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See detailCharacterization of clay deposits of Nanga-Eboko (Central Cameroon): Suitability in the production of building materials
Nzeukou Nzeugang, A.; Medjo Eko, R.; Fagel, Nathalie ULg et al

in Clay Minerals (2013), 48(4), 655-662

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See detailHolocene dust record in a NW European peat bog: A multiproxy approach
Allan, Mohammed ULg; LE ROUX, gael; VERHEYDEN, SOPHIE et al

Conference (2013, August 28)

Dust deposition in southern Belgium is estimated from the geochemical signature of an ombrotrophic bog. The analyses of Rare Earth Elements (REE) and lithogenic element concentrations as well as Nd ... [more ▼]

Dust deposition in southern Belgium is estimated from the geochemical signature of an ombrotrophic bog. The analyses of Rare Earth Elements (REE) and lithogenic element concentrations as well as Nd isotopes were performed by HR-ICP-MS and MC-ICP-MS respectively, in a  6 m peat section representing 5300 years, from 30 BC to 5300 BC dated by the 14C method. REE concentration variations in peat samples were used as a dust proxy and the Nd isotopes to trace the sources. Peat humification and testate amoebae were used to evaluate hydroclimatic conditions. The range of dust deposition varied from 0.03 to 4 g m-2 yr-1. The highest dust fluxes were observed from 800 to 600 BC, and from 3200 to 2800 BC and correspond to cold periods. The Nd values show large variability, between -5 and –13, identifying three major sources of dust: local soils, distal volcanic and desert particles. By comparing our results with the dust recorded in other peat bogs and ice cores from different latitudes, we evidence that the Misten peat is a valid archive for dust deposition. [less ▲]

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See detailSmectite clay from the Sabga deposit (Cameroon): mineralogical and physicochemical properties
Mache, Jacques Richard ULg; Nyoja, A.; Signing, P. et al

in Clay Minerals (2013), 48(48), 499-512

The physicochemical and mineralogical characterization of the < 250 µm particle-size fraction from six the clay-rich samples from the Sabga deposit (North-west, Cameroon) were carried out in order to ... [more ▼]

The physicochemical and mineralogical characterization of the < 250 µm particle-size fraction from six the clay-rich samples from the Sabga deposit (North-west, Cameroon) were carried out in order to evaluate their potential applications. Analyses revealed that the major clay mineral was dioctahedral smectite along with small amounts of kaolinite in three clay samples. Cristobalite, feldspars, ilmenite and heulandites were also found as accessory minerals. A Li-saturation test (Greene-Kelly test) revealed the montmorillonitic nature of the smectite component. The chemical composition of the bulk clays consists of (66-70%) SiO2, (13-16%) Al2O3 and (2-7%) Fe2O3. These clays present mineralogical (high montmorillonite content) and physico-chemical (cation exchange capacity (CEC): 38 to 46 meq/100g and specific surface areas ranging from 33 to 90 m2/g). These physical and chemical properties are fully compatible with potential uses in environmental applications. After some pretreatment (purification, chemical modification), these materials could also be used in refining edible oil as adsorbent, waste water treatment and wine technology. [less ▲]

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See detailDust historical record in ombrotrophic peat: The case study of a NW European bog
Allan, Mohammed ULg; Fagel, Nathalie ULg; Le Roux, Gael et al

Poster (2013, May 16)

Ombrotrophic peatlands are unique environmental archives of natural and anthropogenic atmospheric dust deposition because their surface layers are exclusively fed by atmospheric inputs. Lead (Pb) isotopes ... [more ▼]

Ombrotrophic peatlands are unique environmental archives of natural and anthropogenic atmospheric dust deposition because their surface layers are exclusively fed by atmospheric inputs. Lead (Pb) isotopes have been often used to evidence any anthropogenic influence in peat, but they only record trace metal pollution. Another radiogenic isotope, the Neodymium (Nd), could be also use to discriminate the sources of dust in peat bogs. Dust fluxes were investigated over the last 2500 years in the Misten peat bog in Eastern Belgium. Our aims were to use Nd isotope signature to decipher between local and distal dust supplies, the Pb isotopes to trace the antropogenic influences. To address these aims we analyzed REE and lithogenic element analyses, as well as the Nd and Pb isotopes, using HR-ICP-MS and MC-ICP-MS, respectively in peat layers dated by 210Pb and 14C. Changes in REE concentration variations in peat samples are correlated with Ti, Al, and Zr that are lithogenic conservative elements, suggesting that REE are immobile in the studied peat bogs and can be used as tracers of dust deposition. Dust fluxes show pronounced increase at BC300, AD600, 1000AD, 1200AD and from 1700AD, recording either influence of human activities (regional erosion due to forest clearing and soil cultivation activities) or local and regional climate changes. Lead enrichments reveal strong human impact over the last 300 years. Lead isotope signatures are consistent with local and regional contamination by coal combustion and smelting activities. Neodymium isotopes allow to identify three periods characterised by dominant-distal sources (at 320AD, 1000 AD and 1700AD). Those periods are consistent with local wetter intervals as indicated by lower humification degree. Local erosion prevails durier drier (higher humification) intervals (-100AD, 600AD). On a global scale more distal supplies are driven during colder periods, in particular Oort and Maunder minima, confirming the hypothesis that cold climate conditions favor distal supplies. Combining geochemical elementary content and isotope data in ombrotrophic peat allows to decipher between dust flux changes related to human and climate forcing. [less ▲]

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See detailLES GISEMENTS D'ARGILES DE LA REGION DE MARRAKECH, MAROC
El Boudour El Idrissi, Hicham ULg; Daoudi, Lahcen; Fagel, Nathalie ULg

Poster (2013, May 08)

L'argile est une matière première abondante à la surface de la Terre. En raison de ces propriétés physico-chimiques, elle possède une grande variété d'utilisations. Le Maroc est l'un des plus grands ... [more ▼]

L'argile est une matière première abondante à la surface de la Terre. En raison de ces propriétés physico-chimiques, elle possède une grande variété d'utilisations. Le Maroc est l'un des plus grands consommateurs au monde d'argiles, cependant, le domaine majoritaire d’utilisation d’argiles est celui de la céramique. Dans la région de Marrakech, les argiles sont surtout utilisées dans les domaines de basse classe tels que la céramique traditionnelle et la poterie. Jusqu’à présent très peu d’études sont effectués pour valoriser ces argiles. C’est dans cet objectif que s’inscrit l’étude que nous menons sur les argiles du Haut Atlas de Marrakech ; le présent travail a pour objectif de dresser un inventaire des principaux gisements d’argiles de cette région. Les séries du Primaire (en particulier le Viséen) de la région de Marrakech ne sont pas assez altérées pour exploiter les argiles, tel est le cas de la région de Benhmed qui approvisionne les usines céramiques de la région de Settat. Dans les formations triasiques, malgré l'épaisseur et l'apparence argileuse des séries, seuls quelques gisements d'argiles y sont exploités pour la poterie. Les faciès triasiques, riches en illite, sont en effet silteux et assez pauvres en argiles à l'exception de quelques niveaux très minces. Ces argiles sont utilisées au niveau d’Ourika pour la fabrication d’ustensiles rustiques, pots de terre et objets ornementaux. Ces argiles peuvent également constituées des matières premières pour l’élaboration de briques et de substrats pour le revêtement des murs et des sols. Les argiles des formations jurassiques et crétacées sont assez riches en carbonates, ce qui ne convient pas à leur utilisation dans l’industrie céramique. Les séries du Paléocène et de l’Eocène de toute la région sont riches en argiles fibreuses non exploitées, surtout la palygorskite (argile avec de grandes propriétés physiques), ce qui donne des perspective d’utilisation dans des différents domaines industriels. Le Mioplicoène largement développé au pied du Haut Atlas est surtout connu par sa richesse en smectite, plus particulièrement dans la région de Tassaout. En ce qui concerne les séries quaternaires, certains niveaux d’alluvions sont exploités dans la région pour l’industrie céramique (site potier de Tamsloht, Briqueterie Menara,…). Dans la région de Bouchane, le sol quaternaire est considéré comme la seule source d’argiles et d’ustensiles dans cette zone. Enfin des dépôts actuels sont également exploités (limons des oueds Tensift et N’fis, canal la Rocade) pour la fabrication de briques de murailles ou additionnés à d’autres argiles pour augmenter la consistance des pâtes céramiques. [less ▲]

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See detailDeciphering human-climate interactions in ombrotrophic peat record : REE, Nd and Pb isotope signatures of dust supplies over the last 2500 years (Misten bog, Belgium)
Fagel, Nathalie ULg; Allan, Mohammed ULg; le roux, Gael et al

Poster (2013, April 08)

A core of 173 cm of ombrotrophic Misten peat bog from the Hautes-Fagnes Plateau in Eastern Belgium provides a record of Rare Earth Elements (REE) deposition allowing to trace dust fluxes in West Europe ... [more ▼]

A core of 173 cm of ombrotrophic Misten peat bog from the Hautes-Fagnes Plateau in Eastern Belgium provides a record of Rare Earth Elements (REE) deposition allowing to trace dust fluxes in West Europe during the historical record (last 2500 years). REE and lithogenic element analyses, as well as the Nd isotopes, were performed by HR-ICP-MS and MC-ICP-MS, respectively in peat layers dated by 210Pb and 14C. The parallel variations of REE concentration with lithogenic conservative elements confirms that REE are immobile in the studied peat bog and can be used as tracers of dust deposition. Dust fluxes show pronounced increase at BC300, AD600, 1000AD,1200AD and from 1700AD, recording either influence of human activities (regional erosion due to forest clearing and soil cultivation activities) or local and regional climate changes. Using Nd isotope allows to decipher between local and distal causes. The ENd variability (-13 to -9) is interpreted by a mixing between dust sources fromlocal soils and desert particles. Three periods characterised by dominant-distal sources (at 320AD, 1000 AD and 1700AD) are consistent with local wetter intervals as indicated by lower humi[U+FB01]cation degree. Local erosion prevails durier drier (higher humification) intervals (-100AD, 600AD). On a global scale more distal supplies are driven during colder periods, in particular Oort and Maunder minima. Combining geochemical elementary content and isotope data in ombrotrophic peat allows to decipher between dust flux changes related to human and climate forcing. [less ▲]

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See detailReconstructing historical atmospheric mercury deposition in Western Europe using: Misten peat bog cores, Belgium
Allan, Mohammed ULg; le roux, gael; E. Sonke, Jeroen et al

in Science of the Total Environment (2013), 442

Four sediment cores were collected in 2008 from the Misten ombrotrophic peat bog in the Northern part of the Hautes Fagnes Plateau in Belgium. Total mercury (Hg) concentrations were analyzed to ... [more ▼]

Four sediment cores were collected in 2008 from the Misten ombrotrophic peat bog in the Northern part of the Hautes Fagnes Plateau in Belgium. Total mercury (Hg) concentrations were analyzed to investigate the intra-site variability in atmospheric Hg deposition over the past 1500 years. Mercury concentrations in the four cores ranged from 16 to 1100 μg kg− 1, with the maxima between 840 and 1100 μg kg− 1. A chronological framework was established using radiometric 210Pb and 14C dating of two cores (M1 and M4). Pollen horizons from these two cores were correlated with data from two additional cores, providing a consistent dating framework between all the sites. There was good agreement between atmospheric Hg accumulation rates in the four cores over time based on precise age dating and pollen chronosequences. The average Hg accumulation rate before the influence of human activities (from 500 to 1300 AD) was 1.8 ± 1 μg m− 2 y− 1 (2SD). Maximum Hg accumulation rates ranged from 90 to 200 μg m− 2 y− 1 between 1930 and 1980 AD. During the European–North American Industrial Revolution, the mean Hg accumulation rate exceeded the pre-Industrial values by a factor of 63. Based on comparisons with historical records of anthropogenic activities in Europe and Belgium, the predominant regional anthropogenic sources of Hg during and after the Industrial Revolution were coal burning and smelter Hg emissions. Mercury accumulation rates and chronologies in the Misten cores were consistent with those reported for other European peat records. [less ▲]

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See detailHigh-resolution reconstruction of atmospheric deposition of trace metals and metalloids since AD 1400 recorded by ombrotrophic peat cores in Hautes-Fagnes, Belgium
Allan, Mohammed ULg; le roux, gael; De Vleeschouwer, François et al

in Environmental Pollution (2013), 1

The objective of our study was to determine the trace metal accumulation rates in the Misten bog, Hautes-Fagnes, Belgium, and assess these in relation to established histories of atmospheric emissions ... [more ▼]

The objective of our study was to determine the trace metal accumulation rates in the Misten bog, Hautes-Fagnes, Belgium, and assess these in relation to established histories of atmospheric emissions from anthropogenic sources. To address these aims we analyzed trace metals and metalloids (Pb, Cu, Ni, As, Sb, Cr, Co, V, Cd and Zn), as well as Pb isotopes, using XRF, Q-ICP-MS and MC-ICP-MS, respectively in two 40-cm peat sections, spanning the last 600 yr. The temporal increase of metal fluxes from the inception of the Industrial Revolution to the present varies by a factor of 5 to 50, with peak values found between AD 1930 and 1990. A cluster analysis combined with Pb isotopic composition allows the identification of the main sources of Pb and by inference of the other metals, which indicates that coal consumption and metallurgical activities were the predominant sources of pollution during the last 600 years. [less ▲]

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See detailMid and late Holocene dust deposition in Western Europe: The Misten peat bog (Hautes Fagnes - Belgium)
Allan, Mohammed ULg; Beghin, Jérémie ULg; le roux, Gael et al

in Climate of the Past (2013), 9(2889-2928,),

Dust deposition in southern Belgium is estimated from the geochemical signature of an ombrotrophic peatland. The Rare Earth Elements (REE) and lithogenic elements concentrations, as well as Nd isotopes ... [more ▼]

Dust deposition in southern Belgium is estimated from the geochemical signature of an ombrotrophic peatland. The Rare Earth Elements (REE) and lithogenic elements concentrations, as well as Nd isotopes, were determined by HR-ICP-MS and MC-ICP-MS respectively, along a  6 m peat section covering 5300 years, from 2000 to 7300 cal.BP dated by the 14C method. Changes in REE concentration in the peat correlate with those of Ti, Al, Sc and Zr that are lithogenic conservative elements, suggesting that REE are immobile in the studied peat bogs and can be used as tracers of dust deposition. Peat humification and testate amoebae were used to evaluate hydroclimatic conditions. The range of dust deposition varied from 0.03 to 4.0 g m-2 yr-1. The highest dust fluxes were observed from 2750 to 2550 cal.BP and from 5150 to 4750 cal.BP and correspond to cold periods. The Nd values show a large variability from -13 to –5, identifying three major sources of dusts: local soils, distal volcanic and desert particles. [less ▲]

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See detailMineralogy and physico-chemical properties of alluvial clays from
Nzeugang Nzeukou; Fagel, Nathalie ULg; Njoya, André et al

in Applied Clay Science (2013), 83-84

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See detailHydrological instability during the Last Interglacial in central Asia: a new diatom oxygen isotope record from Lake Baikal
Mackay, Anson; Swann, Georges; Fagel, Nathalie ULg et al

in Quaternary Science Reviews (2013), 66

Last Interglacial variability is commonly used as an analogue for variability in a future, warmer world. Pervasive cycles are increasingly apparent in Last Interglacial archives, although studies in ... [more ▼]

Last Interglacial variability is commonly used as an analogue for variability in a future, warmer world. Pervasive cycles are increasingly apparent in Last Interglacial archives, although studies in continental regions are under-represented. Here we provide a new isotopic record of diatom silica (d18Odiatom) spanning c. 127.5e115 ka BP from Lake Baikal in central Asia. Peak rain-fed discharge occurred c. 125.4 ka BP, shortly after July insolation maximum and initiation of Siberian soil development. Between 127 and 119.7 ka BP there are six marked fluctuations in d18Odiatom values, with a pacing of approximately 1.26 0.3 ka, similar to fluctuations of within lake productivity. Fluctuations in d18Odiatom values show good agreement with patterns in Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC), supporting hypothesis of strong teleconnections via theWesterlies between the North Atlantic and central Asia. Two periods of low d18Odiatom values are especially notable. The earliest between c. 126.5 and 126 ka BP is concurrent with the final stages of the Heinrich 11. The second between 120.5 and 119.7 ka BP is also concurrent with an increase in ice-rafted debris in the North Atlantic. Aquatic productivity in Lake Baikal increased between 119.7 and 117.4 ka BP before declining to the top of the record (115 ka BP) concomitant with a shift to predominately cool steppe catchment vegetation. However, isotopic composition of discharge into Lake Baikal provides evidence for strong penetration of Westerlies into central Asia during the latter stages of the Last Interglacial. Variability in d18Odiatom values was compared between the Last Interglacial and the Holocene. Millennial-scale variability was significantly more stable during the Last Interglacial, possibly linked to diminished influence of freshwater discharge on AMOC during periods of higher, global mean temperatures. [less ▲]

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See detailHydrological instability during the Last Interglacial in central Asia: a new diatom oxygen isotope record from Lake Baikal
Mackay, Anson; Swann, Georges; Fagel, Nathalie ULg et al

in Quaternary Science Reviews (2013), 66

Last Interglacial variability is commonly used as an analogue for variability in a future, warmer world. Pervasive cycles are increasingly apparent in Last Interglacial archives, although studies in ... [more ▼]

Last Interglacial variability is commonly used as an analogue for variability in a future, warmer world. Pervasive cycles are increasingly apparent in Last Interglacial archives, although studies in continental regions are under-represented. Here we provide a new isotopic record of diatom silica (d18Odiatom) spanning c. 127.5e115 ka BP from Lake Baikal in central Asia. Peak rain-fed discharge occurred c. 125.4 ka BP, shortly after July insolation maximum and initiation of Siberian soil development. Between 127 and 119.7 ka BP there are six marked fluctuations in d18Odiatom values, with a pacing of approximately 1.26 0.3 ka, similar to fluctuations of within lake productivity. Fluctuations in d18Odiatom values show good agreement with patterns in Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC), supporting hypothesis of strong teleconnections via theWesterlies between the North Atlantic and central Asia. Two periods of low d18Odiatom values are especially notable. The earliest between c. 126.5 and 126 ka BP is concurrent with the final stages of the Heinrich 11. The second between 120.5 and 119.7 ka BP is also concurrent with an increase in ice-rafted debris in the North Atlantic. Aquatic productivity in Lake Baikal increased between 119.7 and 117.4 ka BP before declining to the top of the record (115 ka BP) concomitant with a shift to predominately cool steppe catchment vegetation. However, isotopic composition of discharge into Lake Baikal provides evidence for strong penetration of Westerlies into central Asia during the latter stages of the Last Interglacial. Variability in d18Odiatom values was compared between the Last Interglacial and the Holocene. Millennial-scale variability was significantly more stable during the Last Interglacial, possibly linked to diminished influence of freshwater discharge on AMOC during periods of higher, global mean temperatures. [less ▲]

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See detailHydrological instability during the Last Interglacial in central Asia: a new diatom oxygen isotope record from Lake Baikal
Mackay, Anson; Swann, Georges; Fagel, Nathalie ULg et al

in Quaternary Science Reviews (2013), 66

Last Interglacial variability is commonly used as an analogue for variability in a future, warmer world. Pervasive cycles are increasingly apparent in Last Interglacial archives, although studies in ... [more ▼]

Last Interglacial variability is commonly used as an analogue for variability in a future, warmer world. Pervasive cycles are increasingly apparent in Last Interglacial archives, although studies in continental regions are under-represented. Here we provide a new isotopic record of diatom silica (d18Odiatom) spanning c. 127.5e115 ka BP from Lake Baikal in central Asia. Peak rain-fed discharge occurred c. 125.4 ka BP, shortly after July insolation maximum and initiation of Siberian soil development. Between 127 and 119.7 ka BP there are six marked fluctuations in d18Odiatom values, with a pacing of approximately 1.26 0.3 ka, similar to fluctuations of within lake productivity. Fluctuations in d18Odiatom values show good agreement with patterns in Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC), supporting hypothesis of strong teleconnections via theWesterlies between the North Atlantic and central Asia. Two periods of low d18Odiatom values are especially notable. The earliest between c. 126.5 and 126 ka BP is concurrent with the final stages of the Heinrich 11. The second between 120.5 and 119.7 ka BP is also concurrent with an increase in ice-rafted debris in the North Atlantic. Aquatic productivity in Lake Baikal increased between 119.7 and 117.4 ka BP before declining to the top of the record (115 ka BP) concomitant with a shift to predominately cool steppe catchment vegetation. However, isotopic composition of discharge into Lake Baikal provides evidence for strong penetration of Westerlies into central Asia during the latter stages of the Last Interglacial. Variability in d18Odiatom values was compared between the Last Interglacial and the Holocene. Millennial-scale variability was significantly more stable during the Last Interglacial, possibly linked to diminished influence of freshwater discharge on AMOC during periods of higher, global mean temperatures. [less ▲]

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See detailHydrological instability during the Last Interglacial in central Asia: a new diatom oxygen isotope record from Lake Baikal
Mackay, Anson; Swann, Georges; Fagel, Nathalie ULg et al

in Quaternary Science Reviews (2013), 66

Last Interglacial variability is commonly used as an analogue for variability in a future, warmer world. Pervasive cycles are increasingly apparent in Last Interglacial archives, although studies in ... [more ▼]

Last Interglacial variability is commonly used as an analogue for variability in a future, warmer world. Pervasive cycles are increasingly apparent in Last Interglacial archives, although studies in continental regions are under-represented. Here we provide a new isotopic record of diatom silica (d18Odiatom) spanning c. 127.5e115 ka BP from Lake Baikal in central Asia. Peak rain-fed discharge occurred c. 125.4 ka BP, shortly after July insolation maximum and initiation of Siberian soil development. Between 127 and 119.7 ka BP there are six marked fluctuations in d18Odiatom values, with a pacing of approximately 1.26 0.3 ka, similar to fluctuations of within lake productivity. Fluctuations in d18Odiatom values show good agreement with patterns in Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC), supporting hypothesis of strong teleconnections via theWesterlies between the North Atlantic and central Asia. Two periods of low d18Odiatom values are especially notable. The earliest between c. 126.5 and 126 ka BP is concurrent with the final stages of the Heinrich 11. The second between 120.5 and 119.7 ka BP is also concurrent with an increase in ice-rafted debris in the North Atlantic. Aquatic productivity in Lake Baikal increased between 119.7 and 117.4 ka BP before declining to the top of the record (115 ka BP) concomitant with a shift to predominately cool steppe catchment vegetation. However, isotopic composition of discharge into Lake Baikal provides evidence for strong penetration of Westerlies into central Asia during the latter stages of the Last Interglacial. Variability in d18Odiatom values was compared between the Last Interglacial and the Holocene. Millennial-scale variability was significantly more stable during the Last Interglacial, possibly linked to diminished influence of freshwater discharge on AMOC during periods of higher, global mean temperatures. [less ▲]

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See detailMineralogy and physico-chemical properties of alluvial clays from Sanaga valley (Center, Cameroon): Suitability for ceramic application,
Nzeukou, Aubin; Fagel, Nathalie ULg; Njoya, André et al

in Applied Clay Science (2013), (83-84), 238-243

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See detailChanges in sub-fossil chironomid assemblages in two Northern Patagonian lake systems associated with the occurrence of historical fires
Arraneda, A.; Jana, P.; Ortega et al

in Journal of Paleolimnology (2013), 50(1), 41-56

Detailed reference viewed: 43 (23 ULg)