Marc ULg

in Fire Safety Journal (2009), 44

This paper describes a component model for dowelled timber connections under fire loading. The component model of the dowelled connection is first developed and calibrated for room temperature. The ... [more ▼]

This paper describes a component model for dowelled timber connections under fire loading. The component model of the dowelled connection is first developed and calibrated for room temperature. The constitutive relations for dowel–timber interaction are detailed and compared with experimental results. In the fire situation, a two-step approach is used: first, three-dimensional (3D) thermal analysis of the connection is performed using a conductive model with timber properties defined in Eurocode 5 in order to calculate the temperatures in the fasteners and timber; afterwards, the mechanical analysis using a component model is carried out using mechanical properties of the steel dowel and of timber adjusted to the temperatures obtained by the thermal analyses. These properties are reduced according to Eurocode 3 and Eurocode 5, respectively. Numerical simulations are presented that allow evaluation of the model behaviour and performance. Obtained results show good agreement with available experimental data, indicating that regardless of its simplicity, the component model has the capability to accurately model timber connections under fire loading [less ▲]

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See detailVérification de la résistance au feu des poteaux en béton armé
Benmehidi, Nadia; Franssen, Jean-Marc ULg; Guenfoud, M.

in Saha, O.; Mouli, M. (Eds.) Performance of Concrete Structures. New Design Concept and Modelling (2009)

This paper is devoted to nonlinear numerical modeling of reinforced concrete columns subjected to fire. In this work we analyze reinforced concrete columns loaded by eccentric compressive forces and ... [more ▼]

This paper is devoted to nonlinear numerical modeling of reinforced concrete columns subjected to fire. In this work we analyze reinforced concrete columns loaded by eccentric compressive forces and exposed to a standard fire. That the columns have an extremely important role in building, the verification of fire resistance in fire conditions is crucial. The analysis is divided into two steps. In the first step we make the thermal study of column. It follows the temperatures depending of time that we use in the second stage for the mechanical study, where we get the variation of different parameters such as bending moment, stresses, displacements and tangent modulus. [less ▲]

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See detailOverview of fire design
Wang, Y. C.; Franssen, Jean-Marc ULg; Heinisuo et al

in Urban Habitat Constructions under catastrophic events - Technical sheets – Fire Resistance (2009)

Detailed reference viewed: 39 (1 ULg)
See detailGlobal modelling of structures in fire
Gillie, Martin; Burgess, Ian; Franssen, Jean-Marc ULg et al

in Urban Habitat Constructions under catastrophic events - Technical sheets – Fire Resistance (2009)

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See detailFire Performance of undamaged and pre-damaged welded steel-concrete composite beam-to-column joints with concrete filled tubes
Alderighi, Elisabetta; Bursi, Oreste; Franssen, Jean-Marc ULg et al

Conference (2008, October)

Major earthquakes in urban areas have often been followed by significant conflagrations that have been difficult to control and have resulted in extensive damage to property. Earthquakes, then, increase ... [more ▼]

Major earthquakes in urban areas have often been followed by significant conflagrations that have been difficult to control and have resulted in extensive damage to property. Earthquakes, then, increase the risk of loss of life if a fire occurs within a building. It is obvious therefore that a fire after an earthquake is a design scenario that should be properly addressed in any performance-based design, in locations where significant earthquakes can occur. In this paper both experimental and numerical results of undamaged and pre-damaged welded steel-concrete composite beam-to-column joints with concrete filled tubes are described as part of a European project aimed at developing fundamental data, design guidelines and prequalification of ductile and fire resistant composite beam-to-column joints. In detail, both the experimental program and the fire experimental results are presented and discussed in this paper together with thermal numerical simulations on frames and joints. Both the experimental activity and the numerical work demonstrated the adequacy of the seismic and joint fire design. [less ▲]

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See detailUnprotected Composite Frames with CHS Columns. Performance under Fire Loadings
Alderighi, Elisabetta; Franssen, Jean-Marc ULg; Salvatore, W.

in Ofner (Ed.) Proceedings of the 5th European Conference on Steel and Composite Structures (2008)

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See detailBaulicher Brandschutz
Schneider, Ulrich; Franssen, Jean-Marc ULg; Lebeda, Christian

Book published by Bauwerk Verlag, GmbH - 2nd edition (2008)

This book contains: fire safety concepts as a base for fire safety of building constructions; fire safety requirements ; etc

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See detailComparative study of analytical formulae for the fire resistance of steel beam-columns
Talamona, D.; Castagne, S.; Lopes, N. et al

in Kodur; Tan (Eds.) Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference Structures in Fire (2008)

This paper investigates the difference between the buckling formulae published in the Eurocode 3 part 1.2 and the recommendations made in the final report of the Buckling Curves in Case of Fire (BCCF ... [more ▼]

This paper investigates the difference between the buckling formulae published in the Eurocode 3 part 1.2 and the recommendations made in the final report of the Buckling Curves in Case of Fire (BCCF) research project. This study compares the critical temperatures obtained with both formulations to assess the impact on the fire endurance of steel columns subjected to axial compression and bending. An extensive comparison of the ultimate temperatures obtained with both formulations has been performed (382 profiles, buckling about the strong and weak axis, 12 column lengths, 6 M/N ratios and uniform and triangular bending moment distributions). Failure temperatures between 400°C and 860°C have been considered. The formulations are also compared with Finite Elements (F.E.) calculations performed for a S235 HEA 200 at 600ºC. This analysis shows that for buckling about the strong axis the BCCF method is better than the EC3 but for buckling about the weak axis the EC3 predicts failure temperatures closer to the F.E. model than the BCCF formulation. Finally, the ultimate temperatures predicted by the two formulations have also been compared with experimental results from the database SCOFIDAT. This comparison shows that there is no major difference between the two formulations for small and large bending moments. This study concludes that the EC3 and BCCF formulations are generally equivalent and that either formulation can be used. [less ▲]

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