References of "Focant, Jean-François"
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See detailDioxines en PCB’s in Chinese wolhandkrab uit het Benedenrivierengebied
van Hattum, B; Nijssen, P; Focant, Jean-François ULg

Report (2013)

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See detailCZC-GC miniaturized analysis of POPs in 20 µL blood
L'Homme, Benjamin ULg; Focant, Jean-François ULg

Conference (2013, May)

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See detailAnalysis of mainstream tobacco smoke by SPME-GC×GC-TOFMS
Brokl, Michal ULg; Bishop, L; Wright, C et al

Poster (2013, May)

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See detailTD-GC×GC-TOFMS study of human cadaveric VOC profiles
Stefanuto, Pierre-Hugues ULg; Stadler, S; Pesesse, R et al

Conference (2013, May)

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See detailMeasurement of Dechloranes and PBDEs in European Human Serum
Brasseur, Catherine ULg; Focant, Jean-François ULg

Scientific conference (2013, May)

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See detailInvestigation on human cadaveric VOC by TD-GCxGC-TOFMS
Stefanuto, Pierre-Hugues ULg; Stadler, Sonja; Pesesse, Romain et al

Poster (2013, May)

The study of the ‘smell of death’ is a challenging task. Analytical chemists who try to understand human decomposition are facing very complex mixtures of analytes present at various levels. For the last ... [more ▼]

The study of the ‘smell of death’ is a challenging task. Analytical chemists who try to understand human decomposition are facing very complex mixtures of analytes present at various levels. For the last few decades, investigations have been conducted to better learn the process of body decomposition by mean of the measurement of the Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) released during decay1. However, the chemical profile of the decomposition odor is still far from being elucidated. Indeed, the complexity of the VOC mixtures makes this profiling difficult to be carried out by a classical gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) approach. In previous studies, we developed direct-sampling based approaches for cadaveric VOC analysis from grave soils and decaying bodies by mean of thermal desorption (TD) coupled to comprehensive two-dimensional GC coupled to time-of-flight MS (GC×GC-TOFMS)2,3,4. They were based on the use of human analogs (Sus domesticus L. carcasses). For the present study, we investigated the VOC profile of early stage decomposition of human bodies. We analyzed samples collected during different trials organized during different seasons in a body farm located in Texas. Samples included environmental controls, pig carcasses, and human bodies (protected or not from scavenger insects). The data processing was performed in the light of identifying possible seasonal and species variations. Both peak capacity enhancement and spectral deconvolution helped to characterize VOC mixtures and improve comparisons of profiles. Acknowledgements: Human samples were collected during the project “Development and validation of standard operating procedures for measuring microbial populations for estimating a post-mortem interval” Grant Award No. 2010-DN-BX-K243. The authors of that grant are acknowledged for giving us the opportunity to access cadavers for sampling. 1. Vass, A.A. et al. Decompositional odor analysis database. J Forensic Sci (2004) 49, 1–10. 2. Brasseur C. et al. Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography–time-of-flight mass spectrometry for the forensic study of cadaveric volatile organic compounds released in soil by buried decaying pig carcasses. J Chromatogr A (2012) 1255, 163–170. 3. Dekeirsschieter, J. et al. Enhanced characterization of the smell of death by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GCxGC-TOFMS). PLoS ONE (2012) 7, e39005. 4. Stadler, S. Characterization of volatile organic compounds from human analogue decomposition using thermal desorption coupled to comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Anal Chem (2013) 85, 998–1005. [less ▲]

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See detailUser-friendly method for GCxGC optimization
Stefanuto, Pierre-Hugues ULg; Dimandja, Jean-Marie; Focant, Jean-François ULg

Poster (2013, May)

Almost 30 years are gone since the first paper about multidimensional GC was published by John B. Phillips 1. After several years of developing process, Comprehensive Two Dimensional Gas Chromatography ... [more ▼]

Almost 30 years are gone since the first paper about multidimensional GC was published by John B. Phillips 1. After several years of developing process, Comprehensive Two Dimensional Gas Chromatography systems are in the commercialization step of its live time. During this period, the advantages of GC×GC, regarding to classical D1 system, were clearly demonstrated 2. However, the new parameters involve in a GC×GC method are still not completely understand and people don’t use it at the maximum of its capacity. According to the literature more and more group are using GC×GC for different kind of applications. In most of these researches, GC×GC was used for its separation power. Unfortunately, the orthogonality and the column set are most of the time poorly optimized. To help people in this important step, we develop an user-friendly method to choose the best column combination and the best separation parameters for a particular application. All these developments were based on different mix of standard call the Century mix and the Dimandja mix. These are the descendants of the Phillips mix create in 2003 by J. Dimandja 3. These mixtures contain homologous series of compounds representing the polarity and the volatility range commonly sees in GC×GC. This method is based on the Retention Index obtained in a classical GC analysis and projected in the 2D space. Using this projection method, we identified four major types of orthogonality based on the peak dispersion obtained. We name those: Normal, Reverse, Hybrid and Transpose orthogonality. To characterize these observations, we developed the Orthogonality Index. Going back to the mathematical definition of orthogonality, this factor is the angle formed between the alkane line and the aromatic hydrocarbon line in the chromatographic space. Using this predictive tool, people should be able to choose the best column set and to optimize easily the separation parameters. 1. Phillips, J.B., Luu, D., Pawliszyn, J.B. & Carle, G.C. Multiplex gas chromatography by thermal modulation of a fused silica capillary column. Anal. Chem. 57, 2779–2787 (1985). 2. Dimandja, J.-M.D. Comprehensive 2-D GC provides high-performance separations in terms of selectivity, sensitivity, speed, and structure. Anal. Chem. 76, 167A–174A (2004). 3. Dimandja, J., Clouden, G. & Colón, I. Standardized test mixture for the characterization of comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography columns: the Phillips mix. J Chromatogr a 1019, 261–272 (2003). [less ▲]

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See detailUser-friendly method for GCxGC optimization
Stefanuto, Pierre-Hugues ULg; Dimandja, Jean-Marie; Focant, Jean-François ULg

Conference (2013, May)

Almost 30 years are gone since the first paper about multidimensional GC was published by John B. Phillips 1. After several years of developing process, Comprehensive Two Dimensional Gas Chromatography ... [more ▼]

Almost 30 years are gone since the first paper about multidimensional GC was published by John B. Phillips 1. After several years of developing process, Comprehensive Two Dimensional Gas Chromatography systems are in the commercialization step of its live time. During this period, the advantages of GC×GC, regarding to classical D1 system, were clearly demonstrated 2. However, the new parameters involve in a GC×GC method are still not completely understand and people don’t use it at the maximum of its capacity. According to the literature more and more group are using GC×GC for different kind of applications. In most of these researches, GC×GC was used for its separation power. Unfortunately, the orthogonality and the column set are most of the time poorly optimized. To help people in this important step, we develop an user-friendly method to choose the best column combination and the best separation parameters for a particular application. All these developments were based on different mix of standard call the Century mix and the Dimandja mix. These are the descendants of the Phillips mix create in 2003 by J. Dimandja 3. These mixtures contain homologous series of compounds representing the polarity and the volatility range commonly sees in GC×GC. This method is based on the Retention Index obtained in a classical GC analysis and projected in the 2D space. Using this projection method, we identified four major types of orthogonality based on the peak dispersion obtained. We name those: Normal, Reverse, Hybrid and Transpose orthogonality. To characterize these observations, we developed the Orthogonality Index. Going back to the mathematical definition of orthogonality, this factor is the angle formed between the alkane line and the aromatic hydrocarbon line in the chromatographic space. Using this predictive tool, people should be able to choose the best column set and to optimize easily the separation parameters. 1. Phillips, J.B., Luu, D., Pawliszyn, J.B. & Carle, G.C. Multiplex gas chromatography by thermal modulation of a fused silica capillary column. Anal. Chem. 57, 2779–2787 (1985). 2. Dimandja, J.-M.D. Comprehensive 2-D GC provides high-performance separations in terms of selectivity, sensitivity, speed, and structure. Anal. Chem. 76, 167A–174A (2004). 3. Dimandja, J., Clouden, G. & Colón, I. Standardized test mixture for the characterization of comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography columns: the Phillips mix. J Chromatogr a 1019, 261–272 (2003). [less ▲]

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See detailTime Controlled Cryogenic Zone Compression (t- CZC) GC-HRMS. Increasing sensitivity to the Attogram Level?
Krumwiede, D; Mehlmann, H; Focant, Jean-François ULg et al

Conference (2013, March)

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See detailDu Côté Obscur au Côté Clair de la Force…
Focant, Jean-François ULg

Learning material (2013)

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See detailMaking sense of the fume: GCxGC-TOFMS analysis of mainstream tobacco smoke
Brokl, Michal ULg; Bishop; Wright et al

Conference (2013, January)

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See detailCharacterizing human decomposition odour: an application of TD-GCxGC-TOFMS
Stadler, S; Stefanuto, Pierre-Hugues ULg; Brokl, Michal ULg et al

Conference (2013, January)

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See detailStudy of complex VOC mixtures by GCxGC-TOFMS
Focant, Jean-François ULg

Conference (2013, January)

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See detailFurther exploration in the quest of orthogonality
Stefanuto, Pierre-Hugues ULg; Dimandja, Jean-Marie; Focant, Jean-François ULg

Conference (2013, January)

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See detailForensic Cadaveric Decomposition Profiling by GC×GC-TOFMS Analysis of VOCs
Focant, Jean-François ULg; Stefanuto, Pierre-Hugues ULg; Brasseur, Catherine ULg et al

in Chemical Bulletin of Kazakh National University (2013), 72(4), 177-186

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