References of "Francis, Frédéric"
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See detailIdentification of proteins from wild cardoon flowers (Cynara cardunculus L.) by a proteomic approach
Ben Amira, Amal; Bauwens, Julien ULg; De Pauw, Edwin ULg et al

in Journal of Chemical Biology (in press)

Proteomic approach was applied to identify total proteins, particularly the enzymatic content, from wild cardoon flowers. As the selection of an appropriate sample preparation method is the key for ... [more ▼]

Proteomic approach was applied to identify total proteins, particularly the enzymatic content, from wild cardoon flowers. As the selection of an appropriate sample preparation method is the key for getting reliable results, two different extraction/precipitation methods (trichloroacetic acid and phenol/ammonium acetate) were tested on fresh and lyophilized flowers. After two-dimensional electrophoresis (2D–E) separations, a better protein pattern was obtained after phenol extraction from lyophilized flowers. Only 46 % of the total analyzed spots resulted in a protein identification by mass spectrometry MALDI-TOF. Four proteases (cardosins A, E, G, and H), which have become a subject of great interest in dairy technology, were identified. They presented molecular weights and isoelectric points very close and high levels of homology between matched peptides sequences. The absence of the other cardosins (B, C, D, and F) could be an advantage, as it reduces the excessive proteolytic activity that causes bitter flavors and texture defects, during cheese making. [less ▲]

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See detailInsect fatty acids: A comparison of lipids from three Orthopterans and Tenebrio molitor L. larvae
Paul, Aman ULg; Frederich, Michel ULg; Caparros Megido, Rudy ULg et al

in Journal of Asia-Pacific Entomology (2017), 20(2), 337-340

In order to explore some potential insect sources of food lipids, the lipid compositions of three Orthopterans (Acheta domesticus, Conocephalus discolor and Chorthippus parallelus) were analyzed and ... [more ▼]

In order to explore some potential insect sources of food lipids, the lipid compositions of three Orthopterans (Acheta domesticus, Conocephalus discolor and Chorthippus parallelus) were analyzed and compared with those of Tenebrio molitor larvae. A. domesticus, Co. discolor, Ch. parallelus and T. molitor larvae were found to contain approximately 15%, 13%, 10% and 32% lipids on dry weight, respectively. The lipids from three Orthopterans contain much higher amounts of essential fatty acids than those of T. molitor larvae. The two Orthopterans of the suborder Ensifera i.e., A. domesticus and Co. discolor contain linoleic acid in major quantities, while Ch. parallelus of the suborder Caelifera, contain α-linolenic acid in major quantities. The consumption of linoleic and α-linolenic fatty acid is linked with numerous health promoting effects. The factors that contribute to differences in fatty acid profiles of these insects are being discussed. At last the nutritional parameters including polyunsaturated to saturated and omega 6 to omega 3 fatty acid ratios of these insect lipids are also being discussed to understand the potential role of these lipids in human nutrition. [less ▲]

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See detailStress indicator gene expression profiles, colony dynamics and tissue development of honey bees exposed to sub-lethal doses of imidacloprid in laboratory and field experiments
De Smet, Lina; Hatjina; Ioannidis, Pavlos et al

in PLOS One (2017), 10(137),

In this study, different context-dependent effects of imidacloprid exposure on the honey bee response were studied. Honey bees were exposed to different concentrations of imidacloprid during a time period ... [more ▼]

In this study, different context-dependent effects of imidacloprid exposure on the honey bee response were studied. Honey bees were exposed to different concentrations of imidacloprid during a time period of 40 days. Next to these variables, a laboratory-field comparison was conducted. The influence of the chronic exposure on gene expression levels was determined using an in-house developed microarray targeting different immunity-related and detoxification genes to determine stress-related gene expression changes. Increased levels of the detoxification genes encoding, CYP9Q3 and CYT P450, were detected in imidacloprid- exposed honey bees. The different context-dependent effects of imidacloprid exposure on honey bees were confirmed physiologically by decreased hypopharyngeal gland sizes. Honey bees exposed to imidacloprid in laboratory cages showed a general immunosuppression and no detoxification mechanisms were triggered significantly, while honey bees infield showed a resilient response with an immune stimulation at later time points. However, the treated colonies had a brood and population decline tendency after the first brood cycle in the field. In conclusion, this study highlighted the different context-dependent effects of imidacloprid exposure on the honey bee response. These findings warn for possible pitfalls concerning the generalization of results based on specific experiments with short exposure times. The increased levels of CYT P450 and CYP9Q3 combined with an immune response reaction can be used as markers for bees which are exposed to pesticides in the field. [less ▲]

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See detailStructure and distribution of the sensilla on the antennae of Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)
Bawin, Thomas ULg; Collard, France ULg; De Backer, Lara ULg et al

in Micron (2017), 96

The tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), is a widespread devastating pest that develops on tomato and other economically important solanaceous crops. Current semiochemically-based ... [more ▼]

The tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), is a widespread devastating pest that develops on tomato and other economically important solanaceous crops. Current semiochemically-based management strategies still fail to significantly reduce damages and need to be improved. Here we describe under scanning and transmission electron microscopy the structure and distribution of the sensilla that are displayed on adult antennae. These were similar in size between males (3424.4 ± 135.3 μm) and females (3292.1 ± 111.5 μm), being segmented into a scape, a pedicel, and a distal filiform flagellum. Eight morphological sensilla types were observed on both sexes: Böhm’s bristles, sensilla squamiformia, sensilla trichodea, sensilla basiconica (two subtypes), sensilla chaetica, sensilla coeloconica, sensilla auricillica, and sensilla styloconica. The main sexual dimorphism was related to the higher abundance of sensilla trichodea in males, twice as abundant as in females. The putative functional significance of the different sensilla types regarding the insect ecology is discussed based on the available literature. This work provides descriptions of the antennae and related sensory structures. We expect these results to help develop further electrophysiological investigations aiming to a better understanding of T. absoluta olfaction. [less ▲]

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See detailMicrobiological load of edible insects found in Belgium
Caparros Megido, Rudy ULg; Desmedt, Sandrine; Blecker, Christophe ULg et al

in Insects (2017)

Edible insects are gaining more and more attention as a sustainable source of animal protein for food and feed in the future. In Belgium, some insect products can be found on the market, and consumers are ... [more ▼]

Edible insects are gaining more and more attention as a sustainable source of animal protein for food and feed in the future. In Belgium, some insect products can be found on the market, and consumers are sourcing fresh insects from fishing stores or towards traditional markets to find exotic insects that are illegal and not sanitarily controlled. From this perspective, this study aims to characterize the microbial load of edible insects found in Belgium (i.e., fresh mealworms and house crickets from European farms and smoked termites and caterpillars from a traditional Congolese market) and to evaluate the efficiency of different processing methods (blanching for all species and freeze-drying and sterilization for European species) in reducing microorganism counts. All untreated insect samples had a total aerobic count higher than the limit for fresh minced meat (6.7 log cfu/g). Nevertheless, a species-dependent blanching step has led to a reduction of the total aerobic count under this limit, except for one caterpillar species. Freeze-drying and sterilization treatments on European species were also effective in reducing the total aerobic count. Yeast and mold counts for untreated insects were above the Good Manufacturing Practice limits for raw meat, but all treatments attained a reduction of these microorganisms under this limit. These results confirmed that fresh insects, but also smoked insects from non-European trades, need a cooking step (at least composed of a first blanching step) before consumption. Therefore, blanching timing for each studied insect species is proposed and discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailElevated carbon dioxide concentration reduces alarm signaling in aphids
Boullis, Antoine ULg; Fassotte, Bérénice ULg; Sarles, Landry ULg et al

in Journal of Chemical Ecology (2017), 43

Insects often rely on olfaction to communicate with surrounding conspecifics. While the chemical language of insects has been deciphered in recent decades, few studies have assessed how changes in ... [more ▼]

Insects often rely on olfaction to communicate with surrounding conspecifics. While the chemical language of insects has been deciphered in recent decades, few studies have assessed how changes in atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations will impact pheromonal communication by insects. Here, we hypothesize that changes in the concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) affect the whole dynamics of alarm signaling in aphids, including: (1) the production of the active compound (E)-β-farnesene (Eβf), (2) emission behavior when under attack, (3) perception by the olfactory apparatus, and (4) the escape response. We reared two strains of the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum under ambient and elevated CO2 concentrations for several generations. We found that an increase in CO2 concentration reduced the production (i.e., individual content) and emission of Eβf (released under predation events). While no difference in Eβf neuronal perception was observed, we found that an increase in CO2 strongly reduces the escape behavior expressed by an aphid colony following exposure to natural doses of the alarm pheromone. In conclusion, our results confirm that changes to greenhouse gases do impact chemical communication in insects, and could potentially have a cascade effect on interactions with higher trophic levels. [less ▲]

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See detailLooking for phosphate-accumulating bacteria in activated sludge processes : a multidisciplinary approach
Tarayre, Cédric ULg; Charlier, Raphaëlle; Delepierre, Anissa ULg et al

in Environmental Science and Pollution Research (2017)

Over the past decades, an increasing need in renewable resources has progressively appeared. This trend concerns not only fossil fuels but also mineral resources. Wastewater and sewage sludge contain ... [more ▼]

Over the past decades, an increasing need in renewable resources has progressively appeared. This trend concerns not only fossil fuels but also mineral resources. Wastewater and sewage sludge contain significant concentrations in phosphate and can be considered as a fertilizer source of the utmost importance. In wastewater treatment plants, the biological uptake of phosphate is performed by a specific microbiota: the phosphate-accumulating organisms. These microorganisms are recovered in sewage sludge. Here, we aimed to investigate the occurrence of phosphate accumulators in four wastewater treatment plants. A 16S metagenetic analysis identified the main bacterial phyla extracted from the aerobic treatment: α-Proteobacteria, β-Proteobacteria, and Sphingobacteria. An enrichment stage was performed to stimulate the specific growth of phosphate-accumulating bacteria in an acetate medium. An analysis of metabolic activities of sulfur and phosphorus highlighted strong modifications related to phosphorus and much less distinguishable effects with sulfur. A solid acetate medium containing 5-Br-4-Cl-3-indolyl phosphate was used to select potential phosphate-accumulating bacteria from the enriched consortia. The positive strains have been found to belong in the genera Acinetobacter, Corynebacterium, and Pseudomonas. Finally, electron microscopy was applied to the strains and allowed to confirm the presence of polyphosphate granules. Some of these bacteria contained granules the size of which exceeded 100 nm. [less ▲]

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See detailUsutu virus, Belgium, 2016
Garigliany, Mutien-Marie ULg; Linden, Annick ULg; Gilliaux, Gautier ULg et al

in Infection, Genetics and Evolution : Journal of Molecular Epidemiology and Evolutionary Genetics of Infectious Diseases (2017), 48(1), 116-119

During late summer 2016, in a northwest European region extending over Belgium, the Netherlands and the eastern border of the German state of North Rhine Westphalia, an outbreak of wild bird deaths ... [more ▼]

During late summer 2016, in a northwest European region extending over Belgium, the Netherlands and the eastern border of the German state of North Rhine Westphalia, an outbreak of wild bird deaths occurred similar to those reported on the continent since 1996. Dead birds were necropsied and examined by complementary methods. Pathologic and immunohistological investigations strongly suggested an infection by Usutu virus. Subsequently, genomic segments of the said virus were detected, the virus was isolated and its complete genome was sequenced. The strain, designated Usutu-LIEGE, is a close phylogenetic relative of those isolated in Germany which form a distinct group within the USUV phylogeny, the so-called Europe_3 lineage. Should this outbreak recapitulate the characteristics of those in southwest Germany in 2011 and in/around Vienna (Austria) in 2001, it is expected that specific avian populations in the affected area will face a significant reduction in size for a few years. [less ▲]

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See detailCooking Has Variable Effects on the Fermentability in the Large Intestine of the Fraction of Meats, Grain Legumes, and Insects That Is Resistant to Digestion in the Small Intestine in an in Vitro Model of the Pig’s Gastrointestinal Tract
POELAERT, Christine ULg; Despret, Xavier; Sindic, Marianne ULg et al

in Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry (2017), 65

This study aimed to evaluate the fermentation in the large intestine of indigestible dietary protein sources from animal, insect, and plant origin using an in vitro model of the pig’s gastrointestinal ... [more ▼]

This study aimed to evaluate the fermentation in the large intestine of indigestible dietary protein sources from animal, insect, and plant origin using an in vitro model of the pig’s gastrointestinal tract. Protein sources were used raw and after a cooking treatment. Results showed that the category of the ingredient (meats, insects, or grain legumes) exerts a stronger impact on enzymatic digestibility, fermentation patterns, and bacterial metabolites such as short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) than the cooking treatment. The digestibility and the fermentation characteristics of insects were more affected by the cooking procedure than the other categories. Per gram of consumed food, ingredients from animal origin, namely, meats and insects, were associated with fewer fermentation end-products (gas, H2S, SCFA) than ingredients from plant origin, which is related to their higher small intestinal digestibility. [less ▲]

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See detailDo flower mixtures with high functional diversity enhance aphid predators in wildflower strips?
Hatt, Séverin ULg; Uyttenbroeck, Roel ULg; Chevalier Mendes Lopes, Thomas ULg et al

in European Journal of Entomology (2017), 114

Among semi-natural elements in agricultural landscapes, wildflower strips sown at field margins or within fields represent potential habitats for the natural enemies of insect pests. As insects are ... [more ▼]

Among semi-natural elements in agricultural landscapes, wildflower strips sown at field margins or within fields represent potential habitats for the natural enemies of insect pests. As insects are sensitive to a variety of flower traits, we hypothesised that mixtures with high functional diversity attract and support a higher abundance and species richness of aphid flower visiting predators compared to mixtures with low functional diversity. During a field experiment, repeated over two years (2014 and 2015) in Gembloux (Belgium), aphid predators (i.e., lacewings, ladybeetles and hoverflies) were pan-trapped in five sown flower mixtures (including a control mixture, with three replicates of each mixture) of low to high functional diversity based on seven traits (i.e., flower colour, ultra-violet reflectance and pattern, blooming start and duration, height and flower class, primarily based on corolla morphology). In both years, flower species in the sown mixtures (i.e., sown and spontaneous flowers) were listed, and the realised functional diversity of each plot was calculated. Over the two years, an increase in functional diversity did not result in an increase in the abundance and richness of aphid predators. Moreover, ladybeetles, representing the majority of trapped predators, were more abundant in mixtures with very low or intermediary functional diversity at sowing, especially in 2014. We hypothesise that certain flower species, which were abundant in certain mixtures (and not in those exhibiting the highest functional diversity), attracted predators and were sufficiently represented to support them. Our results present novel information that could be used to the development of flower mixtures that provide effective ecosystem services, such as pest control. [less ▲]

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See detailPest regulation and support of natural enemies in agriculture: Experimental evidence of within field wildflower strips
Hatt, Séverin ULg; Chevalier Mendes Lopes, Thomas ULg; Boeraeve, Fanny ULg et al

in Ecological Engineering (2017), 98

tRestoring ecosystem services in agriculture is vital to reach a sustainable food production. More specif-ically, developing farming practices which enhance biological pest control is a main issue for ... [more ▼]

tRestoring ecosystem services in agriculture is vital to reach a sustainable food production. More specif-ically, developing farming practices which enhance biological pest control is a main issue for today’sagriculture. The aim of this study was to assess whether the two strategies of complicating the search ofhost plants by pests by increasing plant diversity, and of supporting their natural enemies by managinghabitats, could be combined simultaneously at the field scale to restore biological pest control and reducechemical insecticide use. In Gembloux (Belgium), wildflower strips (WFS) were sown within wheat cropsin which pests (i.e., aphids), their predators (i.e. aphidophagous hoverflies, lacewings and ladybeetles)and parasitoid wasps were monitored for 10 weeks in the period of May through July 2015 as indicatorsof the ES of pest control. Aphids were significantly reduced and adult hoverflies favoured in wheat inbetween WFS, compared to monoculture wheat plots. No significant differences were observed for adultlacewings, ladybeetles and parasitoids. In all treatments, very few lacewing and ladybeetle larvae wereobserved on wheat tillers. The abundance of hoverfly larvae was positively correlated with the aphid den-sity on tillers in between WFS, showing that increasing food provisions by multiplying habitats withinfields, and not only along margins, can help supporting aphidophagous hoverflies in crops. By enhancingthe ecosystem services of biological pest control, this study shows that increasing both plant diversityand managing habitats for natural enemies may reduce aphid populations, hence insecticide use. Futureresearch should continue this vein of work by quantifying the link between agricultural practices and thedelivery of ecosystem services in order to guide future measures of agricultural policies. [less ▲]

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See detailInsects complex associated with the tropical basil, Ocimum gratissimum L. (Lamiaceae) in southern Benin.
Yarou, Boni Barthélémy ULg; Bokonon-Ganta, H. Aimé; Assogba Komlan, Françoise et al

Poster (2016, December 16)

Tropical basil is an aromatic leafy vegetable used for its medicinal and therapeutic properties in numerous countries in West Africa (Benin, Nigeria, Togo, etc.). In Benin, it is produced on almost all ... [more ▼]

Tropical basil is an aromatic leafy vegetable used for its medicinal and therapeutic properties in numerous countries in West Africa (Benin, Nigeria, Togo, etc.). In Benin, it is produced on almost all urban and periurban garden throughout the year for fresh market. Until now there are few or nearly no publications about the arthropod community of this specie, even less in the context of Benin. Thus, to assess this community, basil plots were mowed using a sweep net in three localities (Ouidah, Togba and Sèmè) of southern Benin. Preliminary results focus on the different insect families that colonized tropical basil in southern Benin environmental conditions. These include: Aphididae (Homoptera), Cercopidae (Homoptera), Chrysomelidae (Coleoptera), Coccinelledidea (Coleoptera), Meloidae (Coleoptera), Braconidae (Hymenoptera), Ichneumonidae (Hymenoptera), Formicidae (Hymenoptera), Vespidae (Hymenoptera), Apoidae (Hymenoptera), Reduviidae (Heteroptera), Pentatomidae (Heteroptera), Pyrgomorphidae (Orthoptera), Acrididae (Orthoptera), Syrphidae (Diptera), Diopsidae (Diptera). Among these families, there are pests: Aphis gossypii G. (Homoptera: Aphididae), Zonocerus variegatus L. (Orthoptera: Pyrgomorphidae), etc.; predators: Ischiodon aegyptius W. (Diptera: Syrphidae), Cheilomenes spp. (Coleoptera: Coccinelledidea), Rhynocoris spp. (Heteroptera: Reduviidae), etc.; parasitoids and pollinators. From this study, it appeared that there is a large diversity of families and functional groups (pests, predators, parasitoids and pollinators) associated with tropical basil . Moreover, the presence of natural enemies could be an advantage for farmers in intercropping systems. This would help reduce the use of synthetic insecticides. This result, which is a first knowledge of the insect fauna associated with tropical basil under the environmental conditions of Southern Benin, will be supplemented by a spatio temporal study to assess the variability and the dynamics of this insect fauna. [less ▲]

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See detailTuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) ability to develop on potato tubers
Bawin, Thomas ULg; De Backer, Lara ULg; Yarou, Boni Barthélémy ULg et al

Poster (2016, December 16)

Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) is a widespread pest that threatens commercial production of solanaceous crops. Larvae feed on the mesophyll of all aerial parts of the plants resulting in ... [more ▼]

Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) is a widespread pest that threatens commercial production of solanaceous crops. Larvae feed on the mesophyll of all aerial parts of the plants resulting in significant yield losses and cosmetic damages.It is classically assumed that underground plant parts are not affected but larval development on potato tubers has recently been suspected. However, this assumption is poorly supported in the literature. Potato tubers might represent an unsuspected mean of persistence and dispersal in agricultural environments.Oviposition tests were here conducted using dormant and active (sprouts less than 5 cm) potato tubers in net cages. Oviposition only occurred on the sprouts of active tubers, supporting larval growth until adult emergency. Tuber dissection revealed burrows starting from sprouts inside the flesh. Additional fitness assays were conducted on non-sprouted tubers and revealed that first instar larvae were able to enter the skin and create burrows, living inside and feeding on potato flesh, although none of them survived. [less ▲]

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See detailOviposition deterring effect of Ocimum basilicum L. (Lamiaceae) on Tuta absoluta Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)
Yarou, Boni Barthélémy ULg; Bawin, Thomas ULg; Boullis, Antoine ULg et al

Poster (2016, December 02)

Tuta absoluta Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) is one of the most important pests of tomato, reducing crop yield in greenhouses and fields, in several countries around the world. Because synthetic ... [more ▼]

Tuta absoluta Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) is one of the most important pests of tomato, reducing crop yield in greenhouses and fields, in several countries around the world. Because synthetic insecticides lead to resistance and have adverse effects on natural enemies and producers’ health, there is a need for alternatives. In this study, we assess the oviposition deterring effect of O. basilicum using dual-choice behavioral assays performed in flight tunnels. Two modalities were tested, i.e. (1) a tomato plant associated either with an O. basilicum plant versus a tomato plant associated with a plastic pot only filled with potting soil, and (2) a tomato plant with basil essential oil (EO) formulated in paraffin oil (PO) versus a tomato plant with PO only. A 1 ml cylindrical polyethylene plug loaded with 100 µl of solution (formulated EO or PO) was placed on each plant as a diffuser. Forty-eight hours after the release of unsexed adult individuals randomly sampled from the rearing in the central area of the tunnel, we found that plants and EOs reduced T. absoluta oviposition behavior on a nearby located tomato plant. GC-MS analyses showed that the major constituents include estragol (73.8%), linalool (8.6%), β-elemene (2.9%) in O. basilicum essential oils and E-α-bergamotene (38.9%), methyl eugenol (26.1 %), E-β-ocimene (17.7 % ) in O. basilicum VOCs collected with solid-phase micro-extraction method. These results suggest a valuable potential of O. basilicum and associated essential oils as component of an integrated management strategy against the tomato leafminer. [less ▲]

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See detailNutritional Composition and Rearing Potential of the Meadow Grasshopper (Chorthippus parallelus Zetterstedt)
Paul, Aman ULg; Frederich, Michel ULg; Uyttenbroeck, Roel ULg et al

in Journal of Asia-Pacific Entomology (2016), 19(4), 1111-1116

Insects, particularly those belonging to the family Acrididae (grasshoppers), are commonly consumed as human food in many parts of the world. Grasshoppers of the species Chorthippus parallelus are ... [more ▼]

Insects, particularly those belonging to the family Acrididae (grasshoppers), are commonly consumed as human food in many parts of the world. Grasshoppers of the species Chorthippus parallelus are abundantly found throughout Europe. However, these insects were not consumed by Europeans till now, but could possibly be used as human food, which is why we investigated their chemical composition. We found that they contain high level of proteins (69%), with an excellent amino acid profile and protein digestibility (97%). Furthermore, specimens of C. parallelus have an interesting fatty acids profile and minerals composition. Preliminary toxicity assessment indicates that these insects do not exhibit toxicity towards neutrophil cells (white blood cells). These data suggest that C. parallelus could be considered for human consumption. Rearing trials done during the study show that commercial rearing could be developed to produce sufficient biomass for sustaining human consumption. [less ▲]

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See detail两种挥发性化学信息素与小麦-豌豆间作协同作用
Xu, Qingxuan ULg; Chevalier Mendes Lopes, Thomas ULg; Hatt, Séverin ULg et al

Conference (2016, November 10)

当今的害虫防治理念已从传统的“杀灭”转向科学的“调控”,生态调控成为可持续农业领域中的研究热点之一。间作提高农作物的多样性是作物虫害生态调控途径之一,间作作物导致农田生物多样性增加、为天敌昆虫提供食物和避难所,从而使天敌种类和数量增加,为目标害虫控治作用增强。已有结果表明小麦与豌豆间作、混作,不仅有效降低小麦上麦长管蚜的种群数量,增加了天敌控制害虫的稳定性和持续性, ... [more ▼]

当今的害虫防治理念已从传统的“杀灭”转向科学的“调控”,生态调控成为可持续农业领域中的研究热点之一。间作提高农作物的多样性是作物虫害生态调控途径之一,间作作物导致农田生物多样性增加、为天敌昆虫提供食物和避难所,从而使天敌种类和数量增加,为目标害虫控治作用增强。已有结果表明小麦与豌豆间作、混作,不仅有效降低小麦上麦长管蚜的种群数量,增加了天敌控制害虫的稳定性和持续性, 而且可以增产保收、养地改土。一些昆虫取食诱导的挥发物和昆虫自身分泌物(如水杨酸甲酯MeSA、蚜虫报警信息素EBF)具有驱避蚜虫对植食性昆虫进行行为调控的直接防御,还可以通过吸引第三级营养级的天敌昆虫,提升间接防御害虫作用。 为了探索作物间作与行为调控挥发物的协同的控害效果,本研究采用小麦间作豌豆、协同化学信息素(MeSA、EBF)的释放,于比利时Gembloux地区连续两年(2015年3月-8月年和2016年3月-8月)进行田间实验。结果表明与单纯小麦-豌豆间作相比,小麦-豌豆间作配合EBF、MeSA的释放,提高了蚜茧蜂对豌豆蚜的寄生率,对蚜虫天敌草蛉、食蚜蝇、瓢虫也具有强烈的吸引作用,豌豆蚜及麦蚜的无翅蚜田间发生量分别降低达35%和30%。 间作的豌豆可以为天敌提供栖居和食物,有利于蚜虫天敌的繁殖,而豌豆蚜的发生峰期早于麦蚜发生峰期一周左右,因此间作结合挥发物的释放,更有利于豌豆田中的蚜虫主要天敌最大程度的转移到麦田中防控麦蚜,有效降低麦蚜发生峰期的种群数量,两种方法组合构成“吸引-补偿”(Attract–Reward)的机制,将挥发物行为调控与栖境管理两种防控害虫的方法有效的结合起来,进一步增强生防效果,有助于建立综合的小麦害虫绿色防控体系。 [less ▲]

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See detailComportement du puceron du pois face aux volatiles du basilic.
Yarou, Boni Barthélémy ULg; Boullis, Antoine ULg; Verheggen, François ULg et al

Poster (2016, October 22)

Les pucerons font partie des insectes qui causent des dégâts d’importances économiques sur une grande diversité de plantes cultivées. Les insecticides de synthèse généralement utilisés pour les contrôler ... [more ▼]

Les pucerons font partie des insectes qui causent des dégâts d’importances économiques sur une grande diversité de plantes cultivées. Les insecticides de synthèse généralement utilisés pour les contrôler montrent de plus en plus leurs limites (résistance), et sont néfastes pour l’homme et l’environnement. Dans la recherche de méthodes de lutte alternatives, le comportement de choix d’Acyrthosiphon pisum Harris (Homoptera : Aphididae) exposé à des sources d’odeurs de plant de fèves (Vicia fabae L.) et du basilic européen (Ocimum basilicum L.) à l’aide d’un olfactomètre en Y a été étudié. Les observations de cette expérience montrent que les pucerons se dirigent préférentiellement vers la source d’odeurs de fève et y passent plus de temps. Ce résultat montre que les volatiles du basilic ont un effet répulsif sur les pucerons du pois. D’autres tests seront évalués sur des espèces de pucerons plutôt généralistes afin de valider l’effet répulsif du basilic sur les pucerons. [less ▲]

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See detailImpacts de champignons entomopathogènes sur la biologie et le comportement de la punaise diabolique (Hemiptera, Pentatomidae)
Fingu Mabola, Junior Corneille ULg; Serteyn, Laurent ULg; Bawin, Thomas ULg et al

Poster (2016, October 22)

Halyomorpha halys Stål, la punaise diabolique, est une espèce invasive préoccupante en provenance d’Asie de l’Est. En moins de 15 années, elle a colonisé près de l’ensemble des Etats-Unis d’Amérique ... [more ▼]

Halyomorpha halys Stål, la punaise diabolique, est une espèce invasive préoccupante en provenance d’Asie de l’Est. En moins de 15 années, elle a colonisé près de l’ensemble des Etats-Unis d’Amérique, occasionnant des pertes de rendement considérables dans les vergers et les cultures en champs ainsi que des nuisances dans les habitations durant l’hiver. La punaise diabolique a été recensée en Suisse en 2007, et il est à craindre qu’elle colonise la presque totalité de l’Europe d’ici 2020. Cette étude a pour objectif de prévenir l’installation de la punaise diabolique dans les pays européens en se focalisant sur le contrôle biologique. Des scientifiques américains ont développé une stratégie « attirer et tuer » basée sur la phéromone d’agrégation de la punaise diabolique et des pesticides. D’autres ont montré l’efficacité d’un champignon pathogène d’insectes (Beauveria bassiana strain GHA. Afin d’établir un contrôle rapide du ravageur en Europe, compatible avec l’agriculture biologique, une idée serait de combiner l’effet attractif de la phéromone d’agrégation et l’application de spores de B. bassiana. Dans cette étude, l’impact du champignon sur la mortalité de l’insecte et son autodissémination sont évalués. [less ▲]

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See detailDevelopment and evaluation of real-time PCR targets for the detection of insect in feed
Gerard, Amaury ULg; Debode, Frédéric; Marien, Aline et al

Poster (2016, October 19)

Insects are rich in proteins and could be an alternative source of proteins to feed animals. Numerous companies started the production of insects at small or larger scale as feed for chicken and fish ... [more ▼]

Insects are rich in proteins and could be an alternative source of proteins to feed animals. Numerous companies started the production of insects at small or larger scale as feed for chicken and fish. Most of the business models for feed production are based on the black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) or the mealworm (Tenebrio molitor). In Europe, these novel feed are not yet authorized and products are commercialized outside Europe or eventually used as pet food (e.g. wild birds). For further authorization in Europe, many questions must be clarified concerning the presence of antinutritional compounds, the risk associated to pathogens, to residues (pesticides, antibiotics, heavy metals) and to allergens. To authorize such products on the market, methods to detect if a product really contains insects and to authenticate insect products are also mandatory. European Commission Regulation No 51/2013 named the Polymerase Chain Reaction as a reference method to determine the constituents of animal origin in feed. Targets focused on insects (target common to all insects) and targets specific to particular insect species are required. PCR methods are developed at CRA-W in this way. Among the methods developed, three of them already gave interesting results. The first one (81 bp) is specific to all insects excepting individuals from the Diptera order. The two others (94 bp and 114 bp) are specific to Tenebrio molitor. The specificity of the targets was tested against 45 insect species and on 10 commercial insect-based feed products (real-processed feed material samples). The sensitivity of the method was assessed through the AFNOR XP V03-020-2 standard approach using the LOD6 method. The three methods reached the recommended performance criteria (LOD≤ 20 copies). [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 13 (2 ULg)