References of "Fauconnier, Marie-Laure"
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See detailChemical composition of essential oils and floral waters of Mentha longifolia (L.) Huds. from Senegal
Diop, Serigne Mbacké; Guèye, Momar Talla; Ndiaye, Ibrahima et al

in American Journal of Essential Oils and Natural Products (2016), 4(1), 46-49

Essential oils of Mentha longifolia from Senegal were extracted from fresh plants and dried plants in the shade for 7 days. The yields were of 0.39 and 0.32% in the fresh and dried plants respectively ... [more ▼]

Essential oils of Mentha longifolia from Senegal were extracted from fresh plants and dried plants in the shade for 7 days. The yields were of 0.39 and 0.32% in the fresh and dried plants respectively. Analysis of the essential oils, floral waters and the assay of pulegone were carried out by GC/FID and GC/MS. The major compounds identified in the oils were pulegone (52.0 and 42.4%), menthone (14.3 and 21.2%), 1, 8-cineole (13.1 and 11.4%) and isomenthone (9.0 and 13.2%) in the fresh and dried plants, respectively. Analyses revealed that floral waters were also characterized by the same major compounds as essential oils but at different rates. In these floral waters, pulegone constituted 60.2 and 47.0%, 1,8- cineole 7.9 and 19.6%, isomenthone 7.2 and 10.7%, menthone 6.4 and 9.2%, chrysanthenone 6.4 and 3.2% and α-terpineol 3.0 and 2.7% in the fresh and dried plants, respectively. The assay results of pulegone, a hepatotoxic compound, have shown very high levels (444.6 and 393.3mg/g) in both fresh and dried plants. [less ▲]

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See detailRoot-emitted volatile organic compounds: can they mediate belowground plant-plant interactions?
Delory, Benjamin ULg; Delaplace, Pierre ULg; Fauconnier, Marie-Laure ULg et al

in Plant and Soil (2016), 402

Background Aboveground, plants release volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that act as chemical signals between neighbouring plants. It is now well documented that VOCs emitted by the roots in the plant ... [more ▼]

Background Aboveground, plants release volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that act as chemical signals between neighbouring plants. It is now well documented that VOCs emitted by the roots in the plant rhizosphere also play important ecological roles in the soil ecosystem, notably in plant defence because they are involved in interactions between plants, phytophagous pests and organisms of the third trophic level. The roles played by root-emitted VOCs in between- and within-plant signalling, however, are still poorly documented in the scientific literature. Scope Given that (1) plants release volatile cues mediating plant-plant interactions aboveground, (2) roots can detect the chemical signals originating from their neighbours, and (3) roots release VOCs involved in biotic interactions belowground, the aim of this paper is to discuss the roles of VOCs in between- and within-plant signalling belowground. We also highlight the technical challenges associated with the analysis of root-emitted VOCs and the design of experiments targeting volatile-mediated root-root interactions. Conclusions We conclude that root-root interactions mediated by volatile cues deserve more research attention and that both the analytical tools and methods developed to study the ecological roles played by VOCs in interplant signalling aboveground can be adapted to focus on the roles played by root-emitted VOCs in between- and within-plant signalling. [less ▲]

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See detailGlucosinolate profiles by HPLC-DAD, phenolic compositions and antioxidant activity of Eruca vesicaria longirostris: Impact of plant part and origin
Bouacida, Saoussen; Koubaier, Hayet Ben Haj; Snoussi, Ahmed et al

in Mediterranean Journal of Chemistry (2016), 5(5), 528-539

The glucosinolate profiles, phenol and flavonoid contents and the antioxidant activity of Eruca vesicaria longirostris were studied for different organs and origins. Eleven desulpho-glucosinolates (DS ... [more ▼]

The glucosinolate profiles, phenol and flavonoid contents and the antioxidant activity of Eruca vesicaria longirostris were studied for different organs and origins. Eleven desulpho-glucosinolates (DS-GLSs) were isolated and quantified by lipid chromatography- DAD. Similarity between profiles was obtained. Total DS-GLS content, expressed as sinigrin equivalents (SE) revealed a certain variabilily ranging between (76.07-45.61), (27.01-13.53), (4.52 -18.01), (9.39-3.37) and (1.16-13.99) μmol /g DW for seeds, flowers, leaves, roots and stems, respectively. [less ▲]

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See detailCharacterization of almond kernel oils of five almonds varieties cultivated in Eastern Morocco
Houmy, Nadia; Mansouri, F.; Benmoumen, A. et al

in Cahiers Options Méditerranéennes (2016)

This study focuses on characterization of almondkernel oils extrated mechanically from five sweet almond varieties (Marcona, Fournat, Ferragnes, Ferraduel and Beldi), cultivated in eastern Morocco. Oil ... [more ▼]

This study focuses on characterization of almondkernel oils extrated mechanically from five sweet almond varieties (Marcona, Fournat, Ferragnes, Ferraduel and Beldi), cultivated in eastern Morocco. Oil content, physicochemical parameters, triacylglycerol and fatty acid compositions were determined. [less ▲]

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See detailHepatoprotective and anti-diabetic activities of Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl extracts in animal models: Characterization by HPLC analysis
Medjahed, Zineb; Atmani-Kilani, Dina; Fauconnier, Marie-Laure ULg et al

in Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences (2016), 46(3), 910-920

Background and aim: The present study was designed to explore anti-diabetic and hepato-protective potentials of Fraxinus angustifolia leaf (FAL) and bark (FAB) extracts in vivo.

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See detailBarley (Hordeum distichon L.) roots synthesise volatile aldehydes with a strong age-dependent pattern and release (E)- non-2-enal and (E,Z)-nona-2,6-dienal after mechanical injury
Delory, Benjamin M.; Delaplace, Pierre ULg; du Jardin, Patrick ULg et al

in Plant Physiology and Biochemistry (2016), 104

In the context of chemical ecology, the analysis of the temporal production pattern of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in root tissues and the emission rate measurement of root-emitted VOCs are of major ... [more ▼]

In the context of chemical ecology, the analysis of the temporal production pattern of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in root tissues and the emission rate measurement of root-emitted VOCs are of major importance for setting up experiments to study the implication of these compounds in biotic interactions. Such analyses, however, remain challenging because of the belowground location of plant root systems. In this context, this study describes the evolution of the root VOC production pattern of barley (Hordeum distichon L.) at five developmental stages from germination to the end of tillering and evaluates the emission of the identified VOCs in an artificial soil. VOCs produced by crushed root tissues and released by unexcavated root systems were analysed using dynamic sampling devices coupled to a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry methodology (synchronous SCAN/SIM). The results showed that, at each analysed developmental stage, crushed barley roots produced mainly four volatile aldehydes: hexanal; (E)-hex-2-enal; (E)-non-2-enal; and (E,Z)-nona-2,6-dienal. Higher total and individual VOC concentrations were measured in 3-day-old seminal roots compared with older phenological stages. For each developmental stage, the lipoxygenase (LOX) activity was greater for linoleic acid than α-linolenic acid and the greatest LOX activities using linoleic and α- linolenic acids as substrates were measured in 7- and 3-day-old roots, respectively. The analysis of VOCs released by barley roots into the soil showed that (E)-non-2- enal and (E,Z)-nona-2,6-dienal were the only VOCs emitted in quantifiable amounts by mechanically injured roots. [less ▲]

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See detailVariability in almond oil chemical traits from traditional cultivars from eastern Morocco
Houmy, Nadia; Belhaj, K.; Abid, M. et al

Poster (2015, December 03)

In Morocco, cultivation of almond tree (Prunus amygdalus L.) constitutes the second most important plantation of fruit trees after olive growing. It is mostly cultivated in two regions, « Taza, Al ... [more ▼]

In Morocco, cultivation of almond tree (Prunus amygdalus L.) constitutes the second most important plantation of fruit trees after olive growing. It is mostly cultivated in two regions, « Taza, Al Houceima Taounate » in the north and « Souss Massa Draa » in the south. Almond genetic resources (Marcoma, Fournat, Ferragnes/Ferraduel and Beldi), cultivated in eastern Morocco were studied during two consecutive crop years in order to evaluate variations in kernel oil yield, fatty acid profiles, oleic /linoleic (O/L) ratio and almond oils oxydative stability (OSI,evaluated by rancimat tests) in comparison to monovarietal olive oils. Almond kernel total oil (AO), Oleic acid (C18:1), Linoleic acid (C18:2), O/L-ratio, and tocopherol contents range between: 48 - 62% for kernel total oil; 65- 77.5% for C18:1; 17- 25% for C18:2; 2.5-4 for O/L ratio and 370 - 675 μg/g oil for tocopherols, respectively. We conclude that the genotype is the main variability source for all these chemical traits of AOs. Results obtained from Ferragnes/Ferraduel may be of interest for almond breeding focused to improve kernel oil yield and fatty acid profile. Besides, tocopherols contents of AOs seem to be the most important contributor for their stability to oxidation, even though compared to monovarietal olive oils, stability of AOs were very low and OSI value range between 20-27 hours. This fragility of AOs is due to their high content of unsaturated fatty acid which not allows their use for cooking or storage for long period. However, almond oils could have many applications in the food industry as in cosmetic [less ▲]

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See detailA PHEROMONE TRAP MONITORING SYSTEM FOR THE SADDLE GALL MIDGE, Haplodiplosis marginata (von Roser) (DIPTERA: CECIDOMYIIDAE)
Censier, Florence ULg; Heuskin, Stéphanie ULg; SAN MARTIN Y GOMEZ, Gilles et al

in Crop Protection (2015), 80

Outbreaks of saddle gall midge, Haplodiplosis marginata (von Roser) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) have been reported in Belgium and other European countries since 2010. Because of the sporadic nature of this ... [more ▼]

Outbreaks of saddle gall midge, Haplodiplosis marginata (von Roser) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) have been reported in Belgium and other European countries since 2010. Because of the sporadic nature of this pest, which can sometimes be very harmful to cereal crops, an effective monitoring tool is required, both to determine the optimal timing for insecticide applications, and to understand the enigmatic population dynamics of this insect. Following the recent identification of the major sex pheromone component of the saddle gall midge, non-2-yl butanoate, a slow-release dispenser was developed using rubber septa. The release rates of 5 mg and 10 mg-loaded dispensers were initially measured under laboratory conditions, and their effectiveness in terms of pheromone loading and use duration was assessed in the field. The experiments showed that sticky traps baited with 5 mg pheromone-loaded rubber dispensers, renewed every 6 weeks, are suitable for accurately monitoring male H. marginata flights. [less ▲]

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See detailTowards new bioherbicides derived from barley root allelochemicals
Bouhaouel, Imen ULg; Gfeller, Aurélie; Fauconnier, Marie-Laure ULg et al

Conference (2015, October 09)

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See detailElicitor screening to protect wheat against Zymoseptoria tritici
Le Mire, Géraldine ULg; SIAH, ALI; Deleu, Magali ULg et al

Conference (2015, August 27)

Plants face an array of biotic and abiotic stresses in their environment, making it necessary to use various chemical inputs to maintain satisfactory yield. Today, conventional agriculture is evolving ... [more ▼]

Plants face an array of biotic and abiotic stresses in their environment, making it necessary to use various chemical inputs to maintain satisfactory yield. Today, conventional agriculture is evolving towards more sustainable practices, out of respect for human health and the environment. Elicitors are considered as promising biological control tools and draw major interest in IPM strategies. These plant-immunity triggering compounds, also called “stimulators of plant natural defenses”, induce a general and systemic resistance in the plant to various diseases. Although numerous elicitors have already been identified and some of them reached the market since the late 1970s, further investigations are still required to better understand the mode of action of these molecules in the plant and ensure a consistent efficiency under various field conditions. Few elicitors have yet been successfully tested and formulated to protect monocotyledonous crop plants such as wheat, which is cultivated over large areas in Europe. This study focuses on the screening of ten potential elicitor products of various origins and structures to protect winter wheat against the fungal pathogen Zymoseptoria tritici. Greenhouse trials were carried out to measure the ability of the different products to reduce disease foliar symptoms (necrosis, chlorosis and pycnidia). Topical spraying treatments with 3 different concentrations of each product were carried out 5 days before pathogen inoculation. Disease severity (% of symptoms on the total surface of the third leaf) was then scored every 2 days up to 28 days post-inoculation. In addition, phytotoxicity and biocide activity of these products was evaluated under greenhouse and laboratory conditions, respectively. The corresponding results will be presented and discussed with the perspective to choose the best elicitor candidates and to undertake investigations on the signaling pathway and the influence of environmental parameters on the elicitation capacity. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of Volatile Organic Compounds against fungal and bacterial plant pathogens
Kaddes, Amine ULg; Massart, Sébastien ULg; Fauconnier, Marie-Laure ULg et al

Scientific conference (2015, August 25)

Barley is threatened by various edaphic fungal diseases. Common root rot, caused by Fusarium culmorum and Cochliobolus sativus , is one of the major fungal diseases of barley, causing between 9 and 23 ... [more ▼]

Barley is threatened by various edaphic fungal diseases. Common root rot, caused by Fusarium culmorum and Cochliobolus sativus , is one of the major fungal diseases of barley, causing between 9 and 23 % of yield losses. Since several chemicals used for crop protection are being forbidden, new ways of protection are needed. In a previous study, we have shown that barley roots infected by common root rot emitted 23 Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) that were not emitted by healthy barley roots. Among VOCs methyl propionate and methyl acrylate applied alone reduced significantly the development of both barley pathogens. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the antifungal and antibacterial activity of both VOCs on a wider range of plant pathogens: Fusarium culmorum , Fusarium graminiurum, Penicillium expansum, Penicilium digitatum and Penicilium itallicum as fungal pathogens ) and Pectobacterium carotovorum carotovorum and Pectobacterium atrosepticum as bacterial pathogens. The evaluation has been made through ELISA microplates with PDB or V8 media. The growth of the pathogen (bacteria and conidia) in the presence of the VOCs was evaluated and compared to a control (same media without VOCs). Methylpropionate showed interesting antibacterial activity with 40% and 96%of inhibition against Pectobacterium carotovorum carotovorum and Pectobacterium atrosepticum, respectively. An inhibition of 77 and 97 % was observed in presence of methylacrylate against Pectobacterium carotovorum carotovorum and Pectobacterium atrosepticum, respectively. Concerning antifungal activity, the results showed that the methyl acrylate inhibted the growth of all tested fungi (the least was P.digitatum by 70%), similarly to methylpropionate (with 50% found in F.culmorum). [less ▲]

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