References of "Erpicum, Sébastien"
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See detailSustainable hydraulics in the era of global change - Advances in water engineering and research
Erpicum, Sébastien ULg; Dewals, Benjamin ULg; Archambeau, Pierre ULg et al

Book published by CRC Press (2016)

In an increasingly urbanized world, water systems must be designed and operated according to innovative standards in terms of climate adaptation, resource efficiency, sustainability and resilience. This ... [more ▼]

In an increasingly urbanized world, water systems must be designed and operated according to innovative standards in terms of climate adaptation, resource efficiency, sustainability and resilience. This grand challenge triggers unprecedented questions for hydro-environment research and engineering. Addressing these issues requires a deep understanding of basic processes in fluid mechanics, heat and mass transfer, surface and groundwater flow, among others. This book unveils latest research achievements and innovations which were presented at the 4th European Congress of IAHR in Liege (Belgium). These new developments rely on state-of-the-art modelling technologies, supported by the exponentially growing availability of data and computation power. The book will serve as a reference for professionals and decision-makers involved in various water-related sectors, such as hydraulic engineering, fluvial hydraulics, coastal engineering, water resources management and many more. [less ▲]

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See detailScale effects in physical piano key weirs models
Erpicum, Sébastien ULg; Tullis, Blake; Lodomez, Maurine ULg et al

in Journal of Hydraulic Research (2016)

With inertia and gravity representing the dominant forces for most open channel flow applications (e.g. weir flow), Froude similitude is commonly used for scaling hydraulic performance data from the model ... [more ▼]

With inertia and gravity representing the dominant forces for most open channel flow applications (e.g. weir flow), Froude similitude is commonly used for scaling hydraulic performance data from the model to prototype structures. With weir flow, as the upstream head decreases, however, the relevance of surface tension and viscosity forces can increase to the point when the model and prototype similitude is not fully achieved through Froude scaling. Such discrepancies are referred as size-scale effects, and among other things, can result in variations in the head–discharge relationship, nappe trajectory, and air entrainment. Published criteria for avoiding significant size-scale effects for free flow over linear weirs have suggested that minimal heads of ∼0.02 to 0.07m be respected, independently of the model size. In this study, the size-scale effect, minimum upstream head, and Weber number limits are investigated for four piano key weirs with geometric model scales of 1:1, 1:7, 1:15, and 1:25. [less ▲]

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See detailHydrodynamics of long-duration urban floods: experiments and numerical modelling
Arrault; Finaud-Guyot, Pascal; Archambeau, Pierre ULg et al

in Natural Hazards & Earth System Sciences (2016), 16

Flood risk in urbanized areas raises increasing concerns as a result of demographic and climate changes. Hydraulic modelling is a key component of urban flood risk analysis. Yet, detailed validation data ... [more ▼]

Flood risk in urbanized areas raises increasing concerns as a result of demographic and climate changes. Hydraulic modelling is a key component of urban flood risk analysis. Yet, detailed validation data are still lacking for comprehensively validating hydraulic modelling of inundation flow in urbanized floodplains. ln this study, we present an experimental model of inundation flow in a typical European urban district and we compare the experimental observations with predictions by a shallow-water numerical model. The setup is 5 ll\X Sm and involves seven streets along each direction, leading to 49 intersections. Different inflow discharges and flow partitions were tested. The performance ofthe numerical model is assessed and the upscaling ofthe experimental observations to the field is discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailErosion and sedimentation in a hydropower project: assessing impacts and opportunities
Dewals, Benjamin ULg; Erpicum, Sébastien ULg; Archambeau, Pierre ULg et al

in Schüttrumpf, Holger (Ed.) Offene Gewässer: Strahlwirkung, Fischaufstieg, Fischabstieg, Sedimente, Schadstoffe (2016)

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See detailHydrodynamic instabilities in shallow reservoirs: implications for sediment management
Peltier, Yann; de Cuyper, Anaïs; Erpicum, Sébastien ULg et al

Conference (2016)

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See detailCan the maximum power principle predict effective conductivities of a confined aquifer? A lab experiment
Westhoff, Martijn ULg; Erpicum, Sébastien ULg; Archambeau, Pierre ULg et al

Conference (2015, December 14)

Power can be performed by a system driven by a potential difference. From a given potential difference, the power that can be subtracted is constraint by the Carnot limit, which follows from the first and ... [more ▼]

Power can be performed by a system driven by a potential difference. From a given potential difference, the power that can be subtracted is constraint by the Carnot limit, which follows from the first and second laws of thermodynamics. If the system is such that the flux producing power (with power being the flux times its driving potential difference) also influences the potential difference, a maximum in power can be obtained as a result of the trade-off between the flux and the potential difference. This is referred to as the maximum power principle. It has already been shown that the atmosphere operates close to this maximum power limit when it comes to heat transport from the Equator to the poles, or vertically, from the surface to the atmospheric boundary layer. To reach this state of maximum power, the effective thermal conductivity of the atmosphere is adapted by the creation of convection cells. The aim of this study is to test if the soil’s effective hydraulic conductivity also adapts in such a way that it produces maximum power. However, the soil’s hydraulic conductivity adapts differently; for example by the creation of preferential flow paths. Here, this process is simulated in a lab experiment, which focuses on preferential flow paths created by piping. In the lab, we created a hydrological analogue to the atmospheric model dealing with heat transport between Equator and poles, with the aim to test if the effective hydraulic conductivity of the sand bed can be predicted with the maximum power principle. The experimental setup consists of two freely draining reservoir connected with each other by a confined aquifer. By adding water to only one reservoir, a potential difference will build up until a steady state is reached. The results will indicate whether the maximum power principle does apply for groundwater flow and how it should be applied. Because of the different way of adaptation of flow conductivity, the results differ from that of the atmosphere. [less ▲]

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See detailEssentials of actions
Cerfontaine, Benjamin ULg; Collin, Frédéric ULg; Denoël, Vincent ULg et al

Learning material (2015)

This document deals with the philosophy of safety in civil engineering structures, including loads and load combinations to be applied when designing a structure. It contains general concepts that are ... [more ▼]

This document deals with the philosophy of safety in civil engineering structures, including loads and load combinations to be applied when designing a structure. It contains general concepts that are presented and discussed as well as values for some important input data that can be used as order of magnitude in the initial phase of a project. [less ▲]

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See detailPotential damping of extreme floods in the river Meuse between Ampsin (B) and the Belgian-Dutch border
Bruwier, Martin ULg; Archambeau, Pierre ULg; Erpicum, Sébastien ULg et al

in Lenders, H.J.R.; Collas, F.P.L.; Geerling, G.W. (Eds.) et al Bridging gaps between river science, governance and management. Book of Abstracts NCR-Days 2015 (2015, October)

In the framework of the Interreg IVB project AMICE, hydraulic modelling of floods in the river Meuse was performed by coordinating existing models (Dewals et al. 2012a). The influence of climate change ... [more ▼]

In the framework of the Interreg IVB project AMICE, hydraulic modelling of floods in the river Meuse was performed by coordinating existing models (Dewals et al. 2012a). The influence of climate change scenarios was incorporated indirectly in the simulations through a transnational hydrological scenario (Drogue et al. 2010; Dewals et al. 2013). For a “wet” future climate, this scenario assumes that the peak discharge Q100 of the 100-year flood would increase by 15 % for the time horizon 2021-2050 and by 30 % for the time horizon 2071-2100. However, the design discharge currently used for planning in the Netherlands is higher than those considered to date in the AMICE project. From this perspective, it becomes relevant to analyse flood scenarios corresponding to a peak discharge above Q100+30 %, referred to hereafter as an “extreme” flood. The aim of the study is to give an appreciation of the potential damping of one extreme flood scenario along the river Meuse between Ampsin (Belgium) and the Belgian-Dutch border (Figure 1). This analysis is based on the hydraulic model WOLF 2D (Erpicum et al. 2010) applied to a coarse grid with simplifications in the schematisation. The hydraulic model WOLF 2D has been already used in several studies to simulate floods (Ernst et al. 2010; Beckers et al. 2013, Bruwier et al. 2015, Detrembleur et al. 2015). The coarsening of the grid for simulating the extreme flood scenario is necessary to preserve the computational efficiency, since both the total flood duration and the inundation extents (hence the number of grid cells) increase considerably between the Q100 + 30 % scenario considered previously and the extreme scenario considered here. [less ▲]

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See detailValidation and test cases for a free surface SPH model
Goffin, Louis ULg; Erpicum, Sébastien ULg; Dewals, Benjamin ULg et al

in Advances in hydroinformatics - Simhydro 2014 (2015, September)

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See detailPhysical modeling of lateral dike breaching due to overtopping
Rifai, Ismail ULg; Erpicum, Sébastien ULg; Archambeau, Pierre ULg et al

in River, Coastal and Estuarine Morphodynamics, RCEM 2015 (2015, August)

Dikes are commonly used as defense structures for river flow channelization, protecting population and property from floods and against lateral riverbed migration. However, the aging of these structures ... [more ▼]

Dikes are commonly used as defense structures for river flow channelization, protecting population and property from floods and against lateral riverbed migration. However, the aging of these structures, combined with their increased vulnerability to extreme hydrological events may cause the dikes to breach, and subsequently to break. Furthermore, statistics show that flow overtopping is the main cause of dike failure, which emphasizes the need to understand thoroughly the process of breaching. Indeed, from a risk management perspective it is particularly important to have a detailed understanding of the mechanisms (e.g. internal erosion, overtopping erosion) underlying the formation of breaches due to overtopping and reliable information on flows passing through them. Conversely, the current knowledge of breaching mechanisms remains fragmented, especially because dike failure involves complex interactions between flows, materials of the structure, soil and foundations. The existing studies have addressed partially these interactions as the considered idealized dikes were generally homogenous, the piping erosion unaccounted for and the overtopping replicated in a dam-break like configuration. Yet, river embankments are subjected to high flow velocities parallel to the direction of the dike and to flow in the floodplain, which highly influence the shape of the breach and its evolution. The objective of the present work is to fill this gap. A laboratory experimental investigation is planned in the National Laboratory for Hydraulics and Environment (LNHE) of EDF R&D (France) and in the research group Hydraulics in Environmental and Civil Engineering (HECE) of the University of Liege (Belgium), reproducing realistic configurations of river dikes, accounting for the tangential flow in both main channel and floodplain. It enables thus the assessment of, on the one hand, the effect of the increase of the water level, and on the other hand, the influence of waves. The laboratory tests also consider the effect of a surface layer and composition of the dike core by testing different material mixtures. Geometry and composition of the idealized dikes are representative of typical field dikes, based on the similarity theory. [less ▲]

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See detailComposite hydraulic modeling to design a complex dam spillway
Erpicum, Sébastien ULg; Dewals, Benjamin ULg; Archambeau, Pierre ULg et al

Conference (2015, July 01)

The paper presents the application of a composite hydraulic modeling approach to the rehabilitation studies of a complex dam spillway. First, a physical scale model of the existing works has been built ... [more ▼]

The paper presents the application of a composite hydraulic modeling approach to the rehabilitation studies of a complex dam spillway. First, a physical scale model of the existing works has been built and operated. It enabled to define very accurately the actual discharge capacity and to validate a numerical model of the system. Second, the numerical model has been used to rapidly test several rehabilitation solutions. Finally, the final design has been validated and optimized using the physical model. The paper shows how composite hydraulic modeling enables to combine the inherent advantages of physical and numerical modeling approaches, which are complementary, while being beneficial to the delay as well as the quality of the analysis. [less ▲]

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See detailImpacts of climate change on future flood damage on the river Meuse, with a distributed uncertainty analysis
Detrembleur, Sylvain; Stilmant, Frédéric ULg; Dewals, Benjamin ULg et al

in Natural Hazards (2015), 77(3), 1533-1549

Flood-risk assessments are an objective and quantitative basis for implementing harmonized flood mitigation policies at the basin scale. However, the generated results are subject to different sources of ... [more ▼]

Flood-risk assessments are an objective and quantitative basis for implementing harmonized flood mitigation policies at the basin scale. However, the generated results are subject to different sources of uncertainty arising from underlying assumptions, data availability and the random nature of the phenomenon. These sources of uncertainty are likely to bias conclusions because they are irregularly distributed in space. Therefore, this paper addresses the question of the influence of local features on the expected annual damage in different municipalities. Based on results generated in the frame of a transnational flood-risk-assessment project for the river Meuse (Western Europe) taking climate change into account, the paper presents an analysis of the relative contributions of different sources of uncertainty within one single administrative region (the Walloon region in Belgium, i.e. a river reach of approximately 150 km). The main sources of uncertainty are not only found to vary both from one municipality to the other and in time, but also to induce opposite effects on the computed damage. Nevertheless, practical conclusions for policy-makers can still be drawn. [less ▲]

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See detailModélisation mathématique des risques d’inondation dans le bassin liégeois suivant différents scénarios de changements climatiques et d’aménagement du territoire
Dewals, Benjamin ULg; Erpicum, Sébastien ULg; Archambeau, Pierre ULg et al

Conference (2015, June 03)

Dans une ancienne région minière, affectée par des affaissements significatifs de surface, la ville de Liège est actuellement efficacement protégée contre les crues par débordement de la Meuse grâce ... [more ▼]

Dans une ancienne région minière, affectée par des affaissements significatifs de surface, la ville de Liège est actuellement efficacement protégée contre les crues par débordement de la Meuse grâce essentiellement à une canalisation du fleuve. Une analyse prospective a été entamée, visant à évaluer la pérennité de la protection actuelle de la ville sous différents scénarios d’évolutions climatiques et d’aménagement du territoire. Prenant sa source en France et traversant la Belgique pour rejoindre son embouchure aux Pays-Bas, la Meuse ne peut être étudiée qu’en tenant compte de ce contexte transnational. C’est pourquoi, l’analyse prospective menée a été concertée à toutes les étapes non seulement avec les acteurs scientifiques et les gestionnaires de l’eau dans les régions limitrophes concernées, mais également avec des organisations représentatives de la société civile. En particulier, les scénarios climatiques retenus ainsi que les modélisations hydrauliques et hydro-économiques effectuées ont systématiquement été coordonnés, voire harmonisés, à l’échelle du bassin versant international du fleuve. Les résultats de l’analyse mettent en évidence un accroissement significatif de l’aléa inondation dans la ville de Liège à l’échéance de la fin du siècle. Ils permettent également de circonscrire le potentiel d’adaptation de la ville pour atténuer l’impact d’inondations, tant par des mesures techniques locales qu’à plus grande échelle. La portée de diverses politiques d’aménagement du territoire à Liège et au-delà a également pu être évaluée et l’analyse révèle un degré d’efficacité très contrasté selon les communes concernées. [less ▲]

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See detailA shallow-water model with depth-dependent porosity for urban flood modeling
Bruwier, Martin ULg; Archambeau, Pierre ULg; Erpicum, Sébastien ULg et al

in E-proceedings of the 36th IAHR World Congress (2015, June)

The availability of high-resolution topographic data enables the modeling of urban floods with a high level of accuracy. However, such a modelling has a poor computational efficiency. Subgrid models ... [more ▼]

The availability of high-resolution topographic data enables the modeling of urban floods with a high level of accuracy. However, such a modelling has a poor computational efficiency. Subgrid models enable to decrease the computational time by using coarse cells while preserving information from the detailed topographic data to some degree. In particular, shallow-water models with porosity constitute a subgrid model well-adapted for urban flood modeling. In this article, a new set of fully dynamic shallow-water equations with depth-dependent porosities is presented. Then, the implementation of the model is detailed and preliminary results obtained for a theoretical two-dimensional urban area are analyzed. Unlike recent works, the new model solves the fully dynamic shallow-water equations with depth-dependent and anisotropic porosities, a divergent formulation of the bed slope term, a non-staggered grid with quadrilateral cells and an efficient use of look-up tables to store the porosity relations. [less ▲]

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See detailApplication of the morphological acceleration factor in fluvial hydraulics
Dewals, Benjamin ULg; Erpicum, Sébastien ULg; Archambeau, Pierre ULg et al

in E-proceedings of the 36th IAHR World Congress (2015, June)

The morphological acceleration factor (Morfac) has been widely used to speed-up morphodynamic simulations, mostly in coastal applications. The value of Morfac was generally set by trial and error and ... [more ▼]

The morphological acceleration factor (Morfac) has been widely used to speed-up morphodynamic simulations, mostly in coastal applications. The value of Morfac was generally set by trial and error and little theoretical background is available to identify an optimal value of Morfac for a given application and a target level of accuracy. In the present research, we generalize the few previous theoretical analyses regarding two main aspects. First, the range of the considered parameters (Froude number, relative roughness, transport rate …) has been considerably extended to cover typical values characterizing fluvial applications and not only coastal settings. Second, we show that the optimal value of Morfac depends greatly on the specific mathematical formulation of the flow model and on the flow regime. [less ▲]

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