References of "Frère, Jean-Marie"
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See detailStreptomyces K15 DD-peptidase-catalysed reactions with ester and amide carbonyl donors
Nguyen-Distèche, Martine ULiege; Leyh-Bouille, Mélina; Pirlot, Suzanne et al

in Biochemical Journal (1986), 235(1), 167-176

In water, the purified 26 000-Mr membrane-bound DD-peptidase of Streptomyces K15 hydrolyses the ester carbonyl donor Ac2-L-Lys-D-Ala-D-lactate (release of D-lactate) and the amide carbonyl donor Ac2-L-Lys ... [more ▼]

In water, the purified 26 000-Mr membrane-bound DD-peptidase of Streptomyces K15 hydrolyses the ester carbonyl donor Ac2-L-Lys-D-Ala-D-lactate (release of D-lactate) and the amide carbonyl donor Ac2-L-Lys-D-Ala-D-Ala (release of D-alanine) with accumulation of acyl- (Ac2-L-Lys-D-alanyl-)enzyme. Whereas hydrolysis of the ester substrate proceeds to completion, hydrolysis of the amide substrate is negligible because of the capacity of the K15 DD-peptidase for utilizing the released D-alanine in a transfer reaction (Ac2-L-Lys-D-Ala-D-Ala + D-Ala----Ac2-L-Lys-D-Ala-D-Ala + D-Ala) that maintains the concentration of the amide substrate at a constant level. In the presence of an amino acceptor X-NH2 (Gly-Gly or Gly-L-Ala) related to the Streptomyces peptidoglycan, both amide and ester carbonyl donors are processed without detectable accumulation of acyl-enzyme. Under proper conditions, the acceptor activity of water and, in the case of the amide substrate, the acceptor activity of the released D-alanine can be totally overcome so that the two substrates are quantitatively converted into transpeptidated product Ac2-L-Lys-D-Ala-NH-X (and hydrolysis is prevented). Experimental evidence suggests that the amino acceptor modifies both the binding of the carbonyl donor to the enzyme and the ensuing rate of enzyme acylation. [less ▲]

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See detailOn the origin of bacterial resistance to penicillin: comparison of a beta-lactamase and a penicillin target
Kelly, Judith A.; Dideberg, Otto; Charlier, Paulette ULiege et al

in Science (1986), 231

Structural data are now available for comparing a penicillin target enzyme, the D-alanyl-D-alanine-peptidase from Streptomyces R61, with a penicillin-hydrolyzing enzyme, the beta-lactamase from Bacillus ... [more ▼]

Structural data are now available for comparing a penicillin target enzyme, the D-alanyl-D-alanine-peptidase from Streptomyces R61, with a penicillin-hydrolyzing enzyme, the beta-lactamase from Bacillus licheniformis 749/C. Although the two enzymes have distinct catalytic properties and lack relatedness in their overall amino acid sequences except near the active-site serine, the significant similarity found by x-ray crystallography in the spatial arrangement of the elements of secondary structure provides strong support for earlier hypotheses that beta-lactamases arose from penicillin-sensitive D-alanyl-D-alanine-peptidases involved in bacterial wall peptidoglycan metabolism. [less ▲]

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See detailCloning and amplified expression in Streptomyces lividans of a gene encoding extracellular β-lactamase from Streptomyces albus G
Dehottay, Philippe; Dusart, Jean; Duez, Colette ULiege et al

in Gene (1986), 42(1), 31-36

A 4.9-kb DNA fragment containing the bla gene for the extracellular beta-lactamase (BLA) of Streptomyces albus G was cloned in Streptomyces lividans using the conjugative, low-copy-number plasmid pIJ61 as ... [more ▼]

A 4.9-kb DNA fragment containing the bla gene for the extracellular beta-lactamase (BLA) of Streptomyces albus G was cloned in Streptomyces lividans using the conjugative, low-copy-number plasmid pIJ61 as vector. No expression of bla was observed when this DNA fragment was introduced into Escherichia coli HB101 on a plasmid vector. A 1.5-kb PstI-SstI fragment containing the bla gene was cloned in S. lividans on the nonconjugative, high-copy-number plasmid pIJ702. A tenfold higher yield of BLA was obtained from S. lividans carrying this plasmid than from S. albus G grown under optimal production conditions. The BLA from the clone reacts with beta-iodopenicillanate according to a branched pathway which is characteristic of the original S. albus G BLA enzyme. [less ▲]

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See detailProperties of a class C beta-lactamase from Serratia marcescens.
Joris, Bernard ULiege; De Meester, F; Galleni, Moreno ULiege et al

in Biochemical Journal (1986), 239(3), 581-6

A beta-lactamase produced by a penicillin-resistant strain of Serratia marcescens was isolated and purified. The kcat. value for benzylpenicillin was about 5% of that observed for the best cephalosporin ... [more ▼]

A beta-lactamase produced by a penicillin-resistant strain of Serratia marcescens was isolated and purified. The kcat. value for benzylpenicillin was about 5% of that observed for the best cephalosporin substrates. However, the low Km of the penam resulted in a high catalytic efficiency (kcat./Km) and the classification of the enzyme as a cephalosporinase might not be completely justified. It also exhibited a low but measurable activity against cefotaxime, cefuroxime, cefoxitin and moxalactam. Substrate-induced inactivation was observed both with a very good (cephalothin) or a very bad (moxalactam) substrate. The active site was labelled by beta-iodopenicillanate. Trypsin digestion produced a 19-residue active-site peptide whose sequence clearly allowed the classification of the enzyme as a class C beta-lactamase. [less ▲]

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See detail2.8-Å Structure of penicillin-sensitive D-alanyl carboxypeptidase-transpeptidase from Streptomyces R61 and complexes with β-lactams
Kelly, Judith A; Knox, James R; Moews, Paul C et al

in Journal of Biological Chemistry (1985), 260(10), 6449-6458

The crystallographic structure of the penicillin-sensitive D-alanyl carboxypeptidase-transpeptidase from Streptomyces R61 has been solved to 2.8-A resolution. The 38,000-dalton serine peptidase has two ... [more ▼]

The crystallographic structure of the penicillin-sensitive D-alanyl carboxypeptidase-transpeptidase from Streptomyces R61 has been solved to 2.8-A resolution. The 38,000-dalton serine peptidase has two regions of secondary structure, an alpha/beta cluster, and a region which contains five helical segments. The beta sheet is composed of five beta strands. The tertiary structure has no homology with the classic serine proteases or with the zinc carboxypeptidases. The binding at a common site of three types of beta-lactam (a penicillin, a cephalosporin, a monocyclic beta-lactam) and a desazacyclobutanone has been observed in Fourier difference maps. The binding site sequence is Val-Gly-Ser-Val-Thr-Lys. The beta-lactam ring lies near the enzyme's catalytic serine at position 37, and the C3 substituent of a cephalosporin falls near lysine 40. [less ▲]

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See detailThe beta-lactamase of Enterobacter cloacae P99. Chemical properties, N-terminal sequence and interaction with 6 beta-halogenopenicillanates.
Joris, Bernard ULiege; De Meester, F; Galleni, Moreno ULiege et al

in Biochemical Journal (1985), 228(1), 241-8

The beta-lactamase of Enterobacter cloacae P99 consists of one polypeptide chain of Mr 39000 devoid of disulphide bridges and free thiol groups. It contains an unusually high proportion of tyrosine and ... [more ▼]

The beta-lactamase of Enterobacter cloacae P99 consists of one polypeptide chain of Mr 39000 devoid of disulphide bridges and free thiol groups. It contains an unusually high proportion of tyrosine and tryptophan. The N-terminal sequence exhibits overlaps with the tryptic peptide obtained after labelling the active site with 6 beta-iodopenicillanate. The active-site serine residue is at position 64. The homology with the chromosomal beta-lactamase of Escherichia coli K 12 (ampC gene) is lower within the 25 residues of the N-terminal portion than around the active-site serine residue. The P99 beta-lactamase is inactivated by 6 beta-bromo- and 6 beta-iodo-penicillanate, with a second-order rate constant of 110-140M-1 X s-1 at 30 degrees C and pH 7.0, a value that is much lower than that observed with class-A beta-lactamases. [less ▲]

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See detailCrystallization and preliminary X-ray data for the exocellular beta-lactamase of Bacillus licheniformis 749/C.
Dideberg, O.; Libert, M.; Frère, Jean-Marie ULiege et al

in Journal of Molecular Biology (1985), 181(1), 145-6

The exocellular beta-lactamase from Bacillus licheniformis 749/C has been crystallized from polyethylene glycol solution at pH 5.5. An X-ray examination of the monoclinic crystals shows the space group is ... [more ▼]

The exocellular beta-lactamase from Bacillus licheniformis 749/C has been crystallized from polyethylene glycol solution at pH 5.5. An X-ray examination of the monoclinic crystals shows the space group is P21, with unit cell dimensions a = 66.77 A, b = 93.77 A, c = 43.57 A and beta = 104.5 degrees. The asymmetric unit consists of two molecules of 28,500 Mr each. The crystals are suitable for structure analysis to at least 2 A resolution. [less ▲]

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See detailPenicillin-sensitive enzymes in peptidoglycan biosynthesis
Frère, Jean-Marie ULiege; Joris, Bernard ULiege

in CRC Critical Reviews in Microbiology (1985), 11

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See detailDes-, syn- and anti-oxyimino-Δ3-cephalosporins. Intrinsic reactivity and reaction with RTEM-2 serine β-lactamase and D-alanyl-D-alanine-cleaving serine and zinc-containing peptidases
Laurent, Guy; Durant, François; Frère, Jean-Marie ULiege et al

in Biochemical Journal (1984), 218(3), 933-937

The presence and configuration (syn or anti) of an oxyimino group in the 7 (beta)-acyl side chain of 3-cephems do not modify the intrinsic reactivity of the beta-lactam ring, but have highly enzyme ... [more ▼]

The presence and configuration (syn or anti) of an oxyimino group in the 7 (beta)-acyl side chain of 3-cephems do not modify the intrinsic reactivity of the beta-lactam ring, but have highly enzyme-specific effects. When compared with the corresponding desoxyimino beta-lactam compound: (i) with the plasmid-mediated Escherichia coli RTEM-2 serine beta-lactamase, the substrate activity of the anti isomer is increased and that of the syn isomer is decreased; (ii) with the Streptomyces R61 serine D-alanyl-D-alanine cleaving peptidase (a highly penicillin-sensitive enzyme), the rate of enzyme acylation is not or only little affected when the oxyimino group is in the syn configuration, but is decreased when the oxyimino group is in the anti configuration; (iii) with the Actinomadura R39 serine D-alanyl-D-alanine-cleaving peptidase (an exceedingly highly penicillin-sensitive enzyme), the rate of enzyme acylation is unaffected whatever the configuration of the substituent. The oxidation of the sulphur atom of the dihydrothiazine ring on the beta-face of the molecule makes it both a poorer inactivator of the DD-peptidases and a poorer substrate of the beta-lactamase. The Streptomyces albus G Zn2+-containing D-alanyl-D-alanine-cleaving peptidase (a highly penicillin-resistant enzyme) remains highly resistant to all compounds tested. [less ▲]

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See detailBacterial cell wall, DD-peptidase and β-lactam antibiotics
Ghuysen, Jean-Marie ULiege; Frère, Jean-Marie ULiege; Leyh-Bouille, Mélina et al

in Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases (1984), 42

Wall peptidoglycan expansion in bacteria rests upon a cytoplasmic D-Ala: D-Ala ligase (ADP) which catalyses synthesis of a D-Ala-D-Ala dipeptide (with accompanying hydrolysis of one molecule of ATP) and a ... [more ▼]

Wall peptidoglycan expansion in bacteria rests upon a cytoplasmic D-Ala: D-Ala ligase (ADP) which catalyses synthesis of a D-Ala-D-Ala dipeptide (with accompanying hydrolysis of one molecule of ATP) and a set of DD-peptidases which utilize this D-Ala-D-Ala dipeptide--once it has been translocated at the outer face of the plasma membrane as the C-terminal portion of a disaccharide peptide unit--as carbonyl donor for transpeptidation and carboxypeptidation reactions (without additional energy expenditure). Four DD-peptidases have been selected which differ from each other with respect to the effects that amino compounds exert on the fate and rate of consumption of a D-Ala-D-Ala terminated amide carbonyl donor analogue. They serve as models to understand the different mechanisms by which the DD-peptidases perform catalysis and show widely varying responses to the action of beta-lactams, from extreme sensitivity to very high resistance [less ▲]

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See detailActive-site-directed inactivators of the Zn2+-containing D-alanyl-D-alanine-cleaving carboxypeptidase of Streptomyces albus G.
Charlier, Paulette ULiege; Dideberg, Otto; Jamoulle, Jean-Claude et al

in Biochemical Journal (1984), 219(3), 763-772

Several types of active-site-directed inactivators (inhibitors) of the Zn2+-containing D-alanyl-D-alanine-cleaving carboxypeptidase were tested. (i) Among the heavy-atom-containing compounds examined ... [more ▼]

Several types of active-site-directed inactivators (inhibitors) of the Zn2+-containing D-alanyl-D-alanine-cleaving carboxypeptidase were tested. (i) Among the heavy-atom-containing compounds examined, K2Pt(C2O4)2 inactivates the enzyme with a second-order rate constant of about 6 X 10(-2)M-1 X S-1 and has only one binding site located close to the Zn2+ cofactor within the enzyme active site. (ii) Several compounds possessing both a C-terminal carboxylate function and, at the other end of the molecule, a thiol, hydroxamate or carboxylate function were also examined. 3-Mercaptopropionate (racemic) and 3-mercaptoisobutyrate (L-isomer) inhibit the enzyme competitively with a Ki value of 5 X 10 X 10(-9)M. (iii) Classical beta-lactam compounds have a very weak inhibitory potency. Depending on the structure of the compounds, enzyme inhibition may be competitive (and binding occurs to the active site) or non-competitive (and binding causes disruption of the protein crystal lattice). (iv) 6-beta-Iodopenicillanate inactivates the enzyme in a complex way. At high beta-lactam concentrations, the pseudo-first-order rate constant of enzyme inactivation has a limit value of 7 X 10(-4)S-1 X 6-beta-Iodopenicillanate binds to the active site just in front of the Zn2+ cofactor and superimposes histidine-190, suggesting that permanent enzyme inactivation is by reaction with this latter residue. [less ▲]

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See detailThe active site of the P99 beta-lactamase from Enterobacter cloacae.
Joris, Bernard ULiege; Dusart, Jean; Frère, Jean-Marie ULiege et al

in Biochemical Journal (1984), 223(1), 271-4

Labelling the beta-lactamase of Enterobacter cloacae P99 with a poor substrate or a mechanism-based inactivator points to an active-site serine residue in a sequence closely resembling that of the ampC ... [more ▼]

Labelling the beta-lactamase of Enterobacter cloacae P99 with a poor substrate or a mechanism-based inactivator points to an active-site serine residue in a sequence closely resembling that of the ampC beta-lactamase. These results establish the P99 enzyme as a class-C beta-lactamase, and the concurrence of the two approaches helps to confirm the reliability of determining active-site sequences with the aid of mechanism-based inactivators. [less ▲]

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See detailInteraction between monobactams and model D-alanyl-D-alanine-cleaving peptidases
Frère, Jean-Marie ULiege; Klein, Daniel; Kelly, Judith A et al

in FEMS Microbiology Letters (1984), 21

Several monobactams reacted with the serine dd-peptidases of Streptomyces R61 and Actinomadura R39 in a manner similar to that of bicyclic penicillins and cephalosporins. The dissociation constants of the ... [more ▼]

Several monobactams reacted with the serine dd-peptidases of Streptomyces R61 and Actinomadura R39 in a manner similar to that of bicyclic penicillins and cephalosporins. The dissociation constants of the Michaelis complexes formed between the R61 enzyme and sulfazecin (32 μM) and between the R39 peptidase and SQ 26324 (0.35 μM) had the lowest values ever observed with any β-lactam compound, suggesting an excellent fit of these two monobactams with the active sites of the respective enzymes. Azthreonam had a very poor inactivating potency, confirming its high selective reactivity towards the penicillin binding protein No. 3 of Escherichia coli. The Zn2+dd-peptidase (from Streptomyces albus G) had a high intrinsic resistance to β-lactam compounds whether they possessed a mono- or a bicyclic structure. [less ▲]

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See detailStudy of the Zn-containing DD-carboxypeptidase of Streptomyces albus G by small-angle X-ray scattering in solution.
Labischinski, Harald; Giesbrecht, Peter; Fischer, E. et al

in European Journal of Biochemistry (1984), 138(1), 83-87

Study of the Zn2+-containing D-alanyl-D-alanine-cleaving carboxypeptidase of Streptomyces albus G by small-angle X-ray scattering in solution yielded the following molecular parameters: radius of gyration ... [more ▼]

Study of the Zn2+-containing D-alanyl-D-alanine-cleaving carboxypeptidase of Streptomyces albus G by small-angle X-ray scattering in solution yielded the following molecular parameters: radius of gyration R = 1.82 +/- 0.05 nm; largest diameter D = 5.9 +/- 0.2 nm; relative molecular mass Mr = 17000 +/- 2000; volume V approximately equal to 35 +/- 2 nm3; degree of hydration: 0.25 +/- 0.02 g water/g protein. By reference to theoretical scattering curves of rigid triaxial homogeneous bodies, a model which fits all experimental data is an elliptical cylinder. Such a model is compatible with that observed in the crystal structure. At those high concentrations necessary to form inactive enzyme-ligand associations the non-competitive beta-lactam inhibitors, cephalothin and cephalosporin C, drastically altered the scattering behaviour of the protein. [less ▲]

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See detailBacterial wall peptidoglycan, DD-peptidases and beta-lactam antibiotics
Ghuysen, Jean-Marie ULiege; Frère, Jean-Marie ULiege; Leyh-Bouille, Mélina et al

in Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases (1984), 42

Wall peptidoglycan expansion in bacteria rests upon a cytoplasmic D-Ala: D-Ala ligase (ADP) which catalyses synthesis of a D-Ala-D-Ala dipeptide (with accompanying hydrolysis of one molecule of ATP) and a ... [more ▼]

Wall peptidoglycan expansion in bacteria rests upon a cytoplasmic D-Ala: D-Ala ligase (ADP) which catalyses synthesis of a D-Ala-D-Ala dipeptide (with accompanying hydrolysis of one molecule of ATP) and a set of DD-peptidases which utilize this D-Ala-D-Ala dipeptide--once it has been translocated at the outer face of the plasma membrane as the C-terminal portion of a disaccharide peptide unit--as carbonyl donor for transpeptidation and carboxypeptidation reactions (without additional energy expenditure). Four DD-peptidases have been selected which differ from each other with respect to the effects that amino compounds exert on the fate and rate of consumption of a D-Ala-D-Ala terminated amide carbonyl donor analogue. They serve as models to understand the different mechanisms by which the DD-peptidases perform catalysis and show widely varying responses to the action of beta-lactams, from extreme sensitivity to very high resistance. [less ▲]

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See detailThe complete amino acid sequence of the Zn2+-containing D-alanyl-D-alanine-cleaving carboxypeptidase of streptomyces albus G
Joris, Bernard ULiege; Van Beeumen, Jozef; Casagrande, Fabiana et al

in European Journal of Biochemistry (1983), 130(1), 53-69

The 22076-Mr Zn2+-containing D-alanyl-D-alanine-cleaving carboxypeptidase of Streptomyces abuls G effectively catalyses the transfer of the N alpha, N epsilon-diacetyl-L-lysyl-D-alanyl electrophilic group ... [more ▼]

The 22076-Mr Zn2+-containing D-alanyl-D-alanine-cleaving carboxypeptidase of Streptomyces abuls G effectively catalyses the transfer of the N alpha, N epsilon-diacetyl-L-lysyl-D-alanyl electrophilic group of the standard tripeptide substrate N alpha, N epsilon-diacetyl-L-lysyl-D-alanyl-D-alanine to water. It also performs a weak beta-lactamase activity, hydrolysing penicillin into penicilloate at a very low rate. This protein consists of 212 amino acid residues in a single polypeptide chain. The N terminus is partially blocked as a result of the cyclization of the dipeptide Asn-Gly into anhydroaspartylglycine imide. The protein has been fragmented by cyanogen bromide into five fragments whose sequences have been determined via appropriate subcleavages with various proteases. The ordering of the cyanogen bromide peptide fragments has been carried out (a) by submitting the S-carboxymethylated protein to complete tryptic digestion and labelling the methionine-containing peptides thus obtained with iodo[14C]-acetamide, and (b) by submitting to limited tryptic digestion the S-[2-(4'-pyridyl)ethyl]-cysteine protein whose amino groups have been blocked by reaction with exo-cis-3,6-endoxo-delta 4-tetrahydrophthalic anhydride prior to digestion. The protein contains six cysteine residues in the form of three disulfide bridges. No homology is found by comparing this peptidase with other Zn2+-containing enzymes (carboxypeptidase A, thermolysin, carbonic anhydrase B and alcohol dehydrogenase) and several completely or partially sequenced, serine-containing D-alanyl-D-alanine-cleaving peptidases and Zn2+/serine-containing beta-lactamases. [less ▲]

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See detailThe active site of the D-alanyl-D-Alanine-cleaving peptidase
Charlier, Paulette ULiege; Dideberg, Otto; Dive, Georges ULiege et al

in Hakenbeck, R.; Höltje, J. V.; Labischinski, H. (Eds.) Target of Penicillin: The Murein Sacculus of Bacterial Cell Walls, Architecture and Growth (1983)

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See detailInstrinct Resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics at the level of the enzyme sites. Many challenges, some achievements
Ghuysen, Jean-Marie ULiege; Charlier, P.; Coyette, Jean et al

in Wiedemann, B.; Guysen, Jean-Marie; Spitzy, K. H. (Eds.) et al Symposium Mechanisms of resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics : Proceedings (1983)

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See detailThe active sites of the D-alanyl-D-alanine-cleaving peptidases
Charlier, Paulette ULiege; Dideberg, Otto; Dive, Georges ULiege et al

in Hakenbeck, Regine; Höltje, Joachim-Volker; Labischinski, Harald (Eds.) The Target Penicillin : the Murein Sacculus of Bacterial Cell Walls Architecture and Growth : Proceedings (1983)

The active site structures of D-alanyl-D-alanine-cleaving peptidases G, R61, R39, and K15 from Streptomyces and Actinomadura are discussed in relation to their substrate specificities and kinetic ... [more ▼]

The active site structures of D-alanyl-D-alanine-cleaving peptidases G, R61, R39, and K15 from Streptomyces and Actinomadura are discussed in relation to their substrate specificities and kinetic mechanisms. [less ▲]

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See detailLineweaver-Burk, Hanes, Eadie-Hofstee and Dixon Plots in Non-steady-state Situations.
Frère, Jean-Marie ULiege; Leyh, Bernard ULiege; Renard, André

in Journal of Theoretical Biology (1983), 101

Lineweaver-Burk, Hanes, Eadie-Hofstee and Dixon plots can only be used when a true initial rate is measured. Despite the fact that this point has often been stressed, it is far too often ignored in favour ... [more ▼]

Lineweaver-Burk, Hanes, Eadie-Hofstee and Dixon plots can only be used when a true initial rate is measured. Despite the fact that this point has often been stressed, it is far too often ignored in favour of restricting the essay time to one where low amounts of substrate are used. When one or several irreversible and slow steps occur with an inactivator during the incubation of a ternary enzyme-substrate-inactivator mixture, the rate of the enzyme-catalyzed reaction progressively decreases. Even under these conditions, the present computer simulations investigations show that apparently linear Lineweaver-Burk, Hanes, Eadie-Hofstee and Dixon graphs can be obtained when the amount of product is mistakenly assumed to represent the true initial rate. Moreover, the observed pattern can change with time, going for instance from non-competitive to competitive. "Ki's" measured under these conditions also vary with time and bear little relationship to the true constants involved in the interaction. [less ▲]

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