References of "Francis, Frédéric"
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See detailWhole-genome sequence of Serratia symbiotica strain CWBI-2.3T, a free-living symbiont of the Black Bean Aphid Aphis fabae
Foray, Vincent; Grigorescu, Alina ULg; Sabri, Ahmed et al

in Genome Announcements (2014), 2(4),

The gammaproteobacterium Serratia symbiotica is one of the major secondary symbionts found in aphids. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of S. symbiotica strain CWBI-2.3T, previously isolated from ... [more ▼]

The gammaproteobacterium Serratia symbiotica is one of the major secondary symbionts found in aphids. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of S. symbiotica strain CWBI-2.3T, previously isolated from the black bean aphid Aphis fabae. The 3.58-Mb genome sequence might provide new insights to understand the evolution of insect-microbe symbiosis. [less ▲]

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See detailVOC emissions and protein expression mediated by the interactions between herbivorous insects and Arabidopsis plant. A review
Hien, Truong Thi Dieu ULg; Heuskin, Stéphanie ULg; Delaplace, Pierre ULg et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2014), 18(3), 455-464

Herbivorous insects, such as phloem-sap feeders and chewers, induce resistance response in plants. There is a long-standing hypothesis that herbivores increase the emission of volatile organic compounds ... [more ▼]

Herbivorous insects, such as phloem-sap feeders and chewers, induce resistance response in plants. There is a long-standing hypothesis that herbivores increase the emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the Arabidopsis plant model. However, most works were restricted to the study of the regulation of plant VOC emissions and only in some cases to the effects of insects on such emissions. Often these investigations do not establish a link between quantitative and qualitative emission of plant VOCs with actual damages caused by insects. Moreover, information remain limited about the processes that occur at the protein level encoded of the host plant under stress conditions. Here, we briefly summarize the effects of specific chewing and phloem-sap feeding insects on the emission of VOCs by Arabidopsis thaliana Col-0, and review some predictions about pathogenesis-related proteins, based on current evolutionary hypotheses. Further investigation of the effects of herbivorous insects on VOC emissions and protein expression is expected to improve our knowledge about their patterns and functions in plant responses to stresses. [less ▲]

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See detailStudy of the potentiality of insect breeding system for human food in Cambodia (Ratanakiri province)
Caparros Megido, Rudy ULg; Alabi, Taofic ULg; Nieus, Clément et al

Conference (2014)

The main purpose of this work was to optimize a cheap cricket breeding production for local farmers based on unused wild resources. Cricket development (Teleogryllus testaceus (Walker)) was compared ... [more ▼]

The main purpose of this work was to optimize a cheap cricket breeding production for local farmers based on unused wild resources. Cricket development (Teleogryllus testaceus (Walker)) was compared according to seven diets composed of different ratio of aerial parts of taro, young cassava leaves, young cashew leaves, brown rice flour (with or without banana slices) and between the traditionally used chicken feed diet. Cricket mortality was low on all diets (<10 %) excepted on the two cashew-based diets (>90 %). Mean adult body mass was significantly higher on chicken feed diet and on the two cassava-based diet than on the other. Moreover, protein percentage in cassava-feed crickets was similar with this of wild crickets. As each villager grows cassava for their tubers without using the leaves, this free available resource could be used to rear crickets in order to contribute to the reduction of protein deficiency and create new source of incomes for local farmers. [less ▲]

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See detailConsumer acceptance of insect-based products
Caparros Megido, Rudy ULg; Gierts, Chloé; Blecker, Christophe ULg et al

Conference (2014)

In this study, sociocultural and food formulation aspects related to edible insects were investigated on Belgian consumers. Hedonic tests were realized to assess the acceptability of insect-based burgers ... [more ▼]

In this study, sociocultural and food formulation aspects related to edible insects were investigated on Belgian consumers. Hedonic tests were realized to assess the acceptability of insect-based burgers and insect-based breads. In the first experiment, four burgers (beef, lentil, beef/insect and lentil/insect) were presented to the participants. In the second experiment, entire mealworms, mealworm bread and mealworm crepes were presented to the participants. No difference of appreciations was noticed between a beef and a beef/insect burger and between a lentil and a lentil/insect burger. Crepes made of mealworm flour were slightly preferred in comparison with mealworm bread and entire mealworms. These results confirm that shape and appearance but also popularization and information spreading are key conditions in the acceptation of insect products in western countries and that insects will preferentially be consumed, in the future, if they are presented in an invisible way and associated with familiar flavors. [less ▲]

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See detailEffets de deux associations culturales avec du blé sur les populations de pucerons (Homoptera: Aphididae) et d’auxiliaires aphidiphages: étude préliminaire menée en Chine
Chevalier Mendes Lopes, Thomas ULg; Bosquée, Emilie ULg; Honba, David et al

in Entomologie Faunistique = Faunistic Entomology (2014)

Crop associations have several advantages when the plant species and the crop production methods, including the harvesting, are well selected. This preliminary study was conducted in the Shandong province ... [more ▼]

Crop associations have several advantages when the plant species and the crop production methods, including the harvesting, are well selected. This preliminary study was conducted in the Shandong province (China) to better characterize the effect of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)/oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) and wheat/pea (Pisum sativum L.) associations on the aphid and aphidophagous beneficial populations. Aphids observed on wheat tillers were more abundant in the pure stand of wheat during the two weeks prior to their population peak, compared with crop associations. Considering the aphidophagous beneficials, more ladybirds were observed in the associations, compared with the pure crop stand. Yellow pan traps were also used to assess the diversity and abundance of adult beneficial species. The parasitoid species Aphidius gifuensis (Ashmead) was prevalent. Among predators, Propylea japonica (Thunberg) and Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) were the most abundant species. This study contributes to better understand the potential of crop associations with wheat as a sustainable method to control aphid populations in this region of China. [less ▲]

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See detailAphid honeydew: An arrestant and a contact kairomone for Episyrphus balteatus (Diptera: Syrphidae) larvae and adults
Leroy, Pascal; Almohamad, Raki; Attia, Sabrine et al

in European Journal of Entomology (2014), 111(2), 237-242

Predator searching efficiency increases in response to a variety of environmental cues associated with its prey. The sugary excretion of aphids (honeydew) has been found to act as a prey-associated cue ... [more ▼]

Predator searching efficiency increases in response to a variety of environmental cues associated with its prey. The sugary excretion of aphids (honeydew) has been found to act as a prey-associated cue for many aphid natural enemies. In the present study, the honeydew excreted by Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris) was identified as an arrestant and a contact kairomone for young larvae and adults of a common predatory hoverfly, Episyrphus balteatus (De Geer) (Diptera: Syrphidae). First and second instar larvae increased their foraging behaviour in the honeydew-treated area. When plants were sprayed with crude honeydew, the speed of movement of female E. balteatus was significantly higher than in controls, resulting in a longer period of time spent on treated plants and laying eggs. We conclude that the honeydew excreted by A. pisum induces searching behaviour and acts as and arrestant not only for adults but also for young E. balteatus larvae. [less ▲]

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See detailRole of larval host plant experience and solanaceous plant volatile emissions in Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) host finding behavior
Caparros Megido, Rudy ULg; De Backer, Lara; Ettaïb, Refki et al

in Arthropod-Plant Interactions (2014)

The tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta (Lepi- doptera: Gelechiidae), is considered to be a major pest that damages tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L; Solanaceae) crops in South American, European, and ... [more ▼]

The tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta (Lepi- doptera: Gelechiidae), is considered to be a major pest that damages tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L; Solanaceae) crops in South American, European, and Mediterranean countries. This insect species is polyphagous (i.e., feeds on many types of food); hence, it could also develop on other cultivated host plants, principally solanaceous plants, such as potato (S. tuberosum L.; Solanaceae) and eggplant (S. melongena L.; Solanaceae). Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that host plant choice by adult T. absoluta is influenced by plant volatile organic compounds and larval host plant experience. One tomato cultivar (cv.) ‘Money- maker’ and three potato cv. ‘Charlotte’ ‘Bintje,’ and ‘Nicola’ were tested. Using a flying tunnel, we observed that females reared on tomato preferred flying toward tomato and, to a lesser extent, potato cv. ‘Charlotte.’ These preferences might be explained by the high release of terpenes by these two plants. When conducting oviposition choice assays, we found no preference between tomato and potato in the number of eggs laid by females that had been previously reared on either host plant. This study indicates that the host finding behavior of T. absoluta is mediated by solanaceous volatiles, while oviposition behavior appears to depend on additional stimuli. These results provide baseline information for use in the development of new control strategies against T. absoluta using semiochemicals and plant breeding. [less ▲]

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See detailInventaire préliminaire des termites (Isoptera) du plateau des Batékés en République Démocratique du Congo
Kifukieto, Carmel; Deligne, Jean; Kachaka, Claude et al

in Entomologie Faunistique = Faunistic Entomology (2014), 67

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See detailOptimization of cricket breeding production system for human food in Ratanakiri province (Cambodia)
Caparros Megido, Rudy ULg; Alabi, Taofic ULg; Nieus, Clément et al

Poster (2014)

Despite many natural resources, Cambodia is considered as a relatively poor country with a Gross National Income per capita averaging about 880 USD in 2012. Annâdya project in the Ratanakiri province ... [more ▼]

Despite many natural resources, Cambodia is considered as a relatively poor country with a Gross National Income per capita averaging about 880 USD in 2012. Annâdya project in the Ratanakiri province (Cambodia) aims to improve the food security and nutrition of smallholder households by introducing and facilitating the adoption of productive and environmentally sustainable agricultural technologies. The main purpose of this work was to optimize a cheap cricket breeding production system for local farmers to contribute to the reduction of protein deficiency and to create new source of incomes. Cricket development, Teleogryllus testaceus (Walker), was compared between seven diets composed of different ratio of aerial parts of taro, young cassava leaves, young cashew leaves, brown rice flour (with or without the addition of banana slices) and between the traditionally used chicken feed diet. Cricket mortality was relatively low on all diets (<10 %) excepted on the two cashew-based diets where mortality achieves 90 %. Mean adult body mass of the cricket was significantly higher on control diet (chicken feed) and on the two cassava-based diet (80% of cassava leave flour, 20% of brown rice with or without banana slices) than on the other diets (F = 20.87, P<0.001). The nutritional analyzes of the seven diets shows that the ideal diet should contain 19% protein, 5-6% fat, and a percentage of carbohydrates as high as possible. While the cricket mass body gain seems to be proportional to the carbohydrate content of the diet, the use of older cassava leaves, more rich in carbohydrates than the younger ones, is an interesting solution to substitute relatively expensive brown rice and banana slices also consumed by local population. In the future, consideration should be given to the adjustment of cassava leave maturity in function of the cricket growth stage as it is already done with chicken feed in Thai cricket farms. [less ▲]

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See detailSituation and perspective of entomophagy in Kinshasa
Nsevolo, Papy; Caparros Megido, Rudy ULg; Blecker, Christophe ULg et al

Poster (2014)

Eating edible insects in Republic Democratic of Congo is a tradition for centuries but a lack of knowledge remains about an actualized inventory of species consumed in the country. Moreover, a rigorous ... [more ▼]

Eating edible insects in Republic Democratic of Congo is a tradition for centuries but a lack of knowledge remains about an actualized inventory of species consumed in the country. Moreover, a rigorous taxonomic matching of the used vernacular name of edible insects and a precise characterization of the sector of entomophagy are still needed. According to our studies focused on the city of Kinshasa, 14 edible species were inventoried as regularly consumed. They belong respectively and by degree of importance to the Lepidoptera (46.7%), Isoptera (18.6%), Orthoptera (17.6%), Coleoptera (9.7%) and Hymenoptera (3.7%) orders. Generally 80.0% of the Kinshasa population consumes at least one species of insects 5 days per month. The key peoples in the edible insect sector are mostly women. The incomes generated by this activity contribute to the well being of households, to reduce poverty and food insecurity in the capital Kinshasa. Future studies should focus on sustainable ways of harvesting wild populations, the use of improved conservation practices, the enhancement of cottage industries for farming insects and the development of economically feasible ways of mass-rearing edible species. [less ▲]

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See detailSix pattes et si délicieux : Les insectes dans nos assiettes
Caparros Megido, Rudy ULg; Haubruge, Eric ULg; Francis, Frédéric ULg

Book published by Les presses agronomiques de Gembloux (2014)

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See detailConsumer acceptance of insect-based meat substitutes
Caparros Megido, Rudy ULg; Gierts, Chloé; Blecker, Christophe ULg et al

Conference (2014)

Meat plays an important role in the consumption pattern of most European and North American consumers. Meat production is responsible for a well known environmental pressure due to the inefficient ... [more ▼]

Meat plays an important role in the consumption pattern of most European and North American consumers. Meat production is responsible for a well known environmental pressure due to the inefficient conversion of plant protein to meat protein and alternatives sources, such as insects or algae, will be rapidly required. In a recent theorical study, de Boer et al. (2013) show that consumers prefer to eat a hybrid meat product (i.e. a mix of meat and its substitute) rather than a pure meat substitute [3]. Based on these preliminary results, hedonic tests were realized to assess the acceptability of insect-based burgers in a target population composed of people from 15 to 25 years old, considered as the future insect consumers. Isolated in a tasting booth, each participant was invited to taste four burger samples containing a ratio of 20 gr of protein by 100 gr of burger. The first burger was prepared with 95% of grounded beef (1), the second with 95% of green lentil (2), the third with 45% of green lentil and 50% of mealworms (Tenebrio molitor L.; Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae) and the fourth with 45% of grounded beef burger and 50% of mealworms. The last 5% of each burger consists of an aromatization portion containing onions, carrots, tomato paste and garlic. Participants were asked to rate each sample on a 9-point hedonic scale, where extreme sides were noted from “extremely dislike” (left) to “extremely like” (right). Tukey post-hoc comparisons on the appreciation results showed that beef-based products (with or without mealworms) were relatively preferred to lentil-based products (with or without mealworms), probably because hybrid meat burgers seem more familiar to the consumers than vegetable burgers, and that no liking differences were noticed between the two beef-based burgers and between the two insect-based burgers. These results confirm that shape and appearance are key criteria in the acceptation of meat substitute by non-vegetarian consumers and that insects will preferentially be consumed, in the future, if they are presented in an invisible way and associated with familiar flavors. [less ▲]

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See detailDevelopment of new strategies against the tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta Meyrick
De Backer, Lara ULg; Francis, Frédéric ULg; Verheggen, François ULg

Conference given outside the academic context (2014)

The tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick), is a Lepidoptera considered as one of the major pest of Solanaceae. It causes important yield loss in South America, where it is originated, and in the West ... [more ▼]

The tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick), is a Lepidoptera considered as one of the major pest of Solanaceae. It causes important yield loss in South America, where it is originated, and in the West Palearctic region, where it was introduced in 2006. Insecticide applications and the use of the sexual pheromone have been the main control method used against T. absoluta. Insecticides are inefficient because of the endophytic habit of larvae, which are protected in the leaf mesophyll or inside fruits. Moreover, resistances against various insecticides have been reported. The sexual pheromone based strategies also provide poor results. One explanation has been recently provided by the demonstration of a parthenogenetic reproduction in T. absoluta, from the research group in Gembloux Agro-Bio Tech (ULg). Because there is a real need to improve crop protection against T. absoluta and in the meanwhile reducing the use of synthetic insecticidal compounds, researches aim at providing new perspectives to further biocontrol strategies against T. absoluta. [less ▲]

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See detailThe facultative bacterial symbiont Serratia symbiotica in Acyrtosiphon pisum confer resistance to Aphidius ervi
Attia, Sabrine; Foray, Vincent; Louâpres, Philippe et al

Poster (2014)

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See detailDoes the facultative bacteria Serratia symbiotica influence the foraging strategies of aphid parasitoids?
Attia, Sabrine; Louâpre, Philippe; Foray, Vincent et al

Poster (2014)

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See detailA volatile sex pheromone in the invasive ladybeetle Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)
Fassotte, Bérénice ULg; Fischer, Christophe ULg; Durieux, Delphine ULg et al

in Communications in Agricultural and Applied Biological Sciences (2014), 79(1), 79-81

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See detailReintroduction of the invasive mosquito species Aedes albopictus in Belgium in July 2013
Boukraa, Slimane ULg; Raharimalala, Fara Nantenaina ULg; Zimmer, Jean-Yves ULg et al

in Parasite (Paris, France) (2013), 20(54),

Since its first report in 2000, the invasive mosquito Aedes albopictus was not found any more during the different entomological inspections performed at its place of introduction in Belgium between 2001 ... [more ▼]

Since its first report in 2000, the invasive mosquito Aedes albopictus was not found any more during the different entomological inspections performed at its place of introduction in Belgium between 2001 and 2012. In July 2013, one adult male was captured at the same site (a platform of imported used tires located in Vrasene, Oost-Vlaanderen Province), during a monitoring using CO2-baited trap. This finding suggests the reintroduction of the species in Belgium via the used tire trade. [less ▲]

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See detailMoustique tigre: un nouveau moustique tropical dangereux trouvé à Anvers
Louis, François; Boukraa, Slimane ULg; Francis, Frédéric ULg

Article for general public (2013)

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