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See detailSemen quality of stress negative Piétrain and Duroc boars in the tropics: the case of Vietnam
Do Duc, Luc ULg; Binh, Dang Vu; Leroy, Pascal ULg et al

Poster (2012, October 19)

This study was carried out in Dong Hiep pig farm, North of Vietnam in order to evaluate the semen quality of stress negative Piétrain and Duroc boars. A total of 722 ejaculates from 13 homozygous (CC), 7 ... [more ▼]

This study was carried out in Dong Hiep pig farm, North of Vietnam in order to evaluate the semen quality of stress negative Piétrain and Duroc boars. A total of 722 ejaculates from 13 homozygous (CC), 7 heterozygous (CT) stress negative Piétrain and 10 Duroc CC boars was collected between 2008 and 2012. The sperm quality was assessed on each ejaculate using ejaculate volume (VOL), spermatozoa motility (MO), sperm concentration (CO) and total number of spermatozoids (NT). Genetic type of boars, season, year and (season x year) as well as (genetic type x year) interactions were included in the model as fixed factors. The results show that the semen quality was influenced by all studied effects (p<0.05) except VOL for season (p=0.45) and season x year (p=0.55), and CO for genetic type (p=0.93). VOL and NT (291.74ml and 103.37×109spz) of Piétrain CC were higher than those (241.40ml and 84.58×109spz) of Piétrain CT and (228.05ml and 77.15×109spz) of Duroc (p<0.001) although the values of the 3 genetic groups are in the range of normal semen. MO, CO and NT tend to be higher in cold than in hot season (p<0.001). These results suggest that semen from Piétrain and Duroc boars could be used in tropical climatic conditions (particularly Piétrain CC) and that the semen quality could be improved through reduction of heat stress. [less ▲]

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See detailSelection criteria as used by owners-breeders of racehorses in Algeria
Tennah, Safia ULg; Farnir, Frédéric ULg; Kafidi, Nacereddine et al

Poster (2012, October 19)

Due to positive externalities and the need to work on a large scale, animal breeding is usually carried out by breeders associations or states. In Algeria, racehorse breeding is in the hands of ... [more ▼]

Due to positive externalities and the need to work on a large scale, animal breeding is usually carried out by breeders associations or states. In Algeria, racehorse breeding is in the hands of unorganized breeders-owners. Through a survey conducted with 461 owners-breeders between 2009 and 2011, this study investigates their perceptions, objectives and practices regarding selective breeding. Racehorse breeding is a full-time professional activity for a third of interviewees. The holdings are small-sized with 77% owning one or two mares. The regular practice of insemination could categorize breeders according to their professionalization (38.4% professional vs. 61.6% occasional breeders). Seniority in the sector was also used to classify breeders, considering as “young” the breeders under 10 years experience (38.8%) and as “senior” those above 10 years (61.2%). More than professionalization, seniority shows a significant impact on practices and objectives. Thus, seniority influences breed choice (young breeders tend to specialize while senior own both Arabian and Thoroughbreds; p<0.001), age at first foaling (sooner among senior breeders; p<0.01), information sources considered for selecting stallions (senior use more diversified sources; p<0.01), the importance granted to the price of insemination (greater for the young breeders; p<0.001), the importance granted to the ranking compared to earnings (the ranking being more important to young breeders, p<0.001), and the priority given to breeding (young breeders give rather priority to a buy-race-resell activity; p<0.001). Finally, racehorse breeding in Algeria is poorly professionalized, the only financial goal being cost coverage. Despite inappropriate practices, an interest for selection is noticed. [less ▲]

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See detailEvaluation of the non-genetic factors of the racing performances of Arabian horses in Algeria
Tennah, Safia ULg; Kafidi, Nacerredine; Antoine-Moussiaux, Nicolas ULg et al

Poster (2012, October 19)

Selective breeding of Arabian horses in Algeria is not yet well developped. No accurate estimation of the breeding values of racing horses is carried out untill now. The estimation is based on one or ... [more ▼]

Selective breeding of Arabian horses in Algeria is not yet well developped. No accurate estimation of the breeding values of racing horses is carried out untill now. The estimation is based on one or several measurable traits, linked to race performance. To allow for an accurate estimation, it is important to determine the part of the phenotypic variability that is due to non-genetic factors (environmental). This first study estimates phenotypic correlations between the recorded traits in order to deduce to what extent the different measures bring different information on animal performance. Then it estimates the influence on performance of non-genetic factors such as sex, age, year of performance and the interactions between these various factors. From 1995 to 2007, the data related to flat racing was collected. The General Linear Model was used to identify and quantify the non-genetic factors affecting racing performances. Three traits were used: two earnings traits (the logarithm of annual virtual earnings: LAEV and the logarithm of average annual virtual earnings per start: LAEV/S), and one ranking trait (the ranking transformed and normalised: PERF). Significant high positive correlations was observed between the three traits (p<0.001), which thus give account of similar informative aptitudes. The effects of sex, age, year as well as the interactions between age and sex and between age and year turned out to be significant for the three traits (p<0.05). These results indicate the need to adjust the earnings and ranks traits in order to use them as criteria of selection of racing Arabian horses. [less ▲]

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See detailCaractérisation des performances d’élevage et de production de deux variétés de la race Ardennaise
Moula, Nassim ULg; Michaux, Charles ULg; Philippe, François-Xavier ULg et al

Poster (2012, October 19)

La poule Ardennaise est une race emblématique de la biodiversité avicole belge. Dans un contexte mondial favorable à la conservation des races locales d’animaux domestiques, cette étude est consacrée à la ... [more ▼]

La poule Ardennaise est une race emblématique de la biodiversité avicole belge. Dans un contexte mondial favorable à la conservation des races locales d’animaux domestiques, cette étude est consacrée à la comparaison de deux variétés de la race Ardennaise (Noire dorée et Noire Argentée). La comparaison est réalisée par le biais de trois études: (1) caractérisation morpho-biométrique des deux variétés; (2) caractérisation de la croissance et de la qualité de la carcasse et de la viande; (3) suivi du taux de ponte pendant 52 semaines et l’étude de la qualité des œufs à 30, 45, 60 et 75 semaines d’âge. Des différences significatives ont été enregistrées au niveau des poids corporels, du grand diamètre du tarse, de la longueur du tarse et de la taille de la crête des deux variétés. La variété de la poule Ardennaise n’influence pas significativement les caractères quantitatifs et qualitatifs de production de viande (rendement, poids après abattage, pH, couleur de la viande). Elle influence cependant significativement le poids de l’œuf entier, le poids du blanc, le pourcentage du blanc, le pourcentage du jaune, le rapport jaune/blanc et le pH du blanc (p<0,05). Pour plusieurs caractères morphologiques, d’engraissement et de ponte, les deux variétés ne présentent aucune différence significative. Il serait intéressant de compléter cette étude par une analyse moléculaire permettant de préciser le degré de similitude génétique entre les deux variétés et éventuellement avec les autres variétés de la race. [less ▲]

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See detailImmature equine oocyte vitrification
Gatez, Carine ULg; Ectors, F.J.; Farnir, Frédéric ULg et al

Scientific conference (2012, October 19)

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See detailRessources génétiques animales en Kabylie (Algérie)
Moula, Nassim ULg; Iguer-Ouada, Mokrane; Touazi, Leghel et al

Poster (2012, October 19)

La Kabylie est une région côtière montagneuse du nord-est algérien. Ce poster présente les principales espèces et races élevées dans cette région. Les ovins sont représentés par la race Tazegzawt ... [more ▼]

La Kabylie est une région côtière montagneuse du nord-est algérien. Ce poster présente les principales espèces et races élevées dans cette région. Les ovins sont représentés par la race Tazegzawt, répertoriée récemment. Elle est reconnaissable à ses tâches noires à reflets bleuâtres, son nom kabyle signifiant bleu. Son poids peut dépasser 30 kg à 6 mois. La population locale de chèvres n’a pas fait l’objet de descriptions. Toutefois, la chèvre locale est adaptée aux massifs montagneux. Elle est de petite taille avec un poids vif d’environ 25 kg. Elle présente de longs poils et différentes couleurs de robe. La race bovine locale est issue de l’adaptation de la race brune de l’Atlas à un climat tempéré. Elle possède un petit gabarit (de 250 à 300 kg) et une robe grise ou allant du fauve brunâtre au rouge-brun. Par l’industrialisation de la production de volailles, les poules locales ont subi une érosion génétique sévère. Elles présentent ainsi une grande variabilité phénotypique et sont de taille moyenne (autour de 1,5kg). Le lapin local connaît une situation similaire et présente un poids de 2 à 3 kg. Il existe une tradition apicole importante en Kabylie. Les types d’abeilles exploitées ne sont toutefois pas encore caractérisés. Toutes les races citées ici sont menacées par le croisement ou l’abandon. Leur caractérisation génétique et zootechnique est nécessaire pour l’amélioration des systèmes de production familiaux, plus particulièrement en régions montagneuses, et la conservation de la biodiversité. [less ▲]

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See detailQuality characteristics of marketed eggs in Basse Kabylie (Algeria)
Moula, Nassim ULg; Philippe, François-Xavier ULg; Ait Kaki, Asma ULg et al

Poster (2012, October 19)

Quality variations of retailed eggs are widely reported. This study aims at assessing the quality of eggs according to the marketing channel in the department of Bejaia (Algeria). In spring and summer ... [more ▼]

Quality variations of retailed eggs are widely reported. This study aims at assessing the quality of eggs according to the marketing channel in the department of Bejaia (Algeria). In spring and summer 2012, a total of 3330 eggs were bought in 30 stores divided into 3 categories: 10 supermarkets (1146 eggs), 10 public markets (1048 eggs), and 10 shops (1136 eggs). The eggs weights differed significantly with the marketing channel with 58.9±0.14, 61.2±0.13 and 62.8±0.13 g for public markets, shops and supermarkets, respectively (p<0.001). Although the shell thickness was similar for all marketing channels, the proportion of damaged eggs was higher in public markets (9.0%), intermediate in shops (7.3%) and lower in supermarkets (5.7%; p<0.05). The yolk/albumen ratio was significantly higher for eggs from supermarkets (48.1%) compared to the other channels (around 47.4%; p<0.05). The freshness of the eggs, measured by the Haugh method, was lower in public markets (74.3 units), intermediate in shops (77.6 units) and higher in supermarkets (79.9 units; p<0.05). The price of eggs, expressed in Algerian Dinar (AD) per kg, was significantly lower in public markets (124 AD/kg) compared to the two other channels (around 131 AD/kg; p<0.05). One can conclude that egg quality in Basse Kabylie differs significantly between marketing channels with higher quality observed in supermarkets. The lower quality of eggs in public markets is associated with lower price. Eggs from shops present an intermediate quality. A one-year study would allow studying both the potential seasonal effect and compare intrinsic variability across marketing channels. [less ▲]

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See detailAssessment of non-genetic parameters of the racing performances of Arabian and Thoroughbred horses in Algeria
Tennah, Safia ULg; Kafidi, Nacer; Antoine-Moussiaux, Nicolas ULg et al

in African Journal of Biotechnology (2012)

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See detailRepeatability, variability and reference values of pulsed wave Doppler echocardiographic measurements in healthy Saanen goats.
Leroux, Aurélia ULg; Farnir, Frédéric ULg; Moonen, Marie ULg et al

in BMC Veterinary Research (2012), 8

Background Pulsed wave (PW) Doppler echocardiography has become a routine non invasive cardiac diagnostic tool in most species. However, evaluation of intracardiac blood flow requires reference values ... [more ▼]

Background Pulsed wave (PW) Doppler echocardiography has become a routine non invasive cardiac diagnostic tool in most species. However, evaluation of intracardiac blood flow requires reference values, which are poorly documented in goats. The aim of this study was to test the repeatability, the variability, and to establish the reference values of PW measurements in healthy adult Saanen goats. Using a standardised PW Doppler echocardiographic protocol, 10 healthy adult unsedated female Saanen goats were investigated three times at one day intervals by the same observer. Mitral, tricuspid, aortic and pulmonary flows were measured from a right parasternal view, and mitral and aortic flows were also measured from a left parasternal view. The difference between left and right side measurements and the intra-observer inter-day repeatability were tested and then the reference values of PW Doppler echocardiographic parameters in healthy adult female Saanen goats were established. Results As documented in other species, all caprine PW Doppler parameters demonstrated a poor inter-day repeatability and a moderate variability. Tricuspid and pulmonary flows were best evaluated on the right side whereas mitral and aortic flows were best obtained on the left side, and reference values are reported for healthy adult Saanen goats. Conclusions PW Doppler echocardiography allows the measurement of intracardiac blood flow indices in goats. The reference values establishment will help interpreting these indices of cardiac function in clinical cardiac cases and developing animal models for human cardiology research. [less ▲]

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See detailPerilimbal pocket technique for surgical repositioning of prolapsed nictitans gland in dogs
Prémont, Johanna ULg; Monclin, Sébastien ULg; Farnir, Frédéric ULg et al

in Veterinary Record : Journal of the British Veterinary Association (2012)

The objective of this prospective study was to investigate the success rate, practicality and complications of a new perilimbal pocket technique for the replacement of prolapsed nictitans gland in 30 dogs ... [more ▼]

The objective of this prospective study was to investigate the success rate, practicality and complications of a new perilimbal pocket technique for the replacement of prolapsed nictitans gland in 30 dogs (44 eyes). A first incision was made in the bulbar conjunctiva, 2-3 mm from and parallel to the infero-nasal limbus, a second incision on the bulbar aspect of the nictitating membrane (NM), 2-3 mm parallel to the free edge. The gland was returned to its normal position by suturing the subconjunctival tissues of the NM to the episcleral tissues, using four to six interrupted horizontal mattress sutures. The English bulldog, Neapolitan mastiff, great dane and American cocker spaniel were commonly presented. Nictitans gland prolapse occurred prior to one year of age in 83.3 per cent of dogs, and unilaterally in 15 patients. The procedure was easy to perform, and had a 90.9 per cent success rate, with minimal complications. The median duration of follow-up, conducted by ophthalmic examination or telephone contact with the owners, was 21.5 months. Tear production and ocular health were not affected in 17 eyes with at least six months follow-up. There was a statistically significant increase between preoperative and postoperative Schirmer tear test-1 measurements. [less ▲]

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See detailComparative evaluation of local poultry breeds status in Algeria, Vietnam and the Democratic Republic of Congo
Moula, Nassim ULg; Farnir, Frédéric ULg; Abdellah, Salhi et al

in The Role of Poultry in Improving Human Welfare (2012, September)

Local chicken breeds contribute significantly to the world production of meat and eggs. Indigenous breeds represent 80% of the world poultry population. However, the majority of these breeds has not been ... [more ▼]

Local chicken breeds contribute significantly to the world production of meat and eggs. Indigenous breeds represent 80% of the world poultry population. However, the majority of these breeds has not been recorded and studied. About 40% of poultry breeds have an unknown risk status. Hence, considerable efforts are necessary to evaluate them. Obviously, managing animal genetic resources requires the identification of the concerned phenotypes, population sizes, their geographical distribution, and their genetic diversity within and between breeds, using molecular biology methods. Nevertheless, the thorough understanding of the breeding contexts within which they are found is an oft-neglected prerequisite to set up sustainable management strategy of these resources. In the framework of our studies, the characterization of local poultry populations and their breeding systems have been carried out in Northeastern Algeria, Northern Vietnam and Southwestern Congo (DRC). A large phenotypic diversity has been revealed in each region of study, contributing different insights into the concept of local breed. The breeding systems have in common multiple objectives (nutritional, financial, and socio-cultural). Women and children played an important role in family poultry farming. The latter elements are, however, subject to variations between the regions of study and within them. Thus, solutions aiming at the promotion of biodiversity in poultry need to be tailored in accordance with the uniqueness of each breeding context. [less ▲]

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See detailEGG QUALITY COMPARISON OF TWO VIETNAMESE CHICKEN BREEDS (RI AND MIA)
Moula, Nassim ULg; Antoine-Moussiaux, Nicolas ULg; Do Duc, Luc ULg et al

in The Role of Poultry in Improving Human Welfare (2012, September)

In the context of the valorization of poultry biodiversity, this work represents a step toward a better knowledge of the production abilities of local chicken breeds in Vietnam. Local chicken breeds are ... [more ▼]

In the context of the valorization of poultry biodiversity, this work represents a step toward a better knowledge of the production abilities of local chicken breeds in Vietnam. Local chicken breeds are indeed particularly well suited for low-input rearing systems, as widely practiced in rural households of Vietnam. The socio-economic importance of these breeds might be underpinned by a market valorization through the mounting of differentiated quality value chains. Such a strategy needs the production potential of these local breeds to be assessed using parameters of egg quality and quantity. This study presents data about egg quality traits in two chicken breeds, the Ri and the Mia. The former is the most widespread breed in Vietnam, while the latter is known to be in danger of extinction. Nineteen parameters of quality of ninety eggs of Ri chickens and sixty eggs of Mia chickens were measured, each for both 40 and 60-weeks old hens to take hens ages into account.Mean egg weight of Mia eggs (44.70g) was significantly (p<0.001) higher than that of Ri eggs (41.68g). The yolk to albumen ratio was not significantly different (p>0.05) between the two breeds at the age of 40 weeks (Ri: 0.55; Mia: 0.58). For 60-weeks old hens, the ratio became significantly (p<0.05) higher in Mia eggs compared to Ri eggs (0.64 vs. 0.57). No significant difference (p>0.05) was recorded between the two breeds for parameters used for egg freshness assessment (Haugh’s units and pH of albumen and yolk) or eggshell resistance (maximal breakage force). Despite the small sample available for the study (due to the low availability of Mia hens and eggs), significant differences in egg quality traits were thus observed between these two breeds. [less ▲]

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See detailMORPHO-BIOMETRIC CHARACTERIZATION OF TWO LOCAL CHICKEN BREEDS IN VIETNAM
Do Duc, Luc ULg; Moula, Nassim ULg; Antoine-Moussiaux, Nicolas ULg et al

in The Role of Poultry in Improving Human Welfare (2012, September)

In Vietnam, 84% of the 188 million chickens are indigenous. The following local breeds are recorded: Ri, Mia, Te, Tau Vang, Ac, Oke, H’mong, Tre, Choi, Phu Lu Te, To, Dan Khao, Ho, Dong Tao and Van Phu ... [more ▼]

In Vietnam, 84% of the 188 million chickens are indigenous. The following local breeds are recorded: Ri, Mia, Te, Tau Vang, Ac, Oke, H’mong, Tre, Choi, Phu Lu Te, To, Dan Khao, Ho, Dong Tao and Van Phu. Mia, Ho and Dong Tao are reported as endangered or critical, while the Van Phu breed could have been lost during the last years. The phenotypes of the Mia and Ri breeds are described as quite close. The objective of this study is to characterize phenotypically Ri and Mia chickens. The morpho-biometric characterization was conducted according to the recommendation of FAO (1981). A total of 227 adults Ri (174 females and 53 males) and 53 adults Mia (18 males and 35 females) were used for the study. The following colors were observed for Ri and Mia respectively: tan (43.17% and 37.73%), gold salmon (24.23% and 26.42%), wheat (15.42% and 26.42%), dark red (9.69% and 5.66%), silver salmon (3.52% and 3.77%) and copper black (3.96% and 0%). Comb was mostly simple (91.19% and 100%) and red (100% and 100%) for both breeds. The wattles were of the same color as the comb while the color of the legs was yellow. The weights of adult males (2433.89g) and females (1752.86g) of the Mia breed were significantly higher than those of Ri (2053.02g and 1459.22g for males and females respectively). The results show that the external aspect of both breeds is not very different while body weights in the Ri breed were found lower than in the Mia breed. [less ▲]

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See detailAmélioration des performances génétiques des races tropicales par les races wallonnes.
Leroy, Pascal ULg; Moula, Nassim ULg; Huart, Alain et al

Conference (2012, August 25)

As part of the genetic improvement of production, selection of breeds (purebred selection) on the one hand and crossbreeding, exploiting the complementarity between breeds and hybrid vigor or heterosis ... [more ▼]

As part of the genetic improvement of production, selection of breeds (purebred selection) on the one hand and crossbreeding, exploiting the complementarity between breeds and hybrid vigor or heterosis other hand, are methods choice used by animal husbandry. The pure breeding as practiced in the developed world, based on the individual performance of breeding as well as the placement of the offspring, uses expensive infrastructure and significant human resources. In addition, genetic progress is slow and must be sustained effort. For all these reasons, in the less favored regions of the world, although the intra-breed selection is operational, most stakeholders are most often uses the crossbreeding technique leading to immediate results and protecting local breeds. Thus, in dairy cattle, many countries have used the Holstein, Brown in the Alps, and the Montbéliarde Normande with varying success. In the meat sector, in cattle, swine and sheep, as well as in the area of ​​poultry meat, crossing indigenous breeds with exotic breeds imported leads to interesting results. In the Walloon Region, due to the hard work of breeders, animals have emerged exceptional and, in cattle, swine and sheep, they are in fact, more muscular animals in the world. Thus, bulls Belgian Blue reared under natural conditions, have average daily gains as high as 2000 g / d with yields close to slaughter 70% Pietrain pigs reach values ​​of the performance slaughter of around 83% and the yield values ​​as high as 59% were observed in Texel sheep. All these animals have the characteristic of being very efficient while presenting carcasses with more muscle, less fat and less bone. As for local poultry type Ardennaise, it has remarkable phenotypes leading to immediate traceability (black members), more than 150 eggs per clutch and a darker meat.The author gives in detail examples of the use of crossbreeding with cattle, sheep, pig and poultry all originated from the Walloon Region of Belgium. [less ▲]

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See detailDetection of new biallelic polymorphisms in the human MxA gene
Tran Thi Duc, Tam; Farnir, Frédéric ULg; Michaux, Charles ULg et al

in Molecular Biology Reports (2012), 39(8), 8533-8538

The interferon-inducible human MxA protein plays an important role in innate defense against an array of viruses. One might expect allelic diversity at the MxA locus to influence the timing and magnitude ... [more ▼]

The interferon-inducible human MxA protein plays an important role in innate defense against an array of viruses. One might expect allelic diversity at the MxA locus to influence the timing and magnitude of its expression or even the range of viruses whose biological cycle is inhibited by the encoded product. Here we have collected 267 samples of genomic DNA from three distinct populations (European, Asian, and African) and have systematically sequenced the promoter of the MxA gene and its 17 exons in order to inventory its allelic variants. Fifteen single-nucleotide polymorphisms were detected, four of which had never been identified before. Two of these, located in the promoter (at positions -309 and -101 respectively), might affect the MxA expression pattern. The other two result in substitutions (Gly255Glu and Val268Met) in the protein’s N-terminal region that might directly affect its antiviral function. [less ▲]

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See detailAncestral haplotype-based association mapping with generalized linear mixed models accounting for stratification
Zhang, Zhiyan; Guillaume, François; Sartelet, Arnaud ULg et al

in Bioinformatics (2012), 28(19), 2467-2473

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See detailBackyard poultry in Kabylie (Algeria): from an indigenous chicken to a local poultry breed?
Moula, Nassim ULg; Farnir, Frédéric ULg; Salhi, Abdellah et al

in Animal Genetic Resources (2012), 50

Backyard poultry is considered as a powerful tool for poverty alleviation. It is further promoted as a way of empowering women in communities where there is gender bias in poultry raising. The low-input ... [more ▼]

Backyard poultry is considered as a powerful tool for poverty alleviation. It is further promoted as a way of empowering women in communities where there is gender bias in poultry raising. The low-input systems involved are based on local breeds that are perfectly suited to their environment. However, socio-economic processes put local genetic resources under pressure, leading to the erosion of biodiversity. The present survey addresses this issue in the case of Kabylie, a mountainous coastal region of Algeria, through a survey conducted in 90 households raising poultry, a morpho-biometric description of 315 local chickens, and a performance evaluation of both growth and egg production in experimental semi-intensive conditions. The socio-economic profile of poultry smallholders in Kabylie reveals poor education and high diversification of agricultural assets and confirms gender bias in poultry keeping. The erosion of local genetic resources in chicken is found to be severe despite their cultural importance in Kabylie. From complementary surveys among experienced poultry keepers, the major original local type is postulated to consist of three varieties with black plumage (pure black, mottled and barred). The performance evaluation raised promising results, suggesting that some degree of improvement of low-input backyard systems could be pursued by exploiting the local breed. Finally, a strategy for a revival of the local breed through the support of the most involved smallholders is outlined in accordance with the information collected in the survey. [less ▲]

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