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See detailDistribution of Aromatase-Immunoreactive Cells in the Forebrain of Zebra Finches (Taeniopygia Guttata): Implications for the Neural Action of Steroids and Nuclear Definition in the Avian Hypothalamus
Balthazart, Jacques ULg; Absil, Philippe ULg; Foidart, Agnès ULg et al

in Journal of Neurobiology (1996), 31(2), 129-48

Cells immunoreactive for the enzyme aromatase were localized in the forebrain of male zebra finches with the use of an immunocytochemistry procedure. Two polyclonal antibodies, one directed against human ... [more ▼]

Cells immunoreactive for the enzyme aromatase were localized in the forebrain of male zebra finches with the use of an immunocytochemistry procedure. Two polyclonal antibodies, one directed against human placental aromatase and the other directed against quail recombinant aromatase, revealed a heterogeneous distribution of the enzyme in the telencephalon, diencephalon, and mesencephalon. Staining was enhanced in some birds by the administration of the nonsteroidal aromatase inhibitor, R76713 racemic Vorozole) prior to the perfusion of the birds as previously described in Japanese quail. Large numbers of cells immunoreactive for aromatase were found in nuclei in the preoptic region and in the tuberal hypothalamus. A nucleus was identified in the preoptic region based on the high density of aromatase immunoreactive cells within its boundaries that appears to be homologous to the preoptic medial nucleus (POM) described previously in Japanese quail. In several birds alternate sections were stained for immunoreactive vasotocin, a marker of the paraventricular nucleus (PVN). This information facilitated the clear separation of the POM in zebra finches from nuclei that are adjacent to the POM in the preoptic area-hypothalamus, such as the PVN and the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus. Positively staining cells were also detected widely throughout the telencephalon. Cells were discerned in the medial parts of the ventral hyperstriatum and neostriatum near the lateral ventricle and in dorsal and medial parts of the hippocampus. They were most abundant in the caudal neostriatum where they clustered in the dorsomedial neostriatum, and as a band of cells coursing along the dorsal edge of the lamina archistriatalis dorsalis. They were also present in high numbers in the ventrolateral aspect of the neostriatum and in the nucleus taeniae. None of the telencephalic vocal control nuclei had appreciable numbers of cells immunoreactive for aromatase within their boundaries, with the possible exception of a group of cells that may correspond to the medial part of the magnocellular nucleus of the neostriatum. The distribution of immunoreactive aromatase cells in the zebra finch brain is in excellent agreement with the distribution of cells expressing the mRNA for aromatase recently described in the finch telencephalon. This widespread telencephalic distribution of cells immunoreactive for aromatase has not been described in non-songbird species such as the Japanese quail, the ring dove, and the domestic fowl. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of Testosterone and Its Metabolites on Aromatase-Immunoreactive Cells in the Quail Brain: Relationship with the Activation of Male Reproductive Behavior
Balthazart, Jacques ULg; Foidart, Agnès ULg; Absil, Philippe ULg et al

in Journal of Steroid Biochemistry & Molecular Biology (1996), 56(1-6 Spec No), 185-200

The enzyme aromatase converts testosterone (T) into 17 beta-estradiol and plays a pivotal role in the control of reproduction. In particular, the aromatase activity (AA) located in the preoptic area (POA ... [more ▼]

The enzyme aromatase converts testosterone (T) into 17 beta-estradiol and plays a pivotal role in the control of reproduction. In particular, the aromatase activity (AA) located in the preoptic area (POA) of male Japanese quail is a limiting step in the activation by T of copulatory behavior. Aromatase-immunoreactive (ARO-ir) cells of the POA are specifically localized within the cytoarchitectonic boundaries of the medial preoptic nucleus(POM), a sexually dimorphic and steroid-sensitive structure that is a necessary and sufficient site of steroid action in the activation of behavior. Stereotaxic implantation of aromatase inhibitors in but not around the POM strongly decreases the behavioral effects of a systemic treatment with T of castrated males. AA is decreased by castration and increased by aromatizable androgens and by estrogens. These changes have been independently documented at three levels of analysis: the enzymatic activity measured by radioenzymatic assays in vitro, the enzyme concentration evaluated semi-quantitatively by immunocytochemistry and the concentration of its messenger RNA quantified by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). These studies demonstrate that T acting mostly through its estrogenic metabolites regulates brain aromatase by acting essentially at the transcriptional level. Estrogens produced by central aromatization of T therefore have two independent roles: they activate male copulatory behavior and they regulate the synthesis of aromatase. Double label immunocytochemical studies demonstrate that estrogen receptors(ER) are found in all brain areas containing ARO-ir cells but the extent to which these markers are colocalized varies from one brain region to the other. More than 70% of ARO-ir cells contain detectable ER in the tuberal hypothalamus but less than 20% of the cells display this colocalization in the POA. This absence of ER in ARO-ir cells is also observed in the POA of the rat brain. This suggests that locally formed estrogens cannot control the behavior and the aromatase synthesis in an autocrine fashion in the cells where they were formed. Multi-neuronal networks need therefore to be considered. The behavioral activation could result from the action of estrogens in ER-positive cells located in the vicinity of the ARO-ir cells where they were produced (paracrine action). Alternatively, actions that do not involve the nuclear ER could be important. Immunocytochemical studies at the electron microscope level and biochemical assays of AA in purified synaptosomes indicate the presence of aromatase in presynaptic boutons. Estrogens formed at this level could directly affect the pre-and post-synaptic membrane or could directly modulate neurotransmission namely through their metabolization into catecholestrogens (CE) which are known to be powerful inhibitors of the catechol- omicron - methyl transferase (COMT). The inhibition of COMT should increase the catecholaminergic transmission. It is significant to note, in this respect, that high levels of 2-hydroxylase activity, the enzyme that catalyzes the transformation of estrogens in CE, are found in all brain areas that contain aromatase. On the other hand, the synthesis of aromatase should also be controlled by estrogens in an indirect, transynaptic manner very reminiscent of the way in which steroids indirectly control the production of LHRH. Fibers that are immunoreactive for tyrosine hydroxylase (synthesis of dopamine), dopamine beta-hydroxylase (synthesis of norepinephrine) or vasotocine have been identified in the close vicinity of ARO-ir cells in the POM and retrograde tracing has identified the origin of the dopaminergic and noradrenergic innervation of these areas. A few preliminary physiological experiments suggest that these catecholaminergic inputs regulate AA and presumably synthesis. [less ▲]

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See detailPre- and Post-Translational Regulation of Aromatase by Steroidal and Non-Steroidal Aromatase Inhibitors
Foidart, Agnès ULg; Tlemcani, O.; Harada, N. et al

in Brain Research (1995), 701(1-2), 267-78

Treatment of castrated quail with testosterone (T) reliably activates male copulatory behavior and, at the same time, increases the aromatase activity (AA), the number of aromatase-immunoreactive (ARO-ir ... [more ▼]

Treatment of castrated quail with testosterone (T) reliably activates male copulatory behavior and, at the same time, increases the aromatase activity (AA), the number of aromatase-immunoreactive (ARO-ir) cells and the concentration of aromatase mRNA as measured by RT-PCR in the brain. All these effects can be mimicked by estrogens. The behavioral effects of T can be blocked by a variety of aromatase inhibitors and, in parallel, the AA is strongly inhibited in the preoptic area (POA). We showed recently that the steroidal inhibitor, 4-OH-androstenedione (OHA) markedly decreases the immunostaining density of brain ARO-ir cells while the non-steroidal inhibitor, R76713 (racemic Vorozole; VOR) unexpectedly increased the density of this staining, despite the fact that the enzyme activity was completely inhibited. To generalize these findings and try to identify the underlying mechanism, we compared here the effects of two steroidal (OHA and androstatrienedione [ATD]) and two non-steroidal (VOR and Fadrozole [FAD]) aromatase inhibitors on the aromatase immunostaining and aromatase mRNA concentration in the brain of castrated quail concurrently treated with T. The 4 inhibitors significantly blocked the activation by T of male copulation. The two steroidal inhibitors decreased the immunostaining of brain ARO-ir cells but both VOR and FAD markedly enhanced the density of this staining. In parallel, OHA and ATD completely blocked the T-induced increase in aromatase mRNA concentration, while VOR and FAD had no effect on these RNA concentrations in the POA-anterior hypothalamus and they decreased them only slightly in the posterior hypothalamus. Taken together these results suggest that the inhibition of AA by ATD or OHA and the subsequent removal of locally produced estrogens blocks the synthesis of aromatase presumably at the transcriptional level. By contrast, the two non-steroidal inhibitors tested here block AA but in parallel increase the aromatase immunostaining. This effect does not result from an enhanced transcription and it is therefore speculated that these compounds increase either the translation of the aromatase mRNA or the half-life of the protein itself. [less ▲]

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See detailSexual Differentiation of Brain and Behavior in Quail and Zebra Finches: Studies with a New Aromatase Inhibitor, R76713
Foidart, Agnès ULg; Balthazart, Jacques ULg

in Journal of Steroid Biochemistry & Molecular Biology (1995), 53(1-6), 267-75

In many species of vertebrates, major sex differences affect reproductive behavior and endocrinology. Most of these differences do not result from a direct genomic action but develop following early ... [more ▼]

In many species of vertebrates, major sex differences affect reproductive behavior and endocrinology. Most of these differences do not result from a direct genomic action but develop following early exposure to a sexually differentiated endocrine milieu. In rodents, the female reproductive phenotype mostly develops in the absence of early steroid influence and male differentiation is imposed by the early action of testosterone, acting at least in part through its central conversion into estrogens or aromatization. This pattern of differentiation does not seem to be applicable to avian species. In Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica), injection of estrogens into male embryos causes a permanent loss of the capacity to display male-type copulatory behavior when exposed to testosterone in adulthood. Based on this experimental result, it was proposed that the male reproductive phenotype is "neutral" in birds (i.e. develops in the absence of endocrine influence) and that endogenous estradiol secreted by the ovary of the female embryo is responsible for the physiological demasculinization of females. This model could be recently confirmed. Females indeed display a higher level of circulating estrogens that males during the second part of their embyronic life. In addition, treatment of female embryos with the potent aromatase inhibitor, R76713 or racemic vorozole which suppresses the endogenous secretion of estrogens maintains in females the capacity to display the full range of male copulatory behaviors. The brain mechanisms that control this sexually differentiated behavior have not been identified so far but recent data suggest that they should primarily concern a sub-population of aromatase-immunoreactive neurons located in the lateral parts of the sexually dimorphic preoptic nucleus. The zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata) exhibits a more complex, still partly unexplained, differentiation pattern. In this species, early treatment with exogenous estrogens produces a masculinization of singing behavior in females and a demasculinization of copulatory behavior in males.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) [less ▲]

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See detailAromatase-Immunoreactive Cells Are Present in Mouse Brain Areas That Are Known to Express High Levels of Aromatase Activity
Foidart, Agnès ULg; Harada, N.; Balthazart, Jacques ULg

in Cell & Tissue Research (1995), 280(3), 561-74

The transformation of testosterone into estradiol in the brain plays a key role in several behavioral and physiological processes, but it has been so far impossible to localize precisely the cells of the ... [more ▼]

The transformation of testosterone into estradiol in the brain plays a key role in several behavioral and physiological processes, but it has been so far impossible to localize precisely the cells of the mammalian brain containing the relevant enzyme, viz., aromatase. We have recently established an immunohistochemical technique that allows the visualization of aromatase-immunoreactive cells in the quail brain. In this species, a marked increase in the optical density of aromatase-immunoreactive cells is observed in subjects that have been treated with the aromatase inhibitor, R76713 or racemic Vorozole. This increased immunoreactivity, associated with a total blockade of aromatase activity, has been used as a tool in the present study in which the distribution of aromatase-immunoreactive material has been reassessed in the brain of mice pretreated with R76713. As expected, the aromatase inhibitor increases the density of the immunoreactive signal in mice. Strongly immunoreactive cells are found in the lateral septal region, the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, the central amygdala, and the dorso-lateral hypothalamus. A less dense signal is also present in the medial preoptic area, the nucleus accumbens, several hypothalamic nuclei (e.g., paraventricular and ventromedial nuclei), all divisions of the amygdala, and several regions of the cortex, especially the cortex piriformis. These data demonstrate that, contrary to previous claims, aromatase-immunoreactive cells are present in all brain regions that have been shown previously to contain high aromatase activity. [less ▲]

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See detailAppetitive as Well as Consummatory Aspects of Male Sexual Behavior in Quail Are Activated by Androgens and Estrogens
Balthazart, Jacques ULg; Reid, J.; Absil, Philippe ULg et al

in Behavioral Neuroscience (1995), 109(3), 485-501

Appetitive male sexual behavior was measured in male quail with the use of a learned social proximity procedure that quantified the time spent by a male in front of a window providing a view of a female ... [more ▼]

Appetitive male sexual behavior was measured in male quail with the use of a learned social proximity procedure that quantified the time spent by a male in front of a window providing a view of a female that was subsequently released into the cage, providing an opportunity for copulation. The learned response is not acquired by castrated males but can be acquired when castrates are treated with testosterone (T) or with the synthetic estrogen diethylstilbestrol or with the endogenous estrogen 17 beta-estradiol. Only birds that become sexually active acquire the response. Conversely, birds in which the consummatory copulatory behavior is disrupted by treatment with the antiestrogen tamoxifen lose the anticipatory response. These results demonstrate that appetitive sexual behavior is, like copulation, activated by T and by estrogens. This suggests that intracerebral aromatization of T also plays a critical role in the activation of this behavior. [less ▲]

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See detailCritical Re-Examination of the Distribution of Aromatase-Immunoreactive Cells in the Quail Forebrain Using Antibodies Raised against Human Placental Aromatase and against the Recombinant Quail, Mouse or Human Enzyme
Foidart, Agnès ULg; Reid, J.; Absil, Philippe ULg et al

in Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy (1995), 8(4), 267-82

Mouse and quail aromatase cDNAs were isolated from libraries of mouse ovary and quail brain by using a human aromatase cDNA fragment (hA-24) as a probe. These three cDNAs were inserted into plasmid ... [more ▼]

Mouse and quail aromatase cDNAs were isolated from libraries of mouse ovary and quail brain by using a human aromatase cDNA fragment (hA-24) as a probe. These three cDNAs were inserted into plasmid vectors and expressed in Escherichia coli. Antisera against these purified recombinant proteins were raised in rabbit and purified by ammonium sulfate fractionation and affinity chromatography. The three antibodies directed against recombinant human, mouse and quail proteins were used to visualize aromatase-immunoreactive cells in the quail brain. They were compared with the antibody raised against human placental aromatase used in previous experiments and with another antibody recently developed by similar methods. The signal obtained with all antibodies was completely abolished by preadsorption with the homologous recombinant antigens and the signal produced by the two antibodies raised against placental aromatase was similarly abolished by a preadsorption with recombinant quail aromatase. The antibodies raised against recombinant proteins identified the major groups of aromatase cells previously described in the quail brain. The antibodies directed against the mouse and quail antigen identified more positive cells and stained them more densely than the antibodies raised against human recombinant antigen or purified placental aromatase. The new cell groups identified by the antibody raised against quail recombinant aromatase were located in an area ventral to the fasciculus prosencephali lateralis, the nucleus accumbens, the paleostriatum ventrale, the nucleus taeniae, the area around the nucleus ovoidalis, the caudal tuber and the mesencephalic central gray. A critical re-examination of the distribution and nomenclature of the aromatase-positive cells is proposed based on these new findings. [less ▲]

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See detailLes phéromones humaines: vestige animal ou réalité non reconnue
Foidart, Agnès ULg; Legros, Jean-Jacques ULg; Balthazart, Jacques ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (1994), 49(12), 662-80

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See detailEffects of Steroidal and Non Steroidal Aromatase Inhibitors on Sexual Behavior and Aromatase-Immunoreactive Cells and Fibers in the Quail Brain
Foidart, Agnès ULg; Harada, N.; Balthazart, Jacques ULg

in Brain Research (1994), 657(1-2), 105-23

Castrated quail were treated with Silastic implants filled with testosterone (T) in association with injections of the aromatase inhibitors, R76713 (racemic vorozole; 1 mg/kg twice a day) or 4 ... [more ▼]

Castrated quail were treated with Silastic implants filled with testosterone (T) in association with injections of the aromatase inhibitors, R76713 (racemic vorozole; 1 mg/kg twice a day) or 4-hydroxyandrostenedione (OHA; 5 mg/bird twice a day). [less ▲]

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See detailSynergistic Control by Androgens and Estrogens of Aromatase in the Quail Brain
Balthazart, Jacques ULg; Stoop, R.; Foidart, Agnès ULg et al

in Neuroreport (1994), 5(14), 1729-32

Castrated quail were injected with testosterone or with the synthetic hormones diethylstilbestrol (DES) or methyltrienolone (R1881) to analyse the steroid specificity in the induction of brain aromatase ... [more ▼]

Castrated quail were injected with testosterone or with the synthetic hormones diethylstilbestrol (DES) or methyltrienolone (R1881) to analyse the steroid specificity in the induction of brain aromatase. R1881 produced a moderate (generally non-significant) increase in the number of aromatase-immunoreactive cells. DES significantly increased the number of positive cells in most brain areas. A clear synergism between DES and R1881 was observed in all brain regions: more immunoreactive cells were found in birds receiving both compounds than in those injected with DES or R1881 alone. DES and R1881 are highly specific ligands for oestrogen and androgen receptors respectively. It appears likely that both androgens and oestrogens directly modulate brain aromatase, presumably at the transcription level. [less ▲]

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See detailAromatase-Immunoreactive Cells in the Quail Brain: Effects of Testosterone and Sex Dimorphism
Foidart, Agnès ULg; de Clerck, A.; Harada, N. et al

in Physiology & Behavior (1994), 55(3), 453-64

We previously demonstrated that testosterone (T) increases aromatase activity (AA) and that AA is sexually dimorphic (males > females) in the quail preoptic area (POA). The precise anatomical localization ... [more ▼]

We previously demonstrated that testosterone (T) increases aromatase activity (AA) and that AA is sexually dimorphic (males > females) in the quail preoptic area (POA). The precise anatomical localization of these effects is, however, impossible to obtain by biochemical assays even when samples are dissected by the Palkovits punch technique. We were recently able to set up an immunocytochemical (ICC) procedure that permits visualization of aromatase-immunoreactive (ARO-ir) cells in the quail brain. This showed that the ARO-ir cells of the quail POA actually outline the sexually dimorphic medial preoptic nucleus (POM). This ICC technique was used here to analyze the sex dimorphism of the quail preoptic aromatase and the localization of T effects on ARO-ir cells. In Experiment 1, the number of ARO-ir cells was counted in one section every 100 microns throughout the rostral to caudal extent of the POM of castrated birds that had been treated with increasing doses of T (5, 10, or 20 mm long Silastic implants). These T-treatments produced a dose-related increase in the sexual behavior of the birds and they increased the number of ARO-ir cells in POM, in the septal regions, and in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST). The effect had a particularly large amplitude in the part of the POM located under the anterior commissure (AC). In Experiment 2, the same procedure was used to reanalyze the sex difference of the preoptic aromatase system. This showed that the POM of adult males contains more stained cells than the POM of females but only in a restricted region located just under and rostral to the AC. No significant sex difference was observed in the septum or in the BNST. In Experiment 3, the number of ARO-ir cells was determined in the POM of males and females that had been gonadectomized and treated with a same dose of T (40 mm implants). No sex difference in the number of ARO-ir cells could be detected in these conditions. This suggests that the sex difference in AA that had been previously observed in T-treated birds results either from a difference in aromatase concentration or activity in a similar number of positive cells or from a difference in the number of ARO-ir cells that is very discrete from the anatomical point of view.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) [less ▲]

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See detailDistribution and Regulation of Estrogen-2-Hydroxylase in the Quail Brain
Balthazart, Jacques ULg; Stoop, R.; Foidart, Agnès ULg et al

in Brain Research Bulletin (1994), 35(4), 339-45

The anatomical distribution and endocrine regulation of the estrogen-2-hydroxylase activity were investigated in the brain of adult male and female Japanese quail. Significant levels of enzymatic activity ... [more ▼]

The anatomical distribution and endocrine regulation of the estrogen-2-hydroxylase activity were investigated in the brain of adult male and female Japanese quail. Significant levels of enzymatic activity were detected in all brain regions that were studied, but the highest levels were observed in preoptic and hypothalamic brain nuclei that are known to contain high levels of aromatase activity. These data are consistent with previous results suggesting that the placental aromatase is also responsible for the estrogen-2-hydroxylase activity. However, there is a marked sex difference and a control by T of aromatase activity in the quail brain, and no such difference in 2-hydroxylase activity could generally be detected except in the VMN. Further studies will be needed to know whether the previously published conclusions concerning the human placenta also apply to the brain. The present data are consistent with the idea that estrogens formed locally in the brain by testosterone aromatization could affect reproduction by interfering with the catecholaminergic transmission after being metabolized into catechol-estrogens. [less ▲]

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See detailBrain Aromatase and the Control of Male Sexual Behavior
Balthazart, Jacques ULg; Foidart, Agnès ULg

in Journal of Steroid Biochemistry & Molecular Biology (1993), 44(4-6), 521-40

The activational effects of testosterone (T) on male copulatory behavior are mediated by its aromatization into estradiol. In quail, we have shown by stereotaxic implantation of steroids and metabolism ... [more ▼]

The activational effects of testosterone (T) on male copulatory behavior are mediated by its aromatization into estradiol. In quail, we have shown by stereotaxic implantation of steroids and metabolism inhibitors and by electrolytic lesions that the action of T and its aromatization take place in the sexually dimorphic medial preoptic nucleus (POM). The distribution and regulation of brain aromatase was studied in this species by product-formation assays measuring aromatase activity (AA) in microdissected brain regions and by immunocytochemistry (ICC). Aromatase-immunoreactive (ARO-ir) neurons were found in four brain regions: the POM, the septal region, the bed nucleus of the stria terminals (BNST) and the tuberal hypothalamus. ARO-ir cells actually outline the POM boundaries. ARO-ir material is found not only in the perikarya of neurons but also in the full extension of their cellular processes including the axons and the presynaptic boutons. This is confirmed at the light level by the demonstration of immunoreactive fibers and punctate structures in brain regions that are sometimes fairly distant from the closest ARO-ir cells. A lot of ARO-ir cells in the POM and BNST do not contain immunoreactive estrogen receptors (ER-ir) as demonstrated by double label ICC. These morphological data suggest an unorthodox role for the enzyme or the locally formed estrogens. In parallel with copulatory behavior, the preoptic AA decreases after castration and is restored by T to levels seen in sexually mature males. This probably reflects a change in enzyme concentration rather than a modulation of the activity in a constant number of molecules since the maximum enzymatic velocity (Vmax) only is affected while the affinity (Km) remains unchanged. In addition, T increases the number of ARO-ir neurons in POM and other brain areas suggesting that the concentration of the antigen is actually increased. This probably involves the direct activation of aromatase transcription as demonstrated by RT-PCR studies showing that aromatase mRNA is increased following T treatment of castrates. These activating effects of T seem to result from a synergistic action of androgenic and estrogenic metabolites of the steroid. The anatomical substrate for these regulations remains unclear at present especially in POM where ARO-ir cells do not in general contain ER-ir while androgen receptors appear to be rare based on both [3H] dihydrotestosterone autoradiography and ICC. Transynaptic mechanisms of control may be considered. A modulation of brain aromatase by catecholamines is also suggested by a few pharmacological studies.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) [less ▲]

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See detailBehavioral Demasculinization of Female Quail Is Induced by Estrogens: Studies with the New Aromatase Inhibitor, R76713
Balthazart, Jacques ULg; De Clerck, A.; Foidart, Agnès ULg

in Hormones & Behavior (1992), 26(2), 179-203

The injection before Day 12 of incubation of estradiol benzoate (EB) into Japanese quail eggs produces a complete behavioral demasculinization of adult males that will hatch from these eggs. These males ... [more ▼]

The injection before Day 12 of incubation of estradiol benzoate (EB) into Japanese quail eggs produces a complete behavioral demasculinization of adult males that will hatch from these eggs. These males never show copulatory behavior even after administration of high levels of exogenous testosterone (T). It is usually assumed that such a demasculinization normally takes place in female embryos under the influence of endogenous estrogens but few experimental data are available to confirm the validity of this model. A series of four experiments was performed during which R76713, a triazole derivative that specifically inhibits aromatase (estrogen synthetase) activity, was injected into quail eggs at different stages of incubation to prevent the production of endogenous estrogens. The consequences of these embryonic treatments on the T-activated sexual behavior in adults were then quantified. When injected before Day 12 of incubation, R76713 completely blocked the behavioral demasculinization of females without affecting the behavior of the males. After a treatment with T, almost all R76713-treated females showed as adults a masculine copulatory behavior that was undistinguishable from the behavior of intact males. This effect was fully reversed by the injection in egg of EB demonstrating that the effects of R76713 were specifically due to the suppression of endogenous estrogens. Injection of R76713 during the late phase of the incubation (Day 12 or Day 15) only maintained weak copulatory behavior in females which confirmed that the behavioral demasculinization in quail takes place mainly though not exclusively during the early stages of ontogeny. In a last experiment, we combined an early R76713 treatment with an injection of EB either on Day 9 or on Day 14 of incubation. This showed that the sensitivity to differentiating effects of estrogens varies with age in a sexually differentiated manner. The EB injection on Day 9 demasculinized both male and female embryos. If this injection was delayed until Day 14, it was no longer effective in males but still caused a partial demasculinization of females. This demonstrates that even if females are not yet behaviorally demasculinized on Day 9 of incubation (suppression of aromatase activity at that age will maintain the behavior), their sensitivity to estrogens is already different from that of males. [less ▲]

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See detailImmunocytochemical Localization of Androgen Receptors in the Male Songbird and Quail Brain
Balthazart, Jacques ULg; Foidart, Agnès ULg; Wilson, E. M. et al

in Journal of Comparative Neurology (The) (1992), 317(4), 407-20

The distribution of androgen receptors was studied in the brain of the Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica), the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata), and the canary (Serinus canaria) by immunocytochemistry ... [more ▼]

The distribution of androgen receptors was studied in the brain of the Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica), the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata), and the canary (Serinus canaria) by immunocytochemistry with a polyclonal antibody (AR32) raised in rabbit against a synthetic peptide corresponding to a sequence located at the N-terminus of the androgen receptor molecule. In quail, androgen receptor-immunoreactive cells were observed in the nucleus intercollicularis and in various nuclei of the preoptic-hypothalamic complex, namely, the nucleus preopticus medialis, the ventral part of the nucleus anterior medialis hypothalami, the nucleus paraventricularis magnocellularis, the nucleus ventromedialis hypothalami, and the tuberal hypothalamus. In the two songbird species, labeled cells were also observed in various nuclei in the preoptic-hypothalamic region, in the nucleus taeniae, and in the nucleus intercollicularis. Additional androgen receptor-immunoreactive cells were present in the androgen-sensitive telencephalic nuclei that are part of the song control system. These immunoreactive cells filled and outlined the boundaries of the hyperstriatum ventrale, pars caudalis, nucleus magnocellularis neostriatalis anterioris (both in the lateral and medial subdivisions), and nucleus robustus archistriatalis. The immunoreactive material was primarily present in cell nuclei but a low level of immunoreactivity was also clearly detected in cytoplasm in some brain areas. These studies demonstrate, for the first time, that androgen receptors can be detected by immunocytochemistry in the avian brain and the results are in general agreement with the binding data obtained by autoradiography with tritiated dihydrotestosterone. Immunocytochemical methods offer several advantages over autoradiography and their use for the study of the androgen receptor will greatly facilitate the analysis of steroid-sensitive systems in the avian brain. [less ▲]

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See detailNeuroanatomical Specificity in the Autoregulation of Aromatase-Immunoreactive Neurons by Androgens and Estrogens: An Immunocytochemical Study
Balthazart, Jacques ULg; Foidart, Agnès ULg; Surlemont, C. et al

in Brain Research (1992), 574(1-2), 280-90

Testosterone (T) increases brain aromatase activity (AA) in quail and other avian and mammalian species. It was shown both in quail and in rat that this enzymatic induction results from a synergistic ... [more ▼]

Testosterone (T) increases brain aromatase activity (AA) in quail and other avian and mammalian species. It was shown both in quail and in rat that this enzymatic induction results from a synergistic action of androgens and estrogens. These studies provide little information on possible anatomical or cellular specificity of the effect. Using a polyclonal antiserum against human placental aromatase, we have previously identified aromatase-immunoreactive (ARO-ir) neurons in the quail brain and demonstrated that T increases the number of ARO-ir cells in the quail preoptic area (POA) supporting previous evidence that T increases AA in the brain. However, which T metabolites are involved, the actual mechanism of regulation and the possibility of anatomical specificity for these effects are not yet clear. In the present study, we disassociated the effects of androgens and estrogens in aromatase induction by comparing ARO-ir neurons of quail treated with T alone or T in the presence of a potent aromatase inhibitor (R76713), which has been shown to depress AA levels and to suppress T-activated copulatory behavior. T increased the number of ARO-ir cells in POA, bed nucleus striae terminalis (BNST) and tuberal hypothalamus (Tu). The T effect was inhibited by concurrent treatment with aromatase inhibitor in Tu, but not in POA and BNST. This differential effect of the aromatase inhibitor fits in very well with our previous studies of the co-localization of aromatase and estrogen receptors. The T effect was blocked by R76713 in areas where ARO-ir and estrogen receptor-ir are generally co-localized (Tu) and was not affected in areas with mainly ARO-ir positive, estrogen receptor-ir negative cells (POA, BNST). This suggests anatomical differences in the expression or clearance of aromatase which may be differentially sensitive to androgens and estrogens and dependent upon the presence of sex steroid receptors. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of Alpha-Methyl-Para-Tyrosine on Monoamine Levels in the Japanese Quail: Sex Differences and Testosterone Effects
Balthazart, Jacques ULg; Foidart, Agnès ULg; Sante, P. et al

in Brain Research Bulletin (1992), 28(2), 275-88

Experiments were performed to obtain more information on the regulation by steroids of catecholaminergic systems in the brain of Japanese quail. Dose-response and time-response experiments were first ... [more ▼]

Experiments were performed to obtain more information on the regulation by steroids of catecholaminergic systems in the brain of Japanese quail. Dose-response and time-response experiments were first performed to determine optimal conditions for measuring turnover in the quail brain. The norepinephrine and dopamine turnover were then estimated in microdissected brain nuclei of birds that were either sexually mature or gonadectomized or gonadectomized and treated with testosterone. Two major facts that bear direct relationship with the control of masculine reproductive behavior were demonstrated. On one hand, the dopamine turnover in the medial preoptic nucleus, a sexually dimorphic brain structure which is critically implicated in the control of copulatory behavior was much higher in male than in female quail irrespective of the hormonal condition of the birds. On the other hand, norepinephrine concentrations appeared to be higher in several nuclei of the female brain by comparison with males. These sex differences might represent part of the causal factors that underlie the sex dimorphism in reproductive behavior in quail. [less ▲]

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See detailNeuroanatomical Specificity in the Co-Localization of Aromatase and Estrogen Receptors
Balthazart, Jacques ULg; Foidart, Agnès ULg; Surlemont, C. et al

in Journal of Neurobiology (1991), 22(2), 143-57

The relative distributions of aromatase and of estrogen receptors were studied in the brain of the Japanese quail by a double-label immunocytochemical technique. Aromatase immunoreactive cells (ARO-ir ... [more ▼]

The relative distributions of aromatase and of estrogen receptors were studied in the brain of the Japanese quail by a double-label immunocytochemical technique. Aromatase immunoreactive cells (ARO-ir) were found in the medial preoptic nucleus, in the septal region, and in a large cell cluster extending from the dorso-lateral aspect of the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus to the tuber at the level of the nucleus inferioris hypothalami. Immunoreactive estrogen receptors (ER) were also found in each of these brain areas but their distribution was much broader and included larger parts of the preoptic, septal, and tuberal regions. In the ventromedial and tuberal hypothalamus, the majority of the ARO-ir cells (over 75%) also contained immunoreactive ER. By contrast, very few of the ARO-ir cells were double-labeled in the preoptic area and in the septum. More than 80% of the aromatase-containing cells contained no ER in these regions. This suggests that the estrogens, which are formed centrally by aromatization of testosterone, might not exert their biological effects through binding with the classical nuclear ER. The fact that significant amounts of aromatase activity are found in synaptosomes purified by differential centrifugation and that aromatase immunoreactivity is observed at the electron microscope level in synaptic boutons suggests that aromatase might produce estrogens that act at the synaptic level as neurohormones or neuromodulators. [less ▲]

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See detailDistribution of Aromatase-Immunoreactive Cells in the Mouse Forebrain
Balthazart, Jacques ULg; Foidart, Agnès ULg; Surlemont, C. et al

in Cell & Tissue Research (1991), 263(1), 71-9

The distribution of aromatase-immunoreactive cells was studied by immunocytochemistry in the mouse forebrain using a purified polyclonal antibody raised against human placental aromatase. Labeled ... [more ▼]

The distribution of aromatase-immunoreactive cells was studied by immunocytochemistry in the mouse forebrain using a purified polyclonal antibody raised against human placental aromatase. Labeled perikarya were found in the dorso-lateral parts of the medial and tuberal hypothalamus. Positive cells filled an area extending between the subincertal nucleus in the dorsal part, the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus in the ventral part, and the internal capsule and the magnocellular nucleus of the lateral hypothalamus in the lateral part. The same distribution was seen in the two strains of mice that were studied (Jackson and Swiss), and the number of immunoreactive perikarya did not seem to be affected by castration or testosterone treatment. No immunoreactivity could be detected in the medial regions of the preoptic area and hypothalamus; these were expected to contain the enzyme based on assays of aromatase activity performed in rats and on indirect autoradiographic evidence in mice. Our data raise questions concerning the distribution of aromatase in the brain and the mode of action of the centrally produced estrogens. [less ▲]

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See detailDistribution of Aromatase in the Brain of the Japanese Quail, Ring Dove, and Zebra Finch: An Immunocytochemical Study
Balthazart, Jacques ULg; Foidart, Agnès ULg; Surlemont, C. et al

in Journal of Comparative Neurology (1990), 301(2), 276-88

An immunocytochemical peroxidase-antiperoxidase procedure using a purified polyclonal antibody raised against human placental aromatase was used to localize aromatase-containing cells in the brain of ... [more ▼]

An immunocytochemical peroxidase-antiperoxidase procedure using a purified polyclonal antibody raised against human placental aromatase was used to localize aromatase-containing cells in the brain of three avian species: the Japanese quail, the ring dove, and the zebra finch. In quail and dove, immunoreactive cells were found only in the preoptic area and hypothalamus, with a high density of positive cells being present in the medial preoptic area, in the septal area above the anterior commissure, in the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus, and in rostral part of the infundibulum. Immunoreactivity was weaker in zebra finches, and no signal could therefore be detected in the ventromedial and tuberal hypothalamus. The positive material was localized in the perikarya and in adjacent cytoplasmic processes, including the full length of axons always leaving a clear unstained cell nucleus. These features could be observed in more detail on sections cut from perfused brains and stained with an alkaline phosphatase procedure. The distribution of aromatase immunoreactivity was similar in the three species although minor differences were observed in the preoptic area. The localization of labelled neurons coincided with the distribution of aromatase activity as studied by in vitro radioenzyme assays on brain nuclei dissected by the Palkovits punch method. There was one striking exception to this rule: no immunoreactivity was detected in the zebra finch telencephalon, while assays had shown the presence of an active enzyme in several nuclei such as the robustus archistriatalis, the hyperstriatum ventrale pars caudale, and the hippocampus and area parahippocampalis. The origins of this discrepancy and the functional role of the aromatase observed in the axons are discussed. [less ▲]

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