References of "Forthomme, Bénédicte"
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See detailPhysiological interpretation of the slope during an isokinetic fatigue test of the knee
Bosquet, L.; Gouadec, K.; Berryman, N. et al

in European Journal of Sports Medicine (2013, September), 1(1), 151

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See detailInfluence of game playing on the muscular profile of shoulder rotators of handball players
Ucay, O.; Gasq, D.; Forthomme, Bénédicte ULg et al

in European Journal of Sports Medicine (2013, September), 1(1), 105

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See detailEffect of the lengthening of the protocol on the reliability of knee muscle fatigue indicators
Bosquet, L.; Maquet, Didier ULg; Forthomme, Bénédicte ULg et al

in European Journal of Sports Medicine (2013, September), 1(1), 150

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See detailHazard factors of ACL rupture: Neuromuscular factors
Kaux, Jean-François ULg; Delvaux, François ULg; MASSART, Nicolas ULg et al

in European Journal of Sports Medicine (2013, September), 1(supplement 1), 50-51

Injuries to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) of the knee are disabling, often associated with other intra-articular damages and increase the risk of early onset of osteoarthritis. It is very probable ... [more ▼]

Injuries to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) of the knee are disabling, often associated with other intra-articular damages and increase the risk of early onset of osteoarthritis. It is very probable that multiple risk factors act in combination to influence injury risk. It is important to have a comprehensive understanding of these ACL risk factors, whose neuromuscular factors, even if investigations on neuromuscular factors reported to date do not provide a complete understanding of ACL injury risk. According to several recent studies, the neuromuscular control of joint biomechanics during a specific activity seems to represent a predicting factor of an ACL injury, by quantifying the intersegmental forces and moments generated about the tibio-femoral joint. Laboratory studies have shown that landing from a jump performs cutting and pivoting maneuvers with less knee and hip flexion, increases knee valgus and internal rotation of the hip coupled, with increased external rotation of the tibia and quadriceps muscle activation (especially in women). It has been hypothesized that these movement patterns increase the strain in the ACL during activity and that the large difference in knee injury incidence rates between males and females (1/4.5) may be attributed to neuromuscular differences and resultant mechanics. Although studies have shown that the position of the knee and the magnitude and sequence of muscle contraction can increase ACL strain values, it is hard to exactly correlate these movements to what occurs during activity and sport and at the time of ACL injury. Recently, a simpler assessment tool has been validated and is able to be administered in a clinic-based testing environment Consequently, the screening for ACL injury risk could be performed on a more widespread population. Athletes who went on to a primary ACL injury also demonstrated significant side to side differences in lower extremity biomechanics as well as reduced relative lower extremity flexor activation relative to an uninjured control population during the vertical drop jump. Similar mechanisms of injury risk have been identified in athletes medically cleared to return to sport after ACL reconstruction. These seminal findings indicate that these abnormal and asymmetrical biomechanical and neuromuscular control profiles are likely both residual to, and exacerbated by, the initial injury. A study revealed that a fatigue-induced protocol altered the latency as well as the magnitude of reflex responses of the hamstring muscles and the tibial translation only in women. The authors of various studies have suggested that the hamstring muscles play an important role in maintaining knee stability and that they protect the ACL during movements of the tibia relative to the femur. Therefore, decreased reflex responses of the hamstring muscles and in turn an increased the tibial translation might contribute to the pathomechanics of the ACL injuries. It is therefore conceivable that the fatigue-induced decrease of the hamstring neuromuscular function may increase the tibial translation and probably contributes to the higher incidence of ACL injuries, especially in women. A preventive approach to decrease ACL injuries could integrate muscle imbalances as a risk factor. If it has been scientifically validated than the muscle strength profile determined by an isokinetic testing offers a predictive value on the hamstring lesion occurrence, similar studies have not permitted such a conclusion about ACL injury. The isokinetic assessments after ACL reconstruction have allowed us to observe, on the healthy contralateral knee, a higher frequency of reduced hamstring/quadriceps ratios. A possible pre-existing weakness in the hamstring and the occurrence of an ACL injury is therefore possible but only a difficult prospective approach due to the multifactorial nature of ligament injuries could clarify that point. In conclusion, a functional analysis of the landing of a jump and an isokinetic muscle strength assessment have been suggested to represent predictive elements of an ACL rupture, but further studies are needed to have a stronger evidence of their predictive qualities of injury. [less ▲]

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See detailReference populations for shoulder studies should be selected carefully
Schwartz, Cédric ULg; Denoël, Vincent ULg; Bruls, Olivier ULg et al

Conference (2013, August 06)

To assess various shoulder pathologies / treatments, non pathological populations are often used as references. However, some factors may influence significantly the scapular kinematics within a healthy ... [more ▼]

To assess various shoulder pathologies / treatments, non pathological populations are often used as references. However, some factors may influence significantly the scapular kinematics within a healthy population and consequently alter the final kinematic evaluation. Results of 3D shoulder assessment found in this study show that small (≈5°) but significant differences exist between gender and between the dominant and non-dominant arms. Therefore the populations used for referential data should be selected carefully. [less ▲]

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See detailEccentric rehabilitation for elbow hypermobility
Kaux, Jean-François ULg; Forthomme, Bénédicte ULg; FOIDART, Marguerite ULg et al

in Journal of Novel Physiotherapies (2013), 3(6), 1805

Introduction: Joint hypermobility involves an increased range of motion compared to normal amplitudes for the same age, sex and ethnic group. Patients with hypermobility suffer from joints problems and ... [more ▼]

Introduction: Joint hypermobility involves an increased range of motion compared to normal amplitudes for the same age, sex and ethnic group. Patients with hypermobility suffer from joints problems and chronic pain is the most frequently reported symptom. Eccentric muscle strengthening could be very important to protect hypermobile joints. Case report: An Ehler-Danlos syndrome patient presented pain in the right elbow and the right wrist after a season of tennis. Her physiotherapy (18 sessions, 3 times a week) consisted of wrist prono-supination and flexion-extension muscle group reinforcement and proprioceptive training. To protect the wrist against excessive load, the eccentric strengthening exercises of prono-supinator and flexor-extensor muscles of elbow and wrist were undertaken gradually, at increasing speeds [30°/s, 60°/s, and 90°/s] within a limited range of motion in flexion and extension, on an isokinetic device after an evaluation. She was also given an ortheosis restricting the joint range of motion of the wrist. The patient rapidly noted a decrease in pain and an increase in the stability of her right arm even when playing tennis. Isokinetic evaluation objectified an improvement in maximal torque of 20 to 25% in flexion-extension muscles of the right elbow. She was also given individualized home exercises. Conclusion: The goal of rehabilitation is to avoid hypermobility by using the muscles as a protective brake in the control of joint positioning. Muscles can be reinforced in eccentric mode with starting position at the maximum length of these muscles when unstreched. The exercises can be carried out safely on an isokinetic device, at slow speed and limited range of joint motion to avoid risk of luxation. Thus, in this case report, the eccentric exercises using an isokinetic device were effective to safely reinforce the muscles as a protective brake for joint hypermobility. [less ▲]

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See detailIsocinétisme : aspects spécifiques chez le sportif
Croisier, Jean-Louis ULg; Delvaux, François ULg; Kaux, Jean-François ULg et al

in Abstract Book de la 1ère Journée de Rééducation de l'INSEP (2013, June)

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See detailThe risk factors for the rupture of the anterior cruciate ligament of the knee: the neuromuscular state
Kaux, Jean-François ULg; Delvaux, François ULg; Forthomme, Bénédicte ULg et al

in OA Sports Medicine (2013), 1(1), 95

Multiple factors act conjointly to influence the risk of injury of the anterior cruciate ligament of the knee. An understanding of neuromuscular factors remains necessary, although this does not guarantee ... [more ▼]

Multiple factors act conjointly to influence the risk of injury of the anterior cruciate ligament of the knee. An understanding of neuromuscular factors remains necessary, although this does not guarantee a complete analysis of the risks of injury to the anterior cruciate ligament. Women have a greater risk of injury to the anterior cruciate ligament in comparison to men. This can be explained by an increase in the internal rotation of the hip, coupled with an increase in the external rotation of the tibia and increased muscular activation of the quadriceps (with a concomitant decrease in hamstring activity) during landing or pivotal movements. In addition, muscular fatigue of the hamstrings and a weak hamstring/quadriceps ratio could contribute to the risk of injury to the anterior cruciate ligament. Finally, a lack of relative joint laxity can also constitute a risk factor of injury to the anterior cruciate ligament in women. Other potential neuromuscular risk factors could also be highlighted. Screening for these risk factors, for example, by means of a functional jump-landing test, together with an isokinetic test, could help to recommend new prevention protocols. The aim of this review was to discuss the risk factors for the rupture of the anterior cruciate ligament of the knee. In conclusion, thanks to an overall knowledge of all the possible risk factors (intrinsic and extrinsic, modifiable or not), sports people who are predisposed to a recurrence of rupture of the anterior cruciate ligament could be identified. However, the hypothetical neuromuscular factors reported till date (Table 1) do not offer a complete understanding of this risk. [less ▲]

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See detailValidation of an accelerometer-based approach to quantify gait events
Boutaayamou, Mohamed ULg; Schwartz, Cédric ULg; Stamatakis, Julien et al

Poster (2013, June)

Researchers rarely provide solid performance and validation information about their acceleometer-based approaches to human gait analysis. We present here a novel signal processing and analysis algorithm ... [more ▼]

Researchers rarely provide solid performance and validation information about their acceleometer-based approaches to human gait analysis. We present here a novel signal processing and analysis algorithm that automatically extracts four consecutive fundamental events of walking: heel strike (HS), toe strike (TS), heel off (HO), and toe off (TO). In addition, we validate this accelerometer-based technique by comparing these extracted gait events with those obtained by a kinematic 3D analysis system and a force plate, used as gold standards. [less ▲]

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See detailEpreuves isocinétiques de résistance à la fatigue
Croisier, Jean-Louis ULg; Bosquet, L.; Maquet, Didier ULg et al

in Lettre de Médecine Physique et de Réadaptation (2013)

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See detailLe travail excentrique : aspects musculaires et tendineux
Kaux, Jean-François ULg; Hody, Stéphanie ULg; Forthomme, Bénédicte ULg et al

in Prévention des troubles musculo-squelettiques chez le sportif (2013)

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See detailApproche préventive de la lésion d'épaule chez le sportif
Forthomme, Bénédicte ULg; Gleizes-Cervera, S; Delvaux, François ULg et al

in Prévention des troubles musculo-squelettiques chez le sportif (2013)

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See detailL'équilibre de force musculaire agonistes / antagonistes
Croisier, Jean-Louis ULg; Delvaux, François ULg; Kaux, Jean-François ULg et al

in Prévention des troubles musculo-squelettiques chez le sportif (2013)

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See detailL'apport de l'analyse biomécanique 3-D dans les stratégies préventives à partir de 2 exemples
Schwartz, Cédric ULg; Croisier, Jean-Louis ULg; Tubez, François ULg et al

in Julia, M; Croisier, Jean-Louis; Perrey, S (Eds.) et al Prévention des troubles musculo-squelettiques chez le sportif (2013)

De nouveaux outils de mesure permettent de quantifier la cinématique et la dynamique articulaire fonctionnelle des athlètes (systèmes optoélectroniques 3D, plateforme de forces, électromyographie, …). Ces ... [more ▼]

De nouveaux outils de mesure permettent de quantifier la cinématique et la dynamique articulaire fonctionnelle des athlètes (systèmes optoélectroniques 3D, plateforme de forces, électromyographie, …). Ces données sont importantes dans le sens où elles donnent à l’équipe médicale et sportive des informations objectives sur le geste du sportif dans sa pratique réelle. Elles favorisent la compréhension et l’amélioration de la performance ainsi que la prévention lésionnelle et la détection de situations à risque. Dans le cadre d’un suivi longitudinal des sportifs, ces mesures sont intéressantes pour mettre en place des critères objectifs et spécifiques à l’athlète de retour sur le terrain après une blessure. Ce document a pour objectif de présenter les principaux outils disponibles dans les laboratoires de biomécanique et d’illustrer leurs utilisations à travers 2 exemples : l’influence de la raideur de l’épaule sur la mobilité de l’épaule et l’analyse cinématique du service au tennis. [less ▲]

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See detailEccentric training improves tendon biomechanical properties: a rat model
Kaux, Jean-François ULg; Drion, Pierre ULg; Libertiaux, Vincent et al

in Journal of Orthopaedic Research (2013), 31(1), 119-124

Introduction: The treatment of choice for tendinopathies is eccentric reeducation. Although the clinical results appear favourable, the biomechanical changes to the tissue are not yet clear. Even if the ... [more ▼]

Introduction: The treatment of choice for tendinopathies is eccentric reeducation. Although the clinical results appear favourable, the biomechanical changes to the tissue are not yet clear. Even if the mechanotransduction theory is commonly accepted, the physiology of tendons is not clearly understood. We aimed to better define the biomechanical and histological changes that affect healthy tendon after eccentric and concentric training. Materiel and Methods: This study compared the effects of 2 methods of training (eccentric (E) training and concentric (C) training) with untrained (U) rats. The animals were trained over a period of 5 weeks. The tricipital, patellar and Achilles tendons were removed, measured and a tensile test until failure was performed. A histological analysis (hematoxylin and eosin and Masson's trichrome stains) was also realized. Results: There was a significant increase in the rupture force of the patellar and tricipital tendons between the U and E groups. The tricipital tendons in the control group presented a significantly smaller cross-sectional area than the E- and C-trained groups, but none was constated between E and C groups. No significant difference was observed for the mechanical stress between the three groups for all three tendons. Histological studies demonstrated the development of a greater number of blood vessels and a larger quantity of collagen in the E group. Discussion and conclusion: The mechanical properties of tendons in rats improve after specific training, especially following eccentric training. Our results partly explained how mechanical loading, especially in eccentric mode, could improve the healing of tendon. [less ▲]

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See detailMerging multi-camera data to reduce motion analysis instrumental errors using Kalman filters
Schwartz, Cédric ULg; Denoël, Vincent ULg; Forthomme, Bénédicte ULg et al

in Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering (2013)

In motion capture systems, markers are often seen by multiple cameras. All cameras do not measure the position of the markers with the same reliability because of environmental factors such as the ... [more ▼]

In motion capture systems, markers are often seen by multiple cameras. All cameras do not measure the position of the markers with the same reliability because of environmental factors such as the position of the marker in the field of view or the light intensity received by the cameras. Kalman filters offer a general framework to take the reliability of the various cameras into account and consequently improve the estimation of the marker position. The proposed process can be applied to both passive and active systems. Several reliability models of the cameras are compared for the Codamotion active system, which is considered as a specific illustration. The proposed method significantly reduces the noise in the signal, especially at long range distances. Therefore, it improves the confidence of the positions at the limits of the field of view. [less ▲]

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See detailDominance effect on scapula 3-dimensional posture and kinematics in healthy male and female populations
Schwartz, Cédric ULg; Croisier, Jean-Louis ULg; Rigaux, Elise et al

in Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery (2013), (0), -

Background: The contralateral shoulder is often used as a reference when evaluating a pathological shoulder. However literature provides contradictory results regarding the symmetry of the scapular ... [more ▼]

Background: The contralateral shoulder is often used as a reference when evaluating a pathological shoulder. However literature provides contradictory results regarding the symmetry of the scapular pattern in a healthy population. We assume that several factors including the gender and the type of motion may influence the scapula bilateral symmetry. Method: The dominant and non dominant shoulders of two populations of men and women composed of 11 subjects each were evaluated for three distinct motions: flexion in the sagittal plane, abduction in the frontal plane and gleno-humeral internal/external rotation with the arm abducted at 90°. Posture, kinematic and range of motion were studied separately. Results: Asymmetries are observed for motions performed in the frontal and sagittal plane but not for the internal/external rotation with the arm abducted at 90°. Multiplane asymmetries are observed for the male population, whereas asymmetries for the female one are mainly uniplanar. For both men and women, the scapula has a larger upward rotation on the dominant side. For men, a larger posterior tilt is also observed. The asymmetries mainly originate in the scapula kinematic and not in its original posture. Discussion: Even if the asymmetries are not large in terms of amplitude (inferior to 5°), one should be aware of their existence and the influence of the composition of the studied population when using the contralateral shoulder as a reference. [less ▲]

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See detailShoulder Pain among High-Level Volleyball Players and Preseason Features
Forthomme, Bénédicte ULg; Wieczorek, Valérie; Frisch, Anne et al

in Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise (2013), 45(10), 1852-1860

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See detailShoulder injury prevention in sports using 3D motion capture
Schwartz, Cédric ULg; HAZEE, Amandine ULg; Denoël, Vincent ULg et al

Poster (2012, December 07)

In sports, where regular and intensive training could progressively lead to traumatic situations, accurate measurement of kinematic parameters can help to predict and anticipate injuries. Overhead ... [more ▼]

In sports, where regular and intensive training could progressively lead to traumatic situations, accurate measurement of kinematic parameters can help to predict and anticipate injuries. Overhead throwing athletes may develop an increased stiffness of the shoulder capsule. The resulting diminution of the gleno-humeral range of motion is usually associated with decreased performance and injury risks. This study illustrates the detection of these situations that put the athlete at risk. [less ▲]

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See detailValidated Extraction of Gait Events from 3D Accelerometer Recordings
Boutaayamou, Mohamed ULg; Schwartz, Cédric ULg; Stamatakis, Julien et al

in IEEE International Conference on 3D Imaging (IC3D) (2012, December)

This work is part of a project that deals with the three-dimensional (3D) analysis of normal and pathological gaits based on a newly developed system for clinical applications, using low-cost wireless ... [more ▼]

This work is part of a project that deals with the three-dimensional (3D) analysis of normal and pathological gaits based on a newly developed system for clinical applications, using low-cost wireless accelerometers and a signal processing algorithm. This system automatically extracts relevant gait events such as the heel strikes (HS) and the toe-offs (TO), which characterize the stance and the swing phases of walking. The performances of the low-cost accelerometer hardware and related algorithm have been compared to those obtained by a kinematic 3D analysis system and a force plate, used as gold standard methods. The HS and TO times obtained from the gait data of 7 healthy volunteers (147 trials) have been found to be (mean ± standard deviation) 0.42±7.92 ms and 3.11±10.08 ms later than those determined by the force plate, respectively. The experimental results demonstrate that the new hardware and associated algorithm constitute an effective low-cost gait analysis system, which could thus be used for the assessment of mobility in routine clinical practice. [less ▲]

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