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See detailFire Design of Steel Structures : Eurocode 1: Actions on structures. Part 1-2: Actions on structures exposed to fire: Eurocode 3: Design of steel structures: Part 1-2: Structural fire design
Franssen, Jean-Marc ULg; Vila Real, Paulo

Book published by Ernst & Sohn (2010)

This book explains and illustrates the rules that are given in the Eurocodes for designing steel structures subjected to fire. After the first introductory chapter, Chapter 2 explains how to calculate the ... [more ▼]

This book explains and illustrates the rules that are given in the Eurocodes for designing steel structures subjected to fire. After the first introductory chapter, Chapter 2 explains how to calculate the mechanical actions (loads) in the fire situation based on the information given in EN 1990 and EN 1991. Chapter 3 presents the models to be used to represent the thermal actions created by the fire. Chapter 4 describes the procedures to be used to calculate the temperature of the steelwork from the temperature of the compartment and Chapter 5 shows how the information given in EN 1993-1-2 is used to determine the load bearing capacity of the steel structure. The methods use to evaluate the fire resistance of bolted and welded connections are described in Chapter 7. Chapter 8 describes a computer program called ‘Elefire-EN’ which is based on the simple calculation model given in the Eurocode and allows designers to quickly and accurately calculate the performance of steel components in the fire situation. Chapter 9 looks at the issues that a designer may be faced with when assessing the fire resistance of a complete building. This is done via a case study and addresses most of the concepts presented in the earlier Chapters. Finally the annexes give basic information on the thermal and mechanical properties for both carbon steel and stainless steel. The concepts and fire engineering procedures given in the Eurocodes may seem complex to those more familiar with the prescriptive approach. This publication sets out the design process in a logical manner giving practical and helpful advice and easy to follow worked examples that will allow designers to exploit the benefits of this new approach to fire design. [less ▲]

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See detailBehaviour of single sided composite joints at room temperature and in case of fire after an earthquake
Demonceau, Jean-François ULg; Hanus, François ULg; Jaspart, Jean-Pierre ULg et al

in International Journal of Steel Structures (2009), 9(4), 329-342

In 2003, a European research program entitled “PRECIOUS - Prefabricated composite beam-to-concrete filled tube or partially reinforced-concrete-encased column connections for severe seismic and fire ... [more ▼]

In 2003, a European research program entitled “PRECIOUS - Prefabricated composite beam-to-concrete filled tube or partially reinforced-concrete-encased column connections for severe seismic and fire loadings” and funded by the Research Fund for Coal and Steel (RFCS) was initiated for three years (Bursi et al, 2008). The objective of this project was to develop fundamental data, design guidelines and prequalification tools for two types of composite beam-to-column joints able to ensure a suitable behaviour during an earthquake and its eventual subsequent fire. At the University of Liege, as part of this project, analytical and numerical investigations were conducted mainly on single-sided beam-to-column composite joints at room and at elevated temperatures. The present paper summarizes the activities developed within this project and presents the main achievements. [less ▲]

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See detailFire resistance of a steel structure subjected to a localised fire
Franssen, Jean-Marc ULg; alonso, Alain

Report (2009)

The fire resistance of a light weight steel structure is analised under a localised fire.

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See detailCIMEDE : Pré-dimensionnement des solutions de plancher
Peigneux, Christophe ULg; Franssen, Jean-Marc ULg

Report (2009)

Ce présent rapport a pour but d’expliquer la démarche de dimensionnement poursuivie pour les 6 solutions de plancher retenues. Ce rapport ne fournit pas un dimensionnement exact des structures de plancher ... [more ▼]

Ce présent rapport a pour but d’expliquer la démarche de dimensionnement poursuivie pour les 6 solutions de plancher retenues. Ce rapport ne fournit pas un dimensionnement exact des structures de plancher étudiées mais fournit un pré-dimensionnement. Ce dernier a été réalisé sur base d’une série d’hypothèses permettant de simplifier le modèle de calcul. Les dimensions obtenues ne sont dès lors probablement pas les dimensions exactes des éléments structurels mais permettent d’obtenir un ordre de grandeur des dimensions et de la quantité de matériau nécessaire. Le pré-dimensionnement est effectué sur base de l’Eurocode EN 1995-1-1 pour les solutions en bois et EN 1994-1-1 pour les solutions mixtes acier-béton. L’hypothèse principale que nous effectuons est de supposer une connexion complète entre les différents éléments dans le cas d’une solution mixte (acier-béton, bois-bois, bois-acier, …). Cette hypothèse engendre comme conséquence directe que nous sous-estimons les flèches. En effet, nous négligeons le glissement qui pourrait se produire à l’interface des éléments. Pour contre à cela, nous garderons une réserve de l’ordre de 20% sur les flèches par rapport à la limite admissible. En effet, en phase de pré-dimensionnement, il n’est pas judicieux de déjà procéder au calcul des connecteurs et donc à la détermination du degré de connexion entre éléments. [less ▲]

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See detailToepassingsgebiet ontwerpsoftware
Franssen, Jean-Marc ULg

Conference given outside the academic context (2009)

This Powerpoint presentation compares the results provided by the simple calculation model and the general calculation model for the calculation of the fire resistance of simple structural members ... [more ▼]

This Powerpoint presentation compares the results provided by the simple calculation model and the general calculation model for the calculation of the fire resistance of simple structural members subjected to fire. [less ▲]

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See detailFire resistance of long span cellular beam made of rolled profiles (FICEB) report: Ulster test numerical simulation
Gernay, Thomas ULg; Franssen, Jean-Marc ULg

Report (2009)

In the Ulster fire test, a large scale composite floor using cellular beams connected to composite slabs will be tested under natural fire. The particularity of the composite floor in this test is that ... [more ▼]

In the Ulster fire test, a large scale composite floor using cellular beams connected to composite slabs will be tested under natural fire. The particularity of the composite floor in this test is that certain cellular beams will be without any fire protection in order to investigate the contribution of membrane effect to overall fire resistance. However, cellular beams could behave in a very different way compared to traditional steel beams because of risk of local phenomenon. The aim of this study was to build a complex FE Model of whole composite floor system with long span cellular beams connected to composite slab in order to take account of 3D membrane effect. This permitted, on the one hand, to find out the right numerical model for this type of composite floor, and on the other hand to define the appropriate structure to be used for the full scale fire test. In order to achieve this latter purpose, a sensitivity study has be carried out in which determinant parameters for ensuring a good membrane effect have been investigated. [less ▲]

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See detailUtilisation du bois dans la construction - Essai de résistance au feu sur un escalier en bois
Franssen, Jean-Marc ULg; Lansival, Jean-Baptiste; Wellens, Eric ULg et al

Report (2009)

A fire resistance test has been performed on a short staircase made of wood. It was made of 6 steps, 3 made of oak and 3 made of beech, all with different thicknesses. All 6 steps were loaded by mass. The ... [more ▼]

A fire resistance test has been performed on a short staircase made of wood. It was made of 6 steps, 3 made of oak and 3 made of beech, all with different thicknesses. All 6 steps were loaded by mass. The pyrolysis rate as well as the time of collapse was observed for each step. [less ▲]

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See detailStatistical report of the Egolf round-robin Nr TC2 09-1 in fire resistance testing
Dumont, Fabien ULg; Wellens, Eric ULg; Franssen, Jean-Marc ULg

Report (2009)

This document reports the statistical analysis conducted on the raw data issued from the TC2 09-1 round-robin performed by 31 Egolf fire testing laboratories. The test specimen is a gypsum plaster board ... [more ▼]

This document reports the statistical analysis conducted on the raw data issued from the TC2 09-1 round-robin performed by 31 Egolf fire testing laboratories. The test specimen is a gypsum plaster board partition tested according to EN 1364-1. [less ▲]

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See detailDesign of Tubular Steel Sections. Training and Education for the Implementation of Eurocode 3
Boissonnade, Nicolas; Fleischer, Oliver; Franssen, Jean-Marc ULg et al

Learning material (2009)

Both steel and concrete suffer a progressive reduction in both strength and stiffness as their temperature increases in fire conditions. Eurocode 3 and Eurocode 4 provide material models for both ... [more ▼]

Both steel and concrete suffer a progressive reduction in both strength and stiffness as their temperature increases in fire conditions. Eurocode 3 and Eurocode 4 provide material models for both materials over an extensive range of temperatures; Fire resistance of structural elements is quoted as the time at which they cannot maintain their load bearing capacity; It is possible to assess the severity of a natural fire for a particular steel element as a time-equivalent between the peak temperature in the steel element and the same temperature in the element submitted to the ISO834 standard curve; The behaviour of separate elements is very different from that of a complete building frame, but the only practical way of assessing whole-structure behaviour is to use advanced calculation models; Traditional fire protection of steelwork is by covering it with insulating material during construction. However it may be possible under Eurocode 3 to use a combination of passive and active strategies to ensure fire resistance; Eurocode 3 calculation of fire resistance takes account of the loading level on the element, with values of the safety factors lower than those used at room temperatures; Fire resistance may be calculated in terms of time, as a load-bearing resistance at a certain time, or as a critical element temperature appropriate to the load level and required time of exposure; Critical temperature is calculated from a single equation in terms of the load level in fire for members of Classes 1, 2 or 3 sections if there is no instability phenomena involved. Class 4 sections are universally assumed to have a critical temperature of 350°C, but higher critical temperatures can be obtained by calculation; Eurocode 3 provides simple calculations for the load resistance in fire of all types of elements. In cases where the strength is controlled by buckling, a buckling curve that is particular for the fire situation has to be used. The slenderness of the element is temperature dependent; It is possible to calculate the temperature growth of protected or unprotected members in small time increments, in a way which can easily be implemented on a spreadsheet. [less ▲]

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See detailInfluence of gas species on backdraft probability using a diffusion flame limits criterion
Pérez Jiménez, Christian; Franssen, Jean-Marc ULg; Karlsson, Bjorn

in Journal of Fire Sciences (2009), 27(2), 143-156

Backdraft is a limited-ventilation fire phenomenon closely linked to the unburnt gases accumulated in the fire compartment just before creating an opening that allows a new supply of oxygen to enter the ... [more ▼]

Backdraft is a limited-ventilation fire phenomenon closely linked to the unburnt gases accumulated in the fire compartment just before creating an opening that allows a new supply of oxygen to enter the compartment. The aim of this article is to help understanding the influence of gas species such as hydrocarbon CmHn, water, carbon dioxide, oxygen, and nitrogen on backdraft probability. The influence of increasing the number of moles of the above gas species as well as the number of atoms of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in the fuel composition is analyzed. For this purpose, a diffusion flame limit criterion based on Le Chatelier's rule is used. In order to verify the obtained results, validation with 41 backdraft experiments is carried out. [less ▲]

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See detailInfluence of obstacles on the development of gravity current prior to backdraft
Pérez-Jiménez, Christian; Guigay, Georges Jan; Horvat, Andrej et al

in Fire Technology (2009)

The phenomenon of backdraft is closely linked to the formation of a flammable region due to the mixing process between the unburned gases accumulated in the compartment and the fresh air entering the ... [more ▼]

The phenomenon of backdraft is closely linked to the formation of a flammable region due to the mixing process between the unburned gases accumulated in the compartment and the fresh air entering the compartment through a recently created opening. The flow of incoming fresh air is called the gravity current. Gravity current prior to backdraft has already been studied, Fleischmann (1993, Backdraft phenomena, NIST-GCR-94-646. University of California, Berkeley) and Fleischmann (1999, Numerical and experimental gravity currents related to backdrafts, Fire Safety Journal); Weng et al. (2002, Exp Fluids 33:398–404), but all simulations and experiments found in the current literature are systematically based on a perfectly regular volume, usually parallelipedic in shape, without any piece of furniture or equipment in the compartment. Yet, various obstacles are normally found in real compartments and the question is whether they affect the gravity current velocity and the level of mixing between fresh and vitiated gases. In the work reported here, gravity current prior to backdraft in compartment with obstacles is investigated by means of three-dimensional CFD numerical simulations. These simulations use as a reference case the backdraft experiment test carried out by Gojkovic (2000, Initial Backdraft. Department of Fire Safety Engineering, Lunds Tekniska Ho¨ gskola Universitet, Report 3121). The Froude number, the transit time and the ignition time are obtained from the computations and compared to the tests in order to validate the model. [less ▲]

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See detailRecherches menées à l'Université de Liège dans le domaine du béton en 2008-2009
Dotreppe, Jean-Claude ULg; Franssen, Jean-Marc ULg; Somja, Hugues et al

Conference given outside the academic context (2009)

Composite steel-concrete columns made of CFSHS filled with self compacting concrete under ambaint temperature and in the fire situation. Design equation for the buckling of high strength concrete columns ... [more ▼]

Composite steel-concrete columns made of CFSHS filled with self compacting concrete under ambaint temperature and in the fire situation. Design equation for the buckling of high strength concrete columns subkected to compression and bending. Improvement of the textural quality of concrete with hydraulic binders. Influence of the reutilisation of OSB panels shuttering on the colour and texture of concrete surfaces. Non destructive methods for the detection of delamination in the decks of concrete bridges [less ▲]

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See detailStructural Fire Engineering of Building Assemblies and Frames
Franssen, Jean-Marc ULg; Iwankiw, Nestor

in DiNenno, Philip J.; Drysdale, Douglas; Beyler, Craig L. (Eds.) et al The SFPE Handbook of Fire Protection Engineering (Fourth Edition) (2009)

Use of the temperature-dependent, thermophysical material properties, shape geometry, and fundamental heat transfer and structural principles, in combination with available fire test data, can enable ... [more ▼]

Use of the temperature-dependent, thermophysical material properties, shape geometry, and fundamental heat transfer and structural principles, in combination with available fire test data, can enable several distinct levels of engineering/calculation methods of fire resistance. The simpler computational methods, such as those in ASCE/SFPE 29-99,1 are semi-empirically based on standard fire test results. They provide an efficient and generally conservative way to provide fire resistance ratings for members and assemblies that do not directly match listed assemblies to meet prescriptive code requirements. Higher order fire simulations and structural analyses can also be used as performance-based design alternatives to achieve a more accurate solution to overall fire safety. Substantial fire-induced damage is expected after a severe (fully developed or postflashover) fire exposure, not only to the building contents and finish but also to the structural elements. It is not uncommon for well-designed, ductile, and properly functioning fire-resistive framing systems to experience visible distortions, cracking, permanent damage, and deflections in floor, walls, or columns than can be on the order of 12 to 24 inches (300 to 600 mm), or more, without collapse. In the following sections, several computational approaches to the determination of the fire resistance of building construction are summarized, independent of any requirements of a particular building code or design standard. These can be considered generally applicable to any structural material. The specific provisions of the governing building code and design standard(s) for a given project must be consulted for any engineering applications. [less ▲]

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See detailDesigning Steel Structures for Fire Safety
Franssen, Jean-Marc ULg; Kodur, Venkatesh; Zaharia, Raul

Book published by Taylor & Françis Ed. (2009)

In this book the information relevant to fire design of steel structures is presented in a systematic way in seven chapters. Each Chapter begins with an introduction of various concepts to be covered and ... [more ▼]

In this book the information relevant to fire design of steel structures is presented in a systematic way in seven chapters. Each Chapter begins with an introduction of various concepts to be covered and follows with detailed explanation of the concepts. The calculation methods as relevant to code provisions (in Europe, North America or other continents) are discussed in detail. Worked examples relevant to calculation methodologies on simple structural elements are presented. For the case of complete structures guidance on how analysis can be carried out is presented. Chapter 1 of the book is devoted to providing relevant background information to codes and standards and principles of fire resistance design. The chapter discusses the fire safety design philosophies, prescriptive and performance-based design fire safety design issues. Chapter 2 deals with basis of design and mechanical loads. The load combinations to be considered for fire design of structures, as per European and North American codes and standards, are discussed. Chapter 3 discusses the detailed steps involved in establishing the fire scenarios for various cases. Both Eurocode and North American temperature-time relationships are discussed. Procedures in this section allow the designer to establish the time-temperature relationships or heat flux evolutions under a specified design fire. Chapter 4 deals with steps associated in establishing the temperature history in the steel structure, resulting from fire temperature. The various approaches for undertaking thermal analysis by simple calculation models are discussed. Chapter 5 presents the steps associated for establishing the mechanical response of a structure exposed to fire. The possibilities for analysis at different levels: member level, sub-structure level and global level are discussed. Full details related to simple calculation methods for undertaking strength analysis at member level are presented. Chapter 6 is devoted to fire resistance issues associated with design of joints. The steps associated with the fire resistance of a bolted or a welded joint through simplified and detailed procedure are discussed. Chapter 7 deals with thermal and mechanical analysis through advanced calculation models. The procedures involved in the sub-structure analysis or global structural analysis under fire exposure is fully discussed. Case studies are presented to illustrate the detailed fire resistance analysis of various structures. Chapter 8 presents four design examples showing how a complex structure can be designed using the concept of element or sub-structure analysis. The book concludes with two Annexes which present some of the design information related to material properties and temperature profiles. Annex 1 focuses on thermal properties of structural steel and commonly used insulation materials and resulting temperature profiles in steel. Annex 2 focuses on mechanical properties of structural steel. [less ▲]

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See detailComparison between the charring rate model and the conductive model of Eurocode 5
Cachim, Paulo B.; Franssen, Jean-Marc ULg

in Fire & Materials (2009), 33

Eurocode 5, Part 1-2, presents several models for the calculation of fire resistance of timber structures. These models are based on the hypothesis that for temperatures above 300°C, wood is no longer ... [more ▼]

Eurocode 5, Part 1-2, presents several models for the calculation of fire resistance of timber structures. These models are based on the hypothesis that for temperatures above 300°C, wood is no longer able to sustain any stress, which makes the determination of the location of the 300°C isotherm decisive for the result provided by the models. In this paper, the charring rate model and the conductive model presented in Eurocode 5, part 1-2 are compared regarding the determination of the location of 300°C isotherm. The main wood parameters investigated are density, moisture content and anisotropy. the almost complete independence of the charring rate model from these parameters leads to some inconsistencies between the models. To reduce thse inconsistencies some proposals to improve the conductive and the charring rate models are presented. [less ▲]

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See detailNumerical Evaluation of Load induced Thermal Strain in restraint Structures compared with an Experimental Study on reinforced Concrete Columns
Schneider, Ulrich; Schneider, Martin; Franssen, Jean-Marc ULg

in Conference Proceedings Fire and Materials 2009 (2009)

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See detailCalculation of a Tunnel Cross Section Subjected to Fire
Schneider, U.; Schneider, M.; Franssen, Jean-Marc ULg

in Acta Polytechnica (2009), 49(1/2009), 44-55

Detailed reference viewed: 69 (11 ULg)