References of "Frère, Jean-Marie"
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See detailBeta-lactamase inhibitors derived from single-domain antibody fragments elicited in the camelidae.
Conrath, K. E.; Lauwereys, M.; Galleni, Moreno ULg et al

in Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy (2001), 45(10), 2807-12

Small, soluble single-domain fragments derived from the unique variable region of dromedary heavy-chain antibodies (VHHs) against enzymes are known to be potent inhibitors. The immunization of dromedaries ... [more ▼]

Small, soluble single-domain fragments derived from the unique variable region of dromedary heavy-chain antibodies (VHHs) against enzymes are known to be potent inhibitors. The immunization of dromedaries with the TEM-1 and BcII beta-lactamases has lead to the isolation of such single-domain antibody fragments specifically recognizing and inhibiting those beta-lactamases. Two VHHs were isolated that inhibit TEM-1 and one BcII inhibiting VHH was identified. All inhibitory VHHs were tight-binding inhibitors. The 50% inhibitory concentrations were determined for all inhibitors and they were all in the same range as the enzyme concentration used in the assay. Addition of the VHHs to the TEM-1 beta-lactamase, expressed on the surface of bacteria, leads to a higher ampicillin sensitivity of the bacteria. This innovative strategy could generate multiple potent inhibitors for all types of beta-lactamases. [less ▲]

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See detailExpression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of the native class C beta-lactamase from Enterobacter cloacae 908R and two mutants.
Wouters, J.; Charlier, Paulette ULg; Monnaie, D. et al

in Acta Crystallographica Section D-Biological Crystallography (2001), 57(Pt 1), 162-4

Crystals have been obtained of the Enterobacter cloacae 908R beta-lactamase and two point mutants by the vapour-diffusion method using similar conditions [pH 9.0, polyethylene glycol (M(r) = 6000) as ... [more ▼]

Crystals have been obtained of the Enterobacter cloacae 908R beta-lactamase and two point mutants by the vapour-diffusion method using similar conditions [pH 9.0, polyethylene glycol (M(r) = 6000) as precipitant]. The three crystal forms belong to the orthorhombic space group P2(1)2(1)2, with roughly the same unit-cell parameters; i.e. for the wild-type crystals a = 46.46, b = 82.96, c = 95.31 A. In the best cases, the crystals diffract to about 2.1 A resolution on a rotating-anode X-ray source at room temperature. Co-crystallization experiments of poor substrates with the wild-type protein and the active-site serine mutant (S64C) are planned and should lead to a better understanding of the catalytic mechanism of class C beta-lactamases. [less ▲]

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See detailThiomandelic acid, a broad spectrum inhibitor of zinc beta-lactamases: kinetic and spectroscopic studies.
Mollard, C.; Moali, C.; Papamicael, C. et al

in Journal of Biological Chemistry (2001), 276(48), 45015-23

Resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics mediated by metallo-beta-lactamases is an increasingly worrying clinical problem. Candidate inhibitors include mercaptocarboxylic acids, and we report studies of a ... [more ▼]

Resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics mediated by metallo-beta-lactamases is an increasingly worrying clinical problem. Candidate inhibitors include mercaptocarboxylic acids, and we report studies of a simple such compound, thiomandelic acid. A series of 35 analogues were synthesized and examined as metallo-beta-lactamase inhibitors. The K(i) values (Bacillus cereus enzyme) are 0.09 microm for R-thiomandelic acid and 1.28 microm for the S-isomer. Structure-activity relationships show that the thiol is essential for activity and the carboxylate increases potency; the affinity is greatest when these groups are close together. Thioesters of thiomandelic acid are substrates for the enzyme, liberating thiomandelic acid, suggesting a starting point for the design of "pro-drugs." Importantly, thiomandelic acid is a broad spectrum inhibitor of metallo-beta-lactamases, with a submicromolar K(i) value for all nine enzymes tested, except the Aeromonas hydrophila enzyme; such a wide spectrum of activity is unprecedented. The binding of thiomandelic acid to the B. cereus enzyme was studied by NMR; the results are consistent with the idea that the inhibitor thiol binds to both zinc ions, while its carboxylate binds to Arg(91). Amide chemical shift perturbations for residues 30-40 (the beta(3)-beta(4) loop) suggest that this small inhibitor induces a movement of this loop of the kind seen for other larger inhibitors. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Dppa Gene of Bacillus Subtilis Encodes a New D-Aminopeptidase
Cheggour, Abdelatif; Fanuel, Laurence; Duez, Colette ULg et al

in Molecular Microbiology (2000), 38(3), 504-13

Different strains of Bacillus were screened for their ability to hydrolyse D-alanyl-p-nitroanilide. Activity was detected in Bacillus pumilus, Bacillus brevis, Bacillus licheniformis 749I and Bacillus ... [more ▼]

Different strains of Bacillus were screened for their ability to hydrolyse D-alanyl-p-nitroanilide. Activity was detected in Bacillus pumilus, Bacillus brevis, Bacillus licheniformis 749I and Bacillus subtilis 168. The last strain was the best producer and was selected for the production and purification of the enzyme. The determination of the N-terminal sequence identified the enzyme as the product of the dppA gene (previously named dciAA) belonging to the dipeptide ABC transport (dpp) operon expressed early during sporulation. Open reading frames (ORFs) encoding putative related proteins were found in the genomes of a variety of Archaea and both sporulating and non-sporulating bacteria. The enzyme behaves as a D-aminopeptidase and represents the prototype of a new peptidase family. Among the tested substrates, the highest activities were found with D-Ala-D-Ala and D-Ala-Gly-Gly. The active enzyme behaves as an octamer of identical 30 kDa subunits. It exhibits a broad pH optimum, extending between pH 9 and 11. It is reversibly inhibited in the presence of Zn2+ chelators, and the sequence comparisons highlight the conservation of potential Zn-binding residues. As it has been shown by others that null mutations in the dpp operon do not inhibit spore formation, the physiological role of DppA is probably an adaptation to nutrient deficiency. [less ▲]

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See detailAn Additional Aromatic Interaction Improves the Thermostability and Thermophilicity of a Mesophilic Family 11 Xylanase: Structural Basis and Molecular Study
Georis, J.; De Lemos Esteves, Frédéric ULg; Lamotte-Brasseur, J. et al

in Protein Science : A Publication of the Protein Society (2000), 9(3), 466-75

In a general approach to the understanding of protein adaptation to high temperature, molecular models of the closely related mesophilic Streptomyces sp. S38 Xyl1 and thermophilic Thermomonospora fusca ... [more ▼]

In a general approach to the understanding of protein adaptation to high temperature, molecular models of the closely related mesophilic Streptomyces sp. S38 Xyl1 and thermophilic Thermomonospora fusca TfxA family 11 xylanases were built and compared with the three-dimensional (3D) structures of homologous enzymes. Some of the structural features identified as potential contributors to the higher thermostability of TfxA were introduced in Xyl1 by site-directed mutagenesis in an attempt to improve its thermostability and thermophilicity. A new Y11-Y16 aromatic interaction, similar to that present in TfxA and created in Xyl1 by the T11Y mutation, improved both the thermophilicity and thermostability. Indeed, the optimum activity temperature (70 vs. 60 degrees C) and the apparent Tm were increased by about 9 degrees C, and the mutant was sixfold more stable at 57 degrees C. The combined mutations A82R/F168H/N169D/delta170 potentially creating a R82-D169 salt bridge homologous to that present in TfxA improved the thermostability but not the thermophilicity. Mutations R82/D170 and S33P seemed to be slightly destabilizing and devoid of influence on the optimal activity temperature of Xyl1. Structural analysis revealed that residues Y11 and Y16 were located on beta-strands B1 and B2, respectively. This interaction should increase the stability of the N-terminal part of Xyl1. Moreover, Y11 and Y16 seem to form an aromatic continuum with five other residues forming putative subsites involved in the binding of xylan (+3, +2, +1, -1, -2). Y11 and Y16 might represent two additional binding subsites (-3, -4) and the T11Y mutation could thus improve substrate binding to the enzyme at higher temperature and thus the thermophilicity of Xyl1. [less ▲]

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See detailA new variant of the Ntn hydrolase fold revealed by the crystal structure of L-aminopeptidase D-ala-esterase/amidase from Ochrobactrum anthropi.
Bompard-Gilles, C; Villeret, V; Davies, G J et al

in Structure (2000), 8(2), 153-62

BACKGROUND: The L-aminopeptidase D-Ala-esterase/amidase from Ochrobactrum anthropi (DmpA) releases the N-terminal L and/or D-Ala residues from peptide substrates. This is the only known enzyme to liberate ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: The L-aminopeptidase D-Ala-esterase/amidase from Ochrobactrum anthropi (DmpA) releases the N-terminal L and/or D-Ala residues from peptide substrates. This is the only known enzyme to liberate N-terminal amino acids with both D and L stereospecificity. The DmpA active form is an alphabeta heterodimer, which results from a putative autocatalytic cleavage of an inactive precursor polypeptide. RESULTS: The crystal structure of the enzyme has been determined to 1.82 A resolution using the multiple isomorphous replacement method. The heterodimer folds into a single domain organised as an alphabetabetaalpha sandwich in which two mixed beta sheets are flanked on both sides by two alpha helices. CONCLUSIONS: DmpA shows no similarity to other known aminopeptidases in either fold or catalytic mechanism, and thus represents the first example of a novel family of aminopeptidases. The protein fold of DmpA does, however, show structural homology to members of the N-terminal nucleophile (Ntn) hydrolase superfamily. DmpA presents functionally equivalent residues in the catalytic centre when compared with other Ntn hydrolases, and is therefore likely to use the same catalytic mechanism. In spite of this homology, the direction and connectivity of the secondary structure elements differ significantly from the consensus Ntn hydrolase topology. The DmpA structure thus characterises a new subfamily, but supports the common catalytic mechanism for these enzymes suggesting an evolutionary relationship. [less ▲]

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See detailTechnique for a rapid and efficient purification of the SHV-1 and PSE-2 beta-lactamases.
Bouillenne, Fabrice ULg; Matagne, André ULg; Joris, Bernard ULg et al

in Journal of Chromatography. B : Biomedical Sciences and Applications (2000), 737(1-2), 261-5

A simple procedure is described which results in an optimised resolution in molecular sieve chromatography. A sample exhibiting a large initial volume (about 20 ml) and conditioned in a buffer of low ... [more ▼]

A simple procedure is described which results in an optimised resolution in molecular sieve chromatography. A sample exhibiting a large initial volume (about 20 ml) and conditioned in a buffer of low ionic strength (<20 mM) by filtration through a 53-ml G25 molecular sieve column, is adsorbed on a 1.7-ml ion-exchange (SOURCE) column. The proteins are released by a 10-ml pulse of 1 M NaCl and the eluate directly injected onto a 120-ml Sephacryl S100-HR column. The very low volume of the eluate ensures optimal conditions and resolution for the molecular sieving process. The method is applied as the polishing step in the purification of the SHV-1 and PSE-2 beta-lactamases. It could easily be scaled up for the treatment of larger samples. [less ▲]

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See detailCrystal structure of a D-aminopeptidase from Ochrobactrum anthropi, a new member of the 'penicillin-recognizing enzyme' family.
Bompard-Gilles, C.; Remaut, H.; Villeret, V. et al

in Structure (2000), 8(9), 971-80

BACKGROUND: beta-Lactam compounds are the most widely used antibiotics. They inactivate bacterial DD-transpeptidases, also called penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs), involved in cell-wall biosynthesis ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: beta-Lactam compounds are the most widely used antibiotics. They inactivate bacterial DD-transpeptidases, also called penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs), involved in cell-wall biosynthesis. The most common bacterial resistance mechanism against beta-lactam compounds is the synthesis of beta-lactamases that hydrolyse beta-lactam rings. These enzymes are believed to have evolved from cell-wall DD-peptidases. Understanding the biochemical and mechanistic features of the beta-lactam targets is crucial because of the increasing number of resistant bacteria. DAP is a D-aminopeptidase produced by Ochrobactrum anthropi. It is inhibited by various beta-lactam compounds and shares approximately 25% sequence identity with the R61 DD-carboxypeptidase and the class C beta-lactamases. RESULTS: The crystal structure of DAP has been determined to 1.9 A resolution using the multiple isomorphous replacement (MIR) method. The enzyme folds into three domains, A, B and C. Domain A, which contains conserved catalytic residues, has the classical fold of serine beta-lactamases, whereas domains B and C are both antiparallel eight-stranded beta barrels. A loop of domain C protrudes into the substrate-binding site of the enzyme. CONCLUSIONS: Comparison of the biochemical properties and the structure of DAP with PBPs and serine beta-lactamases shows that although the catalytic site of the enzyme is very similar to that of beta-lactamases, its substrate and inhibitor specificity rests on residues of domain C. DAP is a new member of the family of penicillin-recognizing proteins (PRPs) and, at the present time, its enzymatic specificity is clearly unique. [less ▲]

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See detailPeptidase Activity of Beta-Lactamases
Rhazi, Noureddine ULg; Galleni, Moreno ULg; Page, Michael I. et al

in Biochemical Journal (1999), 341((Pt 2)), 409-13

Although beta-lactamases have generally been considered as being devoid of peptidase activity, a low but significant hydrolysis of various N-acylated dipeptides was observed with representatives of each ... [more ▼]

Although beta-lactamases have generally been considered as being devoid of peptidase activity, a low but significant hydrolysis of various N-acylated dipeptides was observed with representatives of each class of beta-lactamases. The kcat/Km values were below 0.1 M(-1). s(-1), but the enzyme rate enhancement factors were in the range 5000-20000 for the best substrates. Not unexpectedly, the best 'peptidase' was the class C beta-lactamase of Enterobacter cloacae P99, but, more surprisingly, the activity was always higher with the phenylacetyl- and benzoyl-d-Ala-d-Ala dipeptides than with the diacetyl- and alpha-acetyl-l-Lys-d-Ala-d-Ala tripeptides, which are the preferred substrates of the low-molecular-mass, soluble dd-peptidases. A comparison between the beta-lactamases and dd-peptidases showed that it might be as difficult for a dd-peptidase to open the beta-lactam ring as it is for the beta-lactamases to hydrolyse the peptides, an observation which can be explained by geometric and stereoelectronic considerations. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Beta-Lactamase Cycle: A Tale of Selective Pressure and Bacterial Ingenuity
Matagne, André ULg; Dubus, Alain; Galleni, Moreno ULg et al

in Natural Product Reports (1999), 16(1), 1-19

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See detailMechanistic Diversity of Beta-Lactamases
Frère, Jean-Marie ULg; Dubus, Alain; Galleni, Moreno ULg et al

in Biochemical Society Transactions (1999), 27(2), 58-63

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See detailWhen Drug Inactivation Renders the Target Irrelevant to Antibiotic Resistance: A Case Story with Beta-Lactams
Lakaye, Bernard ULg; Dubus, Alice ULg; Lepage, Sylvie ULg et al

in Molecular Microbiology (1999), 31(1), 89-101

By challenging the efficiency of some of our most useful antimicrobial weapons, bacterial antibiotic resistance is becoming an increasingly worrying clinical problem. A good antibiotic is expected to ... [more ▼]

By challenging the efficiency of some of our most useful antimicrobial weapons, bacterial antibiotic resistance is becoming an increasingly worrying clinical problem. A good antibiotic is expected to exhibit a high affinity for its target and to reach it rapidly, while escaping chemical modification by inactivating enzymes and elimination by efflux mechanisms. A study of the behaviour of a beta-lactamase-overproducing mutant of Enterobacter cloacae in the presence of several penicillins and cephalosporins showed that the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values for several compounds were practically independent of the sensitivity of the target penicillin binding protein (PBP), even for poor beta-lactamase substrates. This apparent paradox was explained by analysing the equation that relates the antibiotic concentration in the periplasm to that in the external medium. Indeed, under conditions that are encountered frequently in clinical isolates, the factor characterizing the PBP sensitivity became negligible. The conclusions can be extended to all antibiotics that are sensitive to enzymatic inactivation and efflux mechanisms and must overcome permeability barriers. It would be a grave mistake to neglect these considerations in the design of future antibacterial chemotherapeutic agents. [less ▲]

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See detailThe DmpA aminopeptidase from Ochrobactrum anthropi LMG7991 is the prototype of a new terminal nucleophile hydrolase family.
Fanuel, L; Goffin, Colette ULg; Cheggour, A et al

in Biochemical Journal (1999), 341(Pt 1), 147-55

The DmpA (d-aminopeptidase A) protein produced by Ochrobactrum anthropi hydrolyses p-nitroanilide derivatives of glycine and d-alanine more efficiently than that of l-alanine. When regular peptides are ... [more ▼]

The DmpA (d-aminopeptidase A) protein produced by Ochrobactrum anthropi hydrolyses p-nitroanilide derivatives of glycine and d-alanine more efficiently than that of l-alanine. When regular peptides are utilized as substrates, the enzyme behaves as an aminopeptidase with a preference for N-terminal residues in an l configuration, thus exemplifying an interesting case of stereospecificity reversal. The best-hydrolysed substrate is l-Ala-Gly-Gly, but tetra- and penta-peptides are also efficiently hydrolysed. The gene encodes a 375-residue precursor, but the active enzyme contains two polypeptides corresponding to residues 2-249 (alpha-subunit) and 250-375 (beta-subunit) of the precursor. Residues 249 and 250 are a Gly and a Ser respectively, and various substitutions performed by site-directed mutagenesis result in the production of an uncleaved and inactive protein. The N-terminal Ser residue of the beta-subunit is followed by a hydrophobic peptide, which is predicted to form a beta-strand structure. All these properties strongly suggest that DmpA is an N-terminal amidohydrolase. An exploration of the databases highlights the presence of a number of open reading frames encoding related proteins in various bacterial genomes. Thus DmpA is very probably the prototype of an original family of N-terminal hydrolases. [less ▲]

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See detailTwo new aminopeptidases from Ochrobactrum anthropi active on D-alanyl-p-nitroanilide.
Fanuel, L; Thamm, Iris ULg; Kostanjevecki, V et al

in Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS (1999), 55(5), 812-8

Two new enzymes which hydrolyse D-alanyl-p-nitroanilide have been detected in Ochrobactrum anthropi LMG7991 extracts. The first enzyme, DmpB, was purified to homogeneity and found to be homologous to the ... [more ▼]

Two new enzymes which hydrolyse D-alanyl-p-nitroanilide have been detected in Ochrobactrum anthropi LMG7991 extracts. The first enzyme, DmpB, was purified to homogeneity and found to be homologous to the Dap protein produced by O. anthropi SCRC C1-38 (ATCC49237). The second enzyme, DmpA, exhibits a similar substrate profile when tested on p-nitroanilide derivatives of glycine and L/D-alanine, but the amounts produced by the Ochrobactrum strain were not sufficient to allow complete purification. Interestingly, the DmpA preparation also exhibited an L-aminopeptidase activity on the tripeptide L-Ala-Gly-Gly but it was not possible to be certain that the same protein was responsible for both p-nitroanilide and peptide hydrolysing activities. The gene encoding the DmpA protein was cloned and sequenced. The deduced protein sequence exhibits varying degrees of similarity with those corresponding to several open reading frames found in the genomes of other prokaryotic organisms, including Mycobacteria. None of these gene products has been isolated or characterised, but a tentative relationship can be proposed with the NylC amidase from Flavobacterium sp. K172. [less ▲]

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See detailCrystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of a new L-aminopeptidase-D-amidase/D-esterase activated by a Gly-Ser peptide bond hydrolysis.
Bompard-Gilles, C; Villeret, V; Fanuel, L et al

in Acta Crystallographica Section D-Biological Crystallography (1999), 55(Pt 3), 699-701

Ochrobactrum anthropi possesses an L-aminopeptidase (DmpA) also able to act as a D-amidase/D-esterase. DmpA (40 kDa) is activated by auto-catalyzed protein splicing liberating an alpha-amino group ... [more ▼]

Ochrobactrum anthropi possesses an L-aminopeptidase (DmpA) also able to act as a D-amidase/D-esterase. DmpA (40 kDa) is activated by auto-catalyzed protein splicing liberating an alpha-amino group presumably used as a general base in the catalytic mechanism. Two crystal forms were obtained at 294 K in 13-16% PEG 2000 mono-methylether at pH 9.0, adding either 0.2 M magnesium chloride or 1 M lithium chloride. Crystals of the first form belong to the space group C2221 and diffract to 3.0 A resolution, whereas crystals of the second form belong to the space group P21212 and diffract to 2.3 A resolution. Initial screening for heavy-atom derivatives on form II crystals, has led to a well substituted Hg derivative. [less ▲]

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See detailH-1-N-15 HMQC for the identification of metal-bound histidines in Cd-113-substituted Bacillus cereus zinc beta-lactamase
Damblon, Christian ULg; Prosperi, Christelle ULg; Lian, L. Y. et al

in Journal of the American Chemical Society (1999), 121(49), 11575-11576

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See detailX-ray analysis of the NMC-A beta-lactamase at 1.64-A resolution, a class A carbapenemase with broad substrate specificity
Swaren, Peter; Maveyraud, Laurent; Raquet, Xavier et al

in Journal of Biological Chemistry (1998), 273(41), 26714-26721

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See detailCatalytic Properties of Class a Beta-Lactamases: Efficiency and Diversity
Matagne, André ULg; Lamotte-Brasseur, Josette; Frère, Jean-Marie ULg

in Biochemical Journal (1998), 330((Pt 2)), 581-98

beta-Lactamases are the main cause of bacterial resistance to penicillins, cephalosporins and related beta-lactam compounds. These enzymes inactivate the antibiotics by hydrolysing the amide bond of the ... [more ▼]

beta-Lactamases are the main cause of bacterial resistance to penicillins, cephalosporins and related beta-lactam compounds. These enzymes inactivate the antibiotics by hydrolysing the amide bond of the beta-lactam ring. Class A beta-lactamases are the most widespread enzymes and are responsible for numerous failures in the treatment of infectious diseases. The introduction of new beta-lactam compounds, which are meant to be 'beta-lactamase-stable' or beta-lactamase inhibitors, is thus continuously challenged either by point mutations in the ubiquitous TEM and SHV plasmid-borne beta-lactamase genes or by the acquisition of new genes coding for beta-lactamases with different catalytic properties. On the basis of the X-ray crystallography structures of several class A beta-lactamases, including that of the clinically relevant TEM-1 enzyme, it has become possible to analyse how particular structural changes in the enzyme structures might modify their catalytic properties. However, despite the many available kinetic, structural and mutagenesis data, the factors explaining the diversity of the specificity profiles of class A beta-lactamases and their amazing catalytic efficiency have not been thoroughly elucidated. The detailed understanding of these phenomena constitutes the cornerstone for the design of future generations of antibiotics. [less ▲]

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See detailThe diversity, structure and regulation of beta-lactamases.
Philippon, A; Dusart, Jean; Joris, Bernard ULg et al

in Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS (1998), 54(4), 341-6

beta-Lactamase production is responsible for the appearance of a large number of pathogenic bacterial strains exhibiting a high degree of resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics. A large number of enzymes ... [more ▼]

beta-Lactamase production is responsible for the appearance of a large number of pathogenic bacterial strains exhibiting a high degree of resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics. A large number of enzymes have been described with very diverse primary structures and catalytic profiles. Nevertheless, all known three-dimensional structures of active-site serine beta-lactamases exhibit a high degree of similarity with apparently equivalent chemical functionalities in the same strategic positions. These groups might not, however, play identical roles in the various classes of enzymes. Structural data have also been recently obtained for the zinc metallo-beta-lactamases, but the detailed catalytic mechanisms might also differ widely, depending on the enzyme studied. Similarly, the induction of the synthesis of beta-lactamases is now better understood, but many questions remain to be answered. [less ▲]

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