References of "Francis, Frédéric"
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See detailLooking for phosphate-accumulating bacteria in activated sludge processes : a multidisciplinary approach
Tarayre, Cédric ULiege; Charlier, Raphaëlle; Delepierre, Anissa ULiege et al

in Environmental Science and Pollution Research (2017)

Over the past decades, an increasing need in renewable resources has progressively appeared. This trend concerns not only fossil fuels but also mineral resources. Wastewater and sewage sludge contain ... [more ▼]

Over the past decades, an increasing need in renewable resources has progressively appeared. This trend concerns not only fossil fuels but also mineral resources. Wastewater and sewage sludge contain significant concentrations in phosphate and can be considered as a fertilizer source of the utmost importance. In wastewater treatment plants, the biological uptake of phosphate is performed by a specific microbiota: the phosphate-accumulating organisms. These microorganisms are recovered in sewage sludge. Here, we aimed to investigate the occurrence of phosphate accumulators in four wastewater treatment plants. A 16S metagenetic analysis identified the main bacterial phyla extracted from the aerobic treatment: α-Proteobacteria, β-Proteobacteria, and Sphingobacteria. An enrichment stage was performed to stimulate the specific growth of phosphate-accumulating bacteria in an acetate medium. An analysis of metabolic activities of sulfur and phosphorus highlighted strong modifications related to phosphorus and much less distinguishable effects with sulfur. A solid acetate medium containing 5-Br-4-Cl-3-indolyl phosphate was used to select potential phosphate-accumulating bacteria from the enriched consortia. The positive strains have been found to belong in the genera Acinetobacter, Corynebacterium, and Pseudomonas. Finally, electron microscopy was applied to the strains and allowed to confirm the presence of polyphosphate granules. Some of these bacteria contained granules the size of which exceeded 100 nm. [less ▲]

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See detailUsutu virus, Belgium, 2016
Garigliany, Mutien-Marie ULiege; Linden, Annick ULiege; Gilliaux, Gautier ULiege et al

in Infection, Genetics and Evolution : Journal of Molecular Epidemiology and Evolutionary Genetics of Infectious Diseases (2017), 48(1), 116-119

During late summer 2016, in a northwest European region extending over Belgium, the Netherlands and the eastern border of the German state of North Rhine Westphalia, an outbreak of wild bird deaths ... [more ▼]

During late summer 2016, in a northwest European region extending over Belgium, the Netherlands and the eastern border of the German state of North Rhine Westphalia, an outbreak of wild bird deaths occurred similar to those reported on the continent since 1996. Dead birds were necropsied and examined by complementary methods. Pathologic and immunohistological investigations strongly suggested an infection by Usutu virus. Subsequently, genomic segments of the said virus were detected, the virus was isolated and its complete genome was sequenced. The strain, designated Usutu-LIEGE, is a close phylogenetic relative of those isolated in Germany which form a distinct group within the USUV phylogeny, the so-called Europe_3 lineage. Should this outbreak recapitulate the characteristics of those in southwest Germany in 2011 and in/around Vienna (Austria) in 2001, it is expected that specific avian populations in the affected area will face a significant reduction in size for a few years. [less ▲]

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See detailDrawbacks and benefits of hygienic behavior in honey bees (Apis mellifera L.): a review
Leclercq, Gil; Pannebakker, Bart; Gengler, Nicolas ULiege et al

in Journal of Apicultural Research (2017), 56(4), 366-375

The hygienic behavior of honey bee workers contributes to the social immunity of colonies. The ability of workers to detect and remove unhealthy or dead brood prevents the transmission of brood diseases ... [more ▼]

The hygienic behavior of honey bee workers contributes to the social immunity of colonies. The ability of workers to detect and remove unhealthy or dead brood prevents the transmission of brood diseases inside the colony. Over the last five decades, this trait has been extensively studied and improved in several research and breeding programs. Given the strong interest for hygienic behavior, we here review the costs and benefits associated with this trait, extending preceding reviews on this subject from the late 1990s. Since the 1990s, there have been no major new insights on the efficiency of this behavior against American foulbrood and chalkbrood. However, the number of publications on hygienic behavior against the mite Varroa destructor has considerably increased, fueling the debate regarding the efficiency of hygienic behavior against this parasite. Breeding programs have shown that selection for a specific trait might also impact other traits. Thus, we also review the cost of trade-offs between hygienic behavior and other economically important traits for bee breeders. Overall, the benefits of hygienic behavior seem to largely outweigh its costs for both colonies and bee breeders. [less ▲]

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See detailNine facultative endosymbionts in aphids. A review
Guo, Jianqing ULiege; Hatt, Séverin ULiege; He, Kanglai et al

in Journal of Asia-Pacific Entomology (2017), 20

Aphids are frequently engaged in mutualistic associations with endosymbionts. Symbionts are bacterial or fungal microorganisms that can be obligate or facultative to aphids. Research showed facultative ... [more ▼]

Aphids are frequently engaged in mutualistic associations with endosymbionts. Symbionts are bacterial or fungal microorganisms that can be obligate or facultative to aphids. Research showed facultative (or secondary) symbionts have numerous effects on their host aphids such as resistance to heat shock, parasitoids and fungus etc., which may consequently promote a co-evolution between symbionts and hosts. However, this symbiotic relation may be affected by several factors, such as the ability of symbionts to spread from aphids to others within and across populations, and the cost of infections for hosts. Moreover, aphid-symbionts interactions may be affected by aphid living environment such as its host plant, the presence of natural enemies or the temperature. Here we firstly described the functions of nine facultative symbionts (Serratia symbiotica, Hamiltonella defensa, Regiella insecticola, Rickettsia, Rickettsiella, PAXS (pea aphid X-type symbiont), Spiroplasma, Wolbachia and Arsenophonus) studied in aphids one by one, and discussed the associations between these symbionts and aphids, plants and environment. We aim to have a better knowledge of the roles the facultative symbionts play in aphid biology, ecology and evolution, which we believe can provide new inspirations for aphid control. [less ▲]

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See detailIdentification of proteins from wild cardoon flowers (Cynara cardunculus L.) by a proteomic approach
Ben Amira, Amal; Bauwens, Julien ULiege; De Pauw, Edwin ULiege et al

in Journal of Chemical Biology (2017), 10

Proteomic approach was applied to identify total proteins, particularly the enzymatic content, from wild cardoon flowers. As the selection of an appropriate sample preparation method is the key for ... [more ▼]

Proteomic approach was applied to identify total proteins, particularly the enzymatic content, from wild cardoon flowers. As the selection of an appropriate sample preparation method is the key for getting reliable results, two different extraction/precipitation methods (trichloroacetic acid and phenol/ammonium acetate) were tested on fresh and lyophilized flowers. After two-dimensional electrophoresis (2D–E) separations, a better protein pattern was obtained after phenol extraction from lyophilized flowers. Only 46 % of the total analyzed spots resulted in a protein identification by mass spectrometry MALDI-TOF. Four proteases (cardosins A, E, G, and H), which have become a subject of great interest in dairy technology, were identified. They presented molecular weights and isoelectric points very close and high levels of homology between matched peptides sequences. The absence of the other cardosins (B, C, D, and F) could be an advantage, as it reduces the excessive proteolytic activity that causes bitter flavors and texture defects, during cheese making. [less ▲]

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See detailDispersion of Myzus persicae and transmission of Potato virus Y under elevated CO2 atmosphere
Bosquée, Emilie ULiege; Boullis, Antoine ULiege; Bertaux, Morgane et al

in Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata (2017), Accepted

Most phytoviruses use insect vectors to spread and infect the surrounding crop plants. Because atmospheric gas concentrations alter the physiology and metabolism of plants, we hypothesize that the ... [more ▼]

Most phytoviruses use insect vectors to spread and infect the surrounding crop plants. Because atmospheric gas concentrations alter the physiology and metabolism of plants, we hypothesize that the concentration of carbon dioxide affects the spread of viruses, due to modifications in the feeding behavior of the vector. Tobacco plants, Nicotiana tabacum L., and green peach aphids Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) were cultivated and raised, respectively, both under ambient (450ppm, termed aCO2) and elevated (800ppm, termed eCO2) concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2). For each atmospheric condition, we first evaluated the ability of the Potato Virus Y to spread in a small experimental design, from a central infected tobacco plant to two surrounding circles of healthy plants in presence of aphid vectors for seven days. The number of aphids recovered on each plant and the infection status (i.e. healthy vs infected) of the plants were assessed at the end of the experiment. We also evaluated the ability of aphids to transmit the virus under the two experimental atmospheres, by immediately transferring a single insect from an infected plant to a healthy one. The presence of virus in healthy plants was then determined. We found that aphid dispersal, as well as the associated spread of viruses, did not differ between the two atmospheres. On the other hand, we found that aphids grown under eCO2 were more efficient in transmitting viruses to healthy plants compared to aphids reared under aCO2 conditions. The results of this experiment indicate that: (1) the ability of an aphid vector to spread a phytovirus is not affected by the level of CO2 at short time and spatial scales, but (2) the concentration of CO2 may affect plant defences or the feeding behaviour of herbivorous insects, resulting in more efficient viral transmission from the vector to the host plant. [less ▲]

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See detailProteomic profile of aphids exposed to wheat with different contents of benzoxazinoids
Barrios–San Martín, Joceline; Bosquée, Emilie ULiege; Rubio-Melendez, Maria et al

in Physiological Entomology (2017), Accepted

Benzoxazinoids are key defence chemicals in cereals that are known to affect several aspects of aphid biology. However, little is known about how they affect aphid physiology. In this study, we report ... [more ▼]

Benzoxazinoids are key defence chemicals in cereals that are known to affect several aspects of aphid biology. However, little is known about how they affect aphid physiology. In this study, we report changes in the whole-body proteomic profiles of a DIMBOA-susceptible genotype of the grain aphid Sitobion avenae (F.) after being exposed to wheat cultivars containing contrasting levels of DIMBOA. The proteome was analysed after 14 (short term) and 28 days (long term) of rearing on these cultivars. Seventy-two proteins were differentially regulated among the treatments, and 49 were identified. Exposure to high-DIMBOA plants resulted in a higher number of proteins regulated long term. DIMBOA exposure in S. avenae initially generated greater cellular activities, mostly involving cytoskeleton function and possibly related to detoxification. This function appeared to be unimportant at long term and was eventually replaced by effects on metabolism function and homeostasis. Taken together, the result shows that aphids’ responses to the secondary plant compounds, such as DIMBOA, exhibit a temporal dynamic in the proteome, possibly helping aphids to overcome the effect of these toxic compounds. [less ▲]

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See detailSmall-scale production of crickets and impact on rural livelihoods
Caparros Megido, Rudy ULiege; Haubruge, Eric ULiege; Francis, Frédéric ULiege

in Insects as food and feed: From production to consumption (2017)

Small-scale production of edible insects could be a sustainable, cost-effective, and nutritious alternative to traditional livestock in poor rural areas. Among the diversity of edible insect species ... [more ▼]

Small-scale production of edible insects could be a sustainable, cost-effective, and nutritious alternative to traditional livestock in poor rural areas. Among the diversity of edible insect species, crickets are valuable candidates as they reproduce quickly in high numbers, require a reduced-size rearing space and could easily recycle agricultural or industrial by-products, while keeping high feed conversion ratio. This chapter will present an overview of four cricket species, Acheta domesticus, Gryllus bimaculatus, Teleogryllus testaceus, and Brachytrupes membranaceus reared at a small-scale level and will describe their corresponding rearing system. Strategies to promote and develop small-scale cricket farming in different countries will be presented throughout a state of play of the past and current projects. [less ▲]

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See detailCould new information influence attitudes to foods supplemented with edible insects?
Barsics, Fanny; Caparros Megido, Rudy ULiege; Brostaux, Yves ULiege et al

in British Food Journal (2017)

Purpose: Broader acceptance of entomophagy (i.e. human consumption of insects) will depend on factors that impact consumers’ perceptions of edible insects. The purpose of this study was to examine how a ... [more ▼]

Purpose: Broader acceptance of entomophagy (i.e. human consumption of insects) will depend on factors that impact consumers’ perceptions of edible insects. The purpose of this study was to examine how a broad-based information session would affect consumers’ perceptions and attitudes about an edible insect product. Design: During a taste testing session, preceded or followed by an information session about entomophagy, participants rated the organoleptic characteristics of two bread samples on 9-point hedonic scales. The two bread samples were identical, though one was faux-labelled as containing an insect product. Findings: General Linear Model (GLM) analysis showed effects of gender, information session exposure, entomophagy familiarity, and entomophagy experience on participants’ ratings of the samples. Wilcoxon‑Mann-Whitney ranked sum tests showed that appearance, flavour, and overall liking were significantly better rated for the bread sample labelled as insect-free by participants who attended the presentation a priori. Potential ways to improve information content and delivery in favour of encouraging dietary shifts are discussed. Practical applications: This study shows that information about insect-based products could change consumers’ perceptions of such products. The results provide clues regarding how the food industry can adapt communication for target audiences. Originality: Actual edible insect products were not used in this study. Paradoxically, it is the first to show the impact of an information session on the acceptability of edible insect products, by revealing participants’ perceptual expectations. [less ▲]

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See detailDevelopment and integration of entomopathogenic fungi for crops protection in Democratic Republic of Congo
Fingu Mabola, Junior Corneille ULiege; Bawin, Thomas; Nsevolo Miankeba, Papy et al

Poster (2017)

The Democratic Republic of the Congo (DR Congo) has enormous agricultural potentialities likely to contribute to its economic development. However, the sector is characterized by significant yield losses ... [more ▼]

The Democratic Republic of the Congo (DR Congo) has enormous agricultural potentialities likely to contribute to its economic development. However, the sector is characterized by significant yield losses due notably to the pressure of pests. In response to this situation, most farmers use synthetic chemical pesticides, despite the problems of residues on harvested materials and their widely documented side effects on biodiversity. Up to now, efforts are made to promote healthy farming in the long term, taking into account both economic and environmental aspects. According to this principals, pest management is now achieved through the combination of agronomic, biological and physical means, chemical control being the last resort if necessary. Considering the context of DR Congo, biological control remains by far the least developed of all means in pest management. This is due to the lack of technical equipment. Nevertheless, compared to entomophagous macroorganisms, microorganisms offer the advantage of not requiring substantial resources for their integration into agriculture. This is notably the case for entomopathogenic fungi (EF): in addition to the fact that they may be multiplied on readily available substrates, their abundance in nature makes it possible to isolate new, more efficient strains with more or less marked selectivity. However, very little research on EF is carried out in this country. The present study aims to integrate these biological control agents into the pest management strategy in DR Congo. This research project will focus on two approaches: (1) evaluation of the genetic diversity of EF strains in DR Congo, which will lead to the establishment of a reference collection; and (2) screening of potential candidates for biopesticide development. Researches will be carried out on the southwestern part of the country, focusing on insect cadavers and soil samples from cultivated areas. Pure strains will be isolated on synthetic culture media then identified according to their morphological, physiological and molecular traits. Biological tests including virulence and effectiveness under various environmental conditions in laboratory will be carried out against the most important agricultural pests to be determined following a field monitoring. Finally, culture trials of EF with locally available resources at low cost will be conducted to encourage the adoption of the technology. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Odor of Death: An Overview of Current Knowledge on Characterization and Applications
Verheggen, François ULiege; Perrault, Katelynn ULiege; Caparros Megido, Rudy ULiege et al

in Bioscience (2017)

After death, the human body undergoes various processes that result in the emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The interest in these VOCs has increased substantially in recent years because ... [more ▼]

After death, the human body undergoes various processes that result in the emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The interest in these VOCs has increased substantially in recent years because they are key attractants for necrophagous insects and vertebrate scavengers. Identifying cadaveric VOCs has required the effective development of analytical tools for collecting, separating, identifying, and quantifying the suite of VOCs released throughout decomposition. Analytical developments for studying cadaveric VOCs in vertebrates, ecological interactions of cadaveric VOCs with the abiotic and biotic environment, and the necessity for convergence of these two areas for the progression of future knowledge are discussed herein. [less ▲]

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See detailParasitisme d’Apis mellifera adansonii (Latreille 1804) et de Meliponula bocandei (Spinola 1853) par Aethina tumida (Murray 1867): premier recensement au Gabon et impact sur la domestication
Fabre Anguilet, Edgard ULiege; Alabi, Taofic ULiege; Haubruge, Eric ULiege et al

in Entomologie Faunistique = Faunistic Entomology (2017), 70

The small hive beetle, Aethina tumida (Murray 1867), has been reported in many countries in sub-Saharan Africa. This parasite is considered as a minor threat to strong Apis mellifera (Linnaeus 1758 ... [more ▼]

The small hive beetle, Aethina tumida (Murray 1867), has been reported in many countries in sub-Saharan Africa. This parasite is considered as a minor threat to strong Apis mellifera (Linnaeus 1758) colonies in Africa and as a major threat during the transfer of wild colonies of Meliponula bocandei (Spinola 1853) in hives. There is no data for Gabon and the state of wild colonies is still poorly known. Then, this study aims (1) to make a first prevalence assessment of A. tumida in wild colonies of A. mellifera and M. bocandei in Gabon; (2) to verify the effectiveness of quarantine implementation during the transfer of M. bocandei in hives against A. tumida. For that, 59 nests of A. mellifera and 25 nests of M. bocandei were inspected in two locations. Twelve nests of M. bocandei were transferred in hives with a quarantine for 4 days while 12 nests were transferred without quarantine. Aethina tumida was observed in more than 70 % of A. mellifera nests and in a single nest of M. bocandei. No damage was observed in nests of A. mellifera. More than 60 % of brood sections in quarantine or not were destroyed by A. tumida in hives. This study provided first evidence of the presence of A. tumida in Gabon and the need to develop a more effective method to domesticate M. bocandei in hives. [less ▲]

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See detailIdentification of walnut husk (Juglans regia L.) volatiles and the behavioural response of the invasiveWalnut Husk Fly, Rhagoletis completa Cresson
Sarles, Landry ULiege; Boullis, Antoine ULiege; Fassotte, Bérénice ULiege et al

in Pest Management Science (2017)

Abstract BACKGROUND: Several European countries are important walnut (Juglans regia L.) producers. However, these countries must contendwith the recent introduction of theWalnut Husk Fly,Rhagoletis ... [more ▼]

Abstract BACKGROUND: Several European countries are important walnut (Juglans regia L.) producers. However, these countries must contendwith the recent introduction of theWalnut Husk Fly,Rhagoletis completa Cresson (Diptera, Tephritidae),which is causing severe economic losses, especially in organic production. Because most Tephritid fruit flies use kairomones in their search for host plants, we hypothesise that this highly specialist species orients toward the volatile blend released by walnut husks. RESULTS:We collected, identified, and quantified the volatile organic chemicals (VOCs) released by walnut husks from themost commonly cultivated variety in France (Franquette). Then, the behavioural response of R. completa toward synthetic odour blends was recorded in dual choice assays conducted in net cages. A total of 26 VOCs were identified, with 𝜶-pinene, 𝜷-pinene, trans-linalool, eugenol, and tetradecane representing the major constituents. In the dual choice assay, male and female R. completa were strongly attracted to synthetic blend that includedmost of the identified husk VOCs. CONCLUSION:When searching for a host plant, R. completa use host fruit kairomones. The potential of these semiochemicals in monitoring andmanagement of this quarantine pest is discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailAbondance et diversité des communautés lombriciennes dans la Réserve et Domaine de Chasse de Bombo-Lumene (Kinshasa)
Milau Empwal, Fils; Lemtiri, Aboulkacem ULiege; KIFUKIETO MANZANZA, Carmel et al

in Int. J. Biol. Chem. Sci (2017)

Les vers de terre sont des espèces importantes des écosystèmes édaphiques dotées des capacités de transformer leur biotope et même parfois de créer de nouveaux habitats pour d’autres organismes. En effet ... [more ▼]

Les vers de terre sont des espèces importantes des écosystèmes édaphiques dotées des capacités de transformer leur biotope et même parfois de créer de nouveaux habitats pour d’autres organismes. En effet, ils modifient la morphologie, la structure et la composition du sol par leur action à la fois physique, chimique et biologique. Ils ont ainsi une implication intéressante dans la fertilité et le cycle des nutriments du sol. Cette étude a été effectuée dans la Réserve et Domaine de Chasse de Bombo-Lumene (RDCBL) à Kinshasa. Elle avait pour objectif d’évaluer l’effet de l’occupation du sol sur la composition et la structure des communautés lombriciennes. Dix-huit parcelles regroupées en 6 biotopes ont été échantillonnées: les forêts denses semi décidues, les galeries forestières, les recrûs forestiers, les savanes arborescentes, les savanes herbeuses, et les sols sous culture. Au total, 10 espèces de vers de terre ont été identifiées. Elles appartiennent aux deux grandes familles tropicales : celle des Acanthodrilidae et celle des Eudrilidae. Les biotopes naturels sont les plus riches en termes de richesse d’espèces comparés aux biotopes les plus anthropisés. Dans cette étude, le type d’occupation du sol affecte considérablement la diversité des vers de terre. [less ▲]

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See detailCooking Has Variable Effects on the Fermentability in the Large Intestine of the Fraction of Meats, Grain Legumes, and Insects That Is Resistant to Digestion in the Small Intestine in an in Vitro Model of the Pig’s Gastrointestinal Tract
POELAERT, Christine ULiege; Despret, Xavier; Sindic, Marianne ULiege et al

in Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry (2017), 65

This study aimed to evaluate the fermentation in the large intestine of indigestible dietary protein sources from animal, insect, and plant origin using an in vitro model of the pig’s gastrointestinal ... [more ▼]

This study aimed to evaluate the fermentation in the large intestine of indigestible dietary protein sources from animal, insect, and plant origin using an in vitro model of the pig’s gastrointestinal tract. Protein sources were used raw and after a cooking treatment. Results showed that the category of the ingredient (meats, insects, or grain legumes) exerts a stronger impact on enzymatic digestibility, fermentation patterns, and bacterial metabolites such as short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) than the cooking treatment. The digestibility and the fermentation characteristics of insects were more affected by the cooking procedure than the other categories. Per gram of consumed food, ingredients from animal origin, namely, meats and insects, were associated with fewer fermentation end-products (gas, H2S, SCFA) than ingredients from plant origin, which is related to their higher small intestinal digestibility. [less ▲]

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See detailDo flower mixtures with high functional diversity enhance aphid predators in wildflower strips?
Hatt, Séverin ULiege; Uyttenbroeck, Roel ULiege; Chevalier Mendes Lopes, Thomas ULiege et al

in European Journal of Entomology (2017), 114

Among semi-natural elements in agricultural landscapes, wildflower strips sown at field margins or within fields represent potential habitats for the natural enemies of insect pests. As insects are ... [more ▼]

Among semi-natural elements in agricultural landscapes, wildflower strips sown at field margins or within fields represent potential habitats for the natural enemies of insect pests. As insects are sensitive to a variety of flower traits, we hypothesised that mixtures with high functional diversity attract and support a higher abundance and species richness of aphid flower visiting predators compared to mixtures with low functional diversity. During a field experiment, repeated over two years (2014 and 2015) in Gembloux (Belgium), aphid predators (i.e., lacewings, ladybeetles and hoverflies) were pan-trapped in five sown flower mixtures (including a control mixture, with three replicates of each mixture) of low to high functional diversity based on seven traits (i.e., flower colour, ultra-violet reflectance and pattern, blooming start and duration, height and flower class, primarily based on corolla morphology). In both years, flower species in the sown mixtures (i.e., sown and spontaneous flowers) were listed, and the realised functional diversity of each plot was calculated. Over the two years, an increase in functional diversity did not result in an increase in the abundance and richness of aphid predators. Moreover, ladybeetles, representing the majority of trapped predators, were more abundant in mixtures with very low or intermediary functional diversity at sowing, especially in 2014. We hypothesise that certain flower species, which were abundant in certain mixtures (and not in those exhibiting the highest functional diversity), attracted predators and were sufficiently represented to support them. Our results present novel information that could be used to the development of flower mixtures that provide effective ecosystem services, such as pest control. [less ▲]

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See detailPest regulation and support of natural enemies in agriculture: Experimental evidence of within field wildflower strips
Hatt, Séverin ULiege; Chevalier Mendes Lopes, Thomas ULiege; Boeraeve, Fanny ULiege et al

in Ecological Engineering (2017), 98

tRestoring ecosystem services in agriculture is vital to reach a sustainable food production. More specif-ically, developing farming practices which enhance biological pest control is a main issue for ... [more ▼]

tRestoring ecosystem services in agriculture is vital to reach a sustainable food production. More specif-ically, developing farming practices which enhance biological pest control is a main issue for today’sagriculture. The aim of this study was to assess whether the two strategies of complicating the search ofhost plants by pests by increasing plant diversity, and of supporting their natural enemies by managinghabitats, could be combined simultaneously at the field scale to restore biological pest control and reducechemical insecticide use. In Gembloux (Belgium), wildflower strips (WFS) were sown within wheat cropsin which pests (i.e., aphids), their predators (i.e. aphidophagous hoverflies, lacewings and ladybeetles)and parasitoid wasps were monitored for 10 weeks in the period of May through July 2015 as indicatorsof the ES of pest control. Aphids were significantly reduced and adult hoverflies favoured in wheat inbetween WFS, compared to monoculture wheat plots. No significant differences were observed for adultlacewings, ladybeetles and parasitoids. In all treatments, very few lacewing and ladybeetle larvae wereobserved on wheat tillers. The abundance of hoverfly larvae was positively correlated with the aphid den-sity on tillers in between WFS, showing that increasing food provisions by multiplying habitats withinfields, and not only along margins, can help supporting aphidophagous hoverflies in crops. By enhancingthe ecosystem services of biological pest control, this study shows that increasing both plant diversityand managing habitats for natural enemies may reduce aphid populations, hence insecticide use. Futureresearch should continue this vein of work by quantifying the link between agricultural practices and thedelivery of ecosystem services in order to guide future measures of agricultural policies. [less ▲]

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See detailInsects complex associated with the tropical basil, Ocimum gratissimum L. (Lamiaceae) in southern Benin.
Yarou, Boni Barthélémy ULiege; Bokonon-Ganta, H. Aimé; Assogba Komlan, Françoise et al

Poster (2016, December 16)

Tropical basil is an aromatic leafy vegetable used for its medicinal and therapeutic properties in numerous countries in West Africa (Benin, Nigeria, Togo, etc.). In Benin, it is produced on almost all ... [more ▼]

Tropical basil is an aromatic leafy vegetable used for its medicinal and therapeutic properties in numerous countries in West Africa (Benin, Nigeria, Togo, etc.). In Benin, it is produced on almost all urban and periurban garden throughout the year for fresh market. Until now there are few or nearly no publications about the arthropod community of this specie, even less in the context of Benin. Thus, to assess this community, basil plots were mowed using a sweep net in three localities (Ouidah, Togba and Sèmè) of southern Benin. Preliminary results focus on the different insect families that colonized tropical basil in southern Benin environmental conditions. These include: Aphididae (Homoptera), Cercopidae (Homoptera), Chrysomelidae (Coleoptera), Coccinelledidea (Coleoptera), Meloidae (Coleoptera), Braconidae (Hymenoptera), Ichneumonidae (Hymenoptera), Formicidae (Hymenoptera), Vespidae (Hymenoptera), Apoidae (Hymenoptera), Reduviidae (Heteroptera), Pentatomidae (Heteroptera), Pyrgomorphidae (Orthoptera), Acrididae (Orthoptera), Syrphidae (Diptera), Diopsidae (Diptera). Among these families, there are pests: Aphis gossypii G. (Homoptera: Aphididae), Zonocerus variegatus L. (Orthoptera: Pyrgomorphidae), etc.; predators: Ischiodon aegyptius W. (Diptera: Syrphidae), Cheilomenes spp. (Coleoptera: Coccinelledidea), Rhynocoris spp. (Heteroptera: Reduviidae), etc.; parasitoids and pollinators. From this study, it appeared that there is a large diversity of families and functional groups (pests, predators, parasitoids and pollinators) associated with tropical basil . Moreover, the presence of natural enemies could be an advantage for farmers in intercropping systems. This would help reduce the use of synthetic insecticides. This result, which is a first knowledge of the insect fauna associated with tropical basil under the environmental conditions of Southern Benin, will be supplemented by a spatio temporal study to assess the variability and the dynamics of this insect fauna. [less ▲]

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See detailTuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) ability to develop on potato tubers
Bawin, Thomas ULiege; De Backer, Lara ULiege; Yarou, Boni Barthélémy ULiege et al

Poster (2016, December 16)

Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) is a widespread pest that threatens commercial production of solanaceous crops. Larvae feed on the mesophyll of all aerial parts of the plants resulting in ... [more ▼]

Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) is a widespread pest that threatens commercial production of solanaceous crops. Larvae feed on the mesophyll of all aerial parts of the plants resulting in significant yield losses and cosmetic damages.It is classically assumed that underground plant parts are not affected but larval development on potato tubers has recently been suspected. However, this assumption is poorly supported in the literature. Potato tubers might represent an unsuspected mean of persistence and dispersal in agricultural environments.Oviposition tests were here conducted using dormant and active (sprouts less than 5 cm) potato tubers in net cages. Oviposition only occurred on the sprouts of active tubers, supporting larval growth until adult emergency. Tuber dissection revealed burrows starting from sprouts inside the flesh. Additional fitness assays were conducted on non-sprouted tubers and revealed that first instar larvae were able to enter the skin and create burrows, living inside and feeding on potato flesh, although none of them survived. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Impact of Diseases Transmission in Pollinators Decline
Noël, Grégoire ULiege; Bebermans, Julien ULiege; Colinet, Frédéric ULiege et al

Scientific conference (2016, December 02)

Ongoing global biodiversity loss is a growing concern for our society. This involves also the pollinators community which ensures insect-pollinated plant reproduction in our natural environment and ... [more ▼]

Ongoing global biodiversity loss is a growing concern for our society. This involves also the pollinators community which ensures insect-pollinated plant reproduction in our natural environment and provides a great ecosystem service to mankind, particularly for food safety and human welfare. The aim of this study is two-fold: i) to produce a comprehensive update of the decline of pollinators at global scale and ii) to focus especially on the issue of pollinators disease transmission. In this research we argue that the cause of insect-pollinator decline is multi-factorial, including anthropogenic pressures such as land-use change (habitats loss, agricultural intensification…), climate change, pesticides and the spread of alien species and diseases. It also appears that the high prevalence of a broad range of insects and commercial use of pollinators are key drivers of pathogens transmission (virus, parasites …). However, the dynamics of pathogens transmission is still poorly known and, in turn, more scientific research must be performed to have a better insight of this issue. Finally, pollinators decline results from synergetic actions among these stress generators at different spatio-temporal levels emphasized by the globalization of commercial exchanges. [less ▲]

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