References of "Francis, Frédéric"
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See detailLa biodiversité entomologique comme source d’aliments à Kinshasa (République démocratique du Congo)
Nsevolo, Papy; Alabi, Taofic ULg; Caparros Megido, Rudy ULg et al

in Annales de la Société Entomologique de France (2016)

L’exploitation des produits forestiers non ligneux dont notamment les insectes comestibles jouent un rôle important dans les habitudes alimentaires et économies locales des populations autochtones du ... [more ▼]

L’exploitation des produits forestiers non ligneux dont notamment les insectes comestibles jouent un rôle important dans les habitudes alimentaires et économies locales des populations autochtones du bassin du Congo. Bien que la consommation d’insectes en République Démocratique du Congo soit une pratique ancienne, l’inventaire et l’identification taxonomique des espèces consommées ainsi que la caractérisation de la filière « entomophagie » sont encore mal maitrisés. Toutefois, nos études axées sur la ville de Kinshasa ont permis d’inventorier 14 espèces comestibles régulièrement consommées. Elles appartiennent à l’ordre des Lépidoptères (46,7%), des Isoptères (18,6%), des Orthoptères (17,6%), des Coléoptères (9,7%) et des Hyménoptères (3,7%). De façon générale, 80% de la population de Kinshasa consomment au minimum une espèce d’insecte 5 jours par mois avec des quantités variant de 66,4 à 154 g d’insectes par personne par jour en fonction des différents ordres. Les acteurs de la filière sont majoritairement des femmes. Les revenus générés par l’activité concourent au bien-être des ménages, à la réduction de la pauvreté et de l’insécurité alimentaire dans de la capitale Kinshasa. [less ▲]

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See detailThe scent of love: how important are semiochemicals in the sexual behavior of lady beetles?
Fassotte, Bérénice ULg; Francis, Frédéric ULg; Verheggen, François ULg

in Journal of Pest Science (2016), 89(2), 347-358

Chemical signals are involved in the courtship behavior of many invertebrate and vertebrate species. Lady beetles are no exception to this rule; a significant number of published reports highlight the ... [more ▼]

Chemical signals are involved in the courtship behavior of many invertebrate and vertebrate species. Lady beetles are no exception to this rule; a significant number of published reports highlight the role of cuticular chemicals involved in the reproduction of lady beetles, including gender recognition. Recent data have also demonstrated the presence of a volatile female sex pheromone that facilitates male attraction in some species. Here, we present a synthetic overview of the current knowledge about the sexual behavior of lady beetles and associated chemicals for which the function and identification have been provided. Because lady beetles are often reared as biological control agents, the chemical cues involved in their sexual behavior could be used as components in integrated management approaches against soft-bodied hemipterans. In conclusion, this review provides new perspectives and potential developments for sustainable insect management mainly based on the semiochemicals involved in the sexual behavior of lady beetles. A better understanding of these chemical signals would help maximize their presence in areas where their predatory behavior is requested, as a result of the application of formulations inducing behavioral manipulation. [less ▲]

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See detailStudy of microbial phenotypic heterogeneity under bioprocess conditions using « single-cell » techniques
Delepierre, Anissa ULg; Brognaux, Alison ULg; Baert, Jonathan ULg et al

Poster (2016, May 20)

Presentation of single-cell techniques in order to characterize microbial phenotypic heterogeneity: fluorescent labelling, biosensors, automated flow cytometry combined to proteomics approach.

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See detailCan tropical basil be integrated in vegetable crop pest management?
Yarou, Boni Barthélémy ULg; Verheggen, François ULg; Heuskin, Stéphanie ULg et al

Poster (2016, May 17)

To address human and environmental health issues related to the use of synthetic pesticides, it is important to explore other ecological pest management approaches. Within this context, a study was ... [more ▼]

To address human and environmental health issues related to the use of synthetic pesticides, it is important to explore other ecological pest management approaches. Within this context, a study was conducted to evaluate the toxic and repellent effect of Ocimum gratissimum L. (Lamiaceae) on Myzus persicae S. (Aphididae). The toxicity of O. gratissimum essential oil (EO) was evaluated on M. persicae comparing 3 concentrations (0.001%; 0.01% and 0.1%) to a control (15% sucrose). Mortality rate and fecundity were assessed for each concentration. The observations were made daily, for 4 days, on 12 replicates per treatment. To test the repellent effect of O. gratissimum plants, 2 treatments were compared: a group of 8 Amaranthus cruentus L. (Amaranthaceae) plants with 1 plant of O. gratissimum in the middle and a group of 9 A. cruentus plants (control). The distribution of aphids was analyzed 12 days after the middle plant infestation (20 aphids per plant) for each treatment (6 replicates per treatment). O. gratissimum EO was found toxic from a concentration of 0.01%, with a mortality rate of 34% versus 12% for the control ; The fecundity felt from 30 larvae after 4 days (control) to 15 larvae for the 3 doses of the EO. The analysis with the generalized linear mixed model with Poisson error distribution followed by Turkey test (5 %) showed that EO is significantly more toxic than the control, both for mortality and fecundity (p <0.001). In association test, the population of M. persicae (15 aphids per plant) was significantly (p<0,001) lower when A. cruentus plants was associated with O. gratissimum plant than with the control (22 aphids per plant). Furthermore, the population increases gradually as one moves away from the infestation point in association test whereas it decreases in the control. With regards to these results, it appears that O. gratissimum has biocide effects on M. persicae. This plant may be used in an integrated pest management strategy in the production of vegetable to reduce the use of synthetic pesticides and avoid chemicals residues. [less ▲]

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See detailDevelopment of a semiochemical-based control method against the walnut husk fly
Sarles, Landry ULg; Heuskin, Stéphanie ULg; Verheaghe, Agnès et al

Conference (2016, May 17)

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See detailSingle cell analysis of Escherichia coli outer membrane porin composition in response to nutrient depletion
Delepierre, Anissa ULg; Brognaux, Alison ULg; Bauwens, Julien ULg et al

Poster (2016, May 12)

Characterization of outer membrane integrity into isoclonal population of Escherichia coli using fluorescent probe specific to cell viability: propidium iodide (PI) staining; combined to FACS cytometry ... [more ▼]

Characterization of outer membrane integrity into isoclonal population of Escherichia coli using fluorescent probe specific to cell viability: propidium iodide (PI) staining; combined to FACS cytometry and proteomic studies of sorted subpopulations. The results tend to reveal two distincts cellular strategies: Cells positively probed by PI offer a high outer membrane protein (OMP) content, indicating nutrient competence in response to substrate limitative conditions. Unprobed cells, characterized by a low OMPs rate, could suffer from growth arrest and develop stress responses (Crp, Cra, RpoS,RpoN, RpoH-dependent). [less ▲]

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See detailImpact of aphid alarm pheromone release on virus transmission efficiency: when pest control strategy could induce higher virus dispersion
Lin, Fang-Jing; Bosquée, Emilie ULg; Liu, Ying-Jie et al

in Journal of Virological Methods (2016)

Aphids cause serious damages to crops not only by tacking sap but also by transmitting numerous viruses. To develop biological control, the aphid alarm pheromone, namely E-β-farnesene (EβF), has been ... [more ▼]

Aphids cause serious damages to crops not only by tacking sap but also by transmitting numerous viruses. To develop biological control, the aphid alarm pheromone, namely E-β-farnesene (EβF), has been demonstrated to be efficient to repel aphids and as attract beneficials, making it a potential tool to control aphid pests. Considering aphids also as virus vectors, changes of their behaviour could also interfere with the virus acquisition and transmission process. Here, a combination of two aphid species and two potato virus models were selected to test the influence of EβF release on aphid and virus dispersion under laboratory conditions. EβF release was found to significantly decrease the population of M. persicae and M. euphorbiae around the infochemical releaser but simultaneously also increasing the dispersal of Potato Virus Y (PVY). At the opposite, no significant difference for Potato Leaf Roll Virus (PLRV) transmission efficiency was observed with similar aphid alarm pheromone releases for none of the aphid species. These results provide some support to carefully consider infochemical releasers not only for push – pull strategy and pest control but also to include viral disease in a the plant protection to aphids as they are also efficient virus vectors. Impact of aphid kinds and transmission mechanisms will be discussed according to the large variation found between persistent and non persistent potato viruses and interactions with aphids and related infochemicals. [less ▲]

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See detailCrop residue management in arable cropping systems under temperate climate. Part 1: Soil biological and chemical (phosphorus and nitrogen) properties. A review
Lemtiri, Aboulkacem ULg; Degrune, Florine ULg; Barbieux, Sophie ULg et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment (2016)

Interacting soil organisms support biological processes that participate in soil functions, organic matter decomposition, and nutrient cycling. Earthworms and microorganisms play a range of beneficial ... [more ▼]

Interacting soil organisms support biological processes that participate in soil functions, organic matter decomposition, and nutrient cycling. Earthworms and microorganisms play a range of beneficial roles in agricultural systems, including increased organic matter mineralization, nutrient cycling, and soil structure stabilization. The following aspects of crop residue management effects are examined in this paper: (i) earthworm composition and structure; (ii) soil microbial communities; and (iii) phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) element availability and distribution in the soil profile. Conventional tillage (ploughing) is often reported to generate decreased soil organism abundance and diversity, primarily earthworms and microorganisms, as well as a uniform distribution of the nutrients P and N within the ploughed soil horizon. Soil residue incorporation of mineral particles can maintain P and N levels, however returning soil also increases aeration and the activation of microbial activity. Hence, comparisons of tillage effects on soil biological functioning and nutrient cycling remain unclear. This review highlights the challenges in establishing definitive evidence regarding the effects of crop residue management on soil organisms and nutrient dynamics. The studies examined reported variability in soil and climate, and the complexity of soil processes contributed to the absence of clear findings. Further research is required under temperate climate conditions. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of wheat-based intercropping systems on pests and natural enemies: a review with a special focus on China
Hatt, Séverin ULg; Chevalier Mendes Lopes, Thomas ULg; Xu, Qingxuan ULg et al

Conference (2016, April 16)

Intercropping is a farming practice consisting of cultivating at least two plant species simultaneously in the same field, but without necessarily sowing and/or harvesting them at the same time. By ... [more ▼]

Intercropping is a farming practice consisting of cultivating at least two plant species simultaneously in the same field, but without necessarily sowing and/or harvesting them at the same time. By increasing plant diversity at the field scale, intercropping may be an efficient method to control insect pests and support natural enemies on the associated crops. We performed a systematic research of the peer-reviewed literature which studied the effect of intercropping systems on pests and natural enemies, compared to pure stands. The research was restricted to wheat-based systems, as it is an important crop worldwide, and the main one in Northern China. A total of fifty research papers were obtained from the literature search. Results from a vote-counting analysis, using binomial tests, indicated that pest abundance was significantly reduced in intercropping systems compared with pure stands, but their natural enemies were not particularly favoured (i.e., predators and parasitoids). Among these papers, 23 were studies from China. There, wheat was associated with cotton in relay-intercropping, as well as alfalfa, chili peppers, fava bean, garlic, mung bean, oilseed rape and pea in strip-cropping. Aphids were systematically reduced and natural enemies (i.e., predators and parasitoids) significantly favoured in intercropping systems compared to pure stands. This study shows that intercropping is a viable practice to biologically control pests, and potentially support natural enemies, especially in China. Therefore it can be seen as a viable method to reduce insecticide use in wheat production systems. [less ▲]

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See detailInventaire et mise en collection d’espèces de pucerons et de parasitoïdes collectés en grandes cultures, et premier enregistrement de Metopolophium frisicum (Hille Ris Lambers 1947) et Acyrthosiphon primulae (Theobald 1913) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) en Belgique
Chevalier Mendes Lopes, Thomas ULg; Hatt, Séverin ULg; Starý, Petr et al

in Entomologie Faunistique = Faunistic Entomology (2016), 69

The purpose of this study was to identify aphid and parasitoid species that were collected in wheat and pea crops situated in Gembloux (Belgium), and conserve them into collections. To do so, yellow traps ... [more ▼]

The purpose of this study was to identify aphid and parasitoid species that were collected in wheat and pea crops situated in Gembloux (Belgium), and conserve them into collections. To do so, yellow traps (von Moericke) were used during 2012, 2013 and 2014 growing seasons. Fifty-two aphid species were identified and conserved in the entomological Conservatory of Gembloux. Among them, Metopolophium frisicum (Hille Ris Lambers 1947) and Acyrthosiphon primulae (Theobald 1913) were officially referenced for the first time in Belgium. Moreover, a collection composed by 16 parasitoid species was created. Their interest for biological control, as well as the methods that are studied in the laboratory of functional and evolutionary Entomology from Gembloux Agro-Bio Tech (University of Liège) to promote their presence in crops are discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailHistopathological effects of Aspergillus clavatus (Ascomycota: Trichocomaceae) on larvae of the southern house mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae)
Bawin, Thomas ULg; Seye, Fawrou; Boukraa, Slimane ULg et al

in Fungal Biology (2016), 120(4), 489-499

Aspergillus clavatus (Ascomycota: Trichocomaceae) was previously found to be an opportunistic pathogen of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae). In the present study, the mechanism leading to its insecticidal ... [more ▼]

Aspergillus clavatus (Ascomycota: Trichocomaceae) was previously found to be an opportunistic pathogen of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae). In the present study, the mechanism leading to its insecticidal activity was investigated regarding histological damages on Culex quinquefasciatus larvae exposed to A. clavatus spores. Multiple concentration assays using spore suspensions (0.5 x 10^8 to 2.5 x 10^8 spores/ml) revealed 17.0% to 74.3% corrected mortalities after 48 h exposure. Heat-deactivated spores induced a lower mortality compared to non-heated spores suggesting that insecticidal effects are actively exerted. Spore-treated and untreated larvae were prepared for light microscopy as well as for scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Spores failed to adhere to the external body surface (except the mouth parts) of these aquatic immature stages but progressively filled the digestive tract where their metabolism seemed to activate. In parallel, the internal tissues of the larvae, i.e. the midgut wall, the skeletal muscles, and the cuticle-secreting epidermis, were progressively destroyed between 8 and 24 h of exposure. These observations suggest that toxins secreted by active germinating spores of A. clavatus in the digestive tract altered the larval tissues, leading to their necrosis and causing larval death. Fungal proliferation and sporulation then occurred during a saprophytic phase. A. clavatus enzymes or toxins responsible for these pathogenic effects need to be identified in further studies before any use of this fungus in mosquito control. [less ▲]

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See detailEFFECT OF EXTRACTION pH ON PHYSICO-CHEMICAL, ENZYMATIC AND TECHNOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF CRUDE EXTRACTS FROM WILD CARDOON (CYNARA CARDUNCULUS L.) FLOWERS
BEN AMIRA, Amal; BESBES, Souhail; ATTIA, Hamadi et al

Conference (2016, March 22)

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See detailChecklist of Aphidiinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) and Aphelinus (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) species from Belgium with respectively four and three new records
Chevalier Mendes Lopes, Thomas ULg; Libert, Pierre-Nicolas; Starý, Petr et al

in Zootaxa (2016), 4092(4)

Aphid parasitoids have good potential for crop protection. However, they have been poorly studied in Belgium, especially in terms of species diversity. Therefore, the aim of this work was to establish the ... [more ▼]

Aphid parasitoids have good potential for crop protection. However, they have been poorly studied in Belgium, especially in terms of species diversity. Therefore, the aim of this work was to establish the first checklist for the country. To complete the list, aphid parasitoids were sampled in wheat and pea fields near Gembloux (Belgium), in 2013 and 2014. Among the identified species, Aphelinus asychis Walker, Aphelinus daucicola Kurdjumov, Aphelinus fusciscapus (Förster), Aphidius asteris Haliday, Aphidius eadyi Starý, Gonzalez & Hall, Praon barbatum Mackauer, and Trioxys auctus (Haliday) were recorded for the first time in Belgium. Thirty-two Aphidiinae and seven Aphelinus species were included in the checklist. It is hoped this study will stimulate further research, as species diversity is still low compared with neighbouring countries. [less ▲]

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See detailProduction of two entomopathogenic Aspergillus species and insecticidal activity against the mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus compared to Metarhizium anisopliae
Bawin, Thomas ULg; Seye, Fawrou; Boukraa, Slimane ULg et al

in Biocontrol Science & Technology (2016), 26(5), 617-629

Entomopathogenic micro-organisms including fungi have become increasingly studied for integrated pest management. The spore productivity and insecticidal activity of two opportunistic insect pathogenic ... [more ▼]

Entomopathogenic micro-organisms including fungi have become increasingly studied for integrated pest management. The spore productivity and insecticidal activity of two opportunistic insect pathogenic Aspergillus species (namely: Aspergillus clavatus Desmazieres and Aspergillus flavus Link (Ascomycota: Eurotiales, Trichocomaceae)) were compared to Metarhizium anisopliae sensu lato (Metchnikoff) Sorokin (Ascomycota: Hypocreales, Clavicipitaceae) for mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) control. The production of aerial spores on wheat bran and white rice was investigated in solid-, semi-solid-, and liquid-state media supplemented with a nutritive solution. Wheat bran-based media were suitable for spore production and increased the spore yield in solid-state from 3 to 7 fold: A. clavatus produced 48.4 ± 5.2 and 15.7 ± 1.6 x 10^8 spores/g, A. flavus produced 22.3 ± 4.1 and 3.1 ± 2.5 x 10^8 spores/g, and M. anisopliae produced 39.6 ± 6.5 and 13.1 ± 2.6 x 10^8 spores/g of wheat bran or white rice, respectively. A. clavatus, A. flavus and M. anisopliae spores harvested from wheat bran-based solid-state media showed lethal concentrations (LC50) of 1.1, 1.8, and 1.3 x 10^8 spores/ml against Culex quinquefasciatus Say larvae in 72 h. Because A. clavatus and M. anisopliae displayed similar features when cultured under these conditions, our results suggest that insect pathogenic Aspergillus species may be as productive and virulent against mosquito larvae as a well-recognized entomopathogenic fungus. Wheat bran could advantageously be used in large-scale fermentation for a possible cost-effective pest control using these fungi. [less ▲]

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See detailSURVEYS OF APHIDS AND POTATO VIRUS Y IN POTATO FIELDS IN WALLONIA, BELGIUM: A FOUR YEAR OVERVIEW
Bosquée, Emilie ULg; Yattara, Almouner A.; Crutzen, François et al

in Journal of Plant Pathology [=JPP] (2016)

Populations of Potato virus Y (PVY) and aphids were characterized in potato seed and stock production fields in southern Belgium (Wallonia) from 2009 to 2012. More than 40 aphid species were identified ... [more ▼]

Populations of Potato virus Y (PVY) and aphids were characterized in potato seed and stock production fields in southern Belgium (Wallonia) from 2009 to 2012. More than 40 aphid species were identified using yellow pan traps. Four thousands potato leaf samples collected in 87 plots from 29 fields were analysed for the presence and typing of PVY strains by RT-PCR. PVY was detected in 26%, 20% and 60% of the seed plots tested from 2009 to 2011, respectively. A higher prevalence of PVY was observed in plots of stock potatoes (60% in 2010 and 67% in 2011). The N/NTN strain of PVY was predominant, representing 70-99% of the strains. [less ▲]

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See detailForaging wireworms are attracted to root-produced volatile aldehydes
Barsics, Fanny ULg; Delory, Benjamin M.; Delaplace, Pierre ULg et al

in Journal of Pest Science (2016)

Soil-dwelling insects are known to react to chemical cues they encounter in the rhizosphere. Whether wireworms (Coleoptera, Elateridae) use root-emitted volatile organic chemicals to localize their host ... [more ▼]

Soil-dwelling insects are known to react to chemical cues they encounter in the rhizosphere. Whether wireworms (Coleoptera, Elateridae) use root-emitted volatile organic chemicals to localize their host plant remains, however, poorly understood. Here, we aimed at identifying chemical cues released by barley roots that attract Agriotes sordidus. In a first behavioral experiment, we assessed the ability of wireworms to orient towards live barley roots, using dual-choice olfactometers suitable for belowground insects. Then, we collected the volatile organic compounds (VOC) produced by barley roots using a dynamic head-space sampling approach. VOC were quantified and identified using gas chromatography—mass spectrometry (GC–MS). The odorant blend is composed of four aldehydes, namely hexanal, (E)-hex-2-enal, (E)-non-2-enal, and (E,Z)-nona-2,6-dienal. In a second set of dual-choice bioassays, wireworms were attracted towards a synthetic blend of these four major compounds. However, the synthetic blend was not as attractive as live roots, which is partially explained by the absence of CO2, commonly known as a strong attractant for soil-dwelling insects. While CO2 indicates the presence of living material in the vicinity, we hypothesize that additional VOC inform about the plant suitability. A better understanding of these belowground signals would contribute to the development of new integrated control strategies against wireworms. [less ▲]

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See detailDiversity and ecology survey of mosquitoes potential vectors in Belgian equestrian farms: A threat prevention of mosquito-borne equine arboviruses
Boukraa, Slimane ULg; de la Grandière, Maria Ana ULg; Bawin, Thomas ULg et al

in Preventive Veterinary Medicine (2016), 124

Emergence of West Nile Virus was recently recorded in several European countries, which can lead to severe health problems in horse populations. Europe is also at risk of introduction of mosquito-borne ... [more ▼]

Emergence of West Nile Virus was recently recorded in several European countries, which can lead to severe health problems in horse populations. Europe is also at risk of introduction of mosquito-borne equine alphavirus from Americas. Prevention of these arboviruses requires a clear understanding of transmission cycles, especially their vectors. To characterize mosquito fauna, their ecology and identify potential vectors of equine arboviruses in Belgium, entomological surveys of six equestrian farms located in the Wolloon Region were conducted during 2011–2012. The harvest of mosquitoes was based on larval sampling (272 samples from 111 breeding sites) and monthly adults trapping (CO2-baited traps, Mosquito Magnet Liberty Plus). Among 51,493 larvae and 319 adult mosquitoes collected, morphological identification showed the presence of 11 species: Anopheles claviger (Meigen), An. maculipennis s.l. (Meigen), An. plumbeus (Stephens), Culex hortensis (Ficalbi), Cx. territans (Walker), Cx. pipiens s.l. L., Cx. torrentium (Martini), Coquillettidia richiardii (Ficalbi), Culiseta annulata (Schrank), Aedes cantans (Meigen), Ae. geniculatus (Olivier). Molecular identification of Cx. pipiens species complex allowed the detection of three molecular forms, Pipiens (92.3%), Molestus (4.6%) and Hybrid (3.1%). Larvae of Cx. pipiens sl and Cx. torrentium were omnipresent and the most abundant species. Water troughs, ponds and slurry (liquid manure) were the most favorable breeding sites of mosquito larvae. Based upon behavior and ecology of the identified mosquito species, Studied Belgian equestrian farms seem to provide a suitable environment and breeding sites for the proliferation of potential vectors of arboviruses and those being a real nuisance problem for horses and neighboring inhabitants. [less ▲]

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See detailThe fungicide triadimefon affects beer flavor and composition by influencing Saccharomyces cerevisiae metabolism
Kong, Zhiqiang ULg; Li, Minmin; An, Jinjin et al

in Scientific Reports (2016)

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