References of "Du Jardin, Patrick"
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See detailA Legal Framework for Plant Biostimulants and Agronomic Fertiliser Additives in the EU - Report to the European Commission, DG Enterprise & Industry
Traon, Daniel; Amat, Laurence; Zotz, Ferdinand et al

Report (2014)

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See detailMorpho-histology and genotype dependence of in vitro morphogenesis in mature embryo cultures of wheat.
Delporte, Fabienne; Pretova, Anna; du Jardin, Patrick ULg et al

in Protoplasma (2014)

Cellular totipotency is one of the basic principles of plant biotechnology. Currently, the success of the procedure used to produce transgenic plants is directly proportional to the successful insertion ... [more ▼]

Cellular totipotency is one of the basic principles of plant biotechnology. Currently, the success of the procedure used to produce transgenic plants is directly proportional to the successful insertion of foreign DNA into the genome of suitable target tissue/cells that are able to regenerate plants. The mature embryo (ME) is increasingly recognized as a valuable explant for developing regenerable cell lines in wheat biotechnology. We have previously developed a regeneration procedure based on fragmented ME in vitro culture. Before we can use this regeneration system as a model for molecular studies of the morphogenic pathway induced in vitro and investigate the functional links between regenerative capacity and transformation receptiveness, some questions need to be answered. Plant regeneration from cultured tissues is genetically controlled. Factors such as age/degree of differentiation and physiological conditions affect the response of explants to culture conditions. Plant regeneration in culture can be achieved through embryogenesis or organogenesis. In this paper, the suitability of ME tissues for tissue culture and the chronological series of morphological data observed at the macroscopic level are documented. Genetic variability at each step of the regeneration process was evaluated through a varietal comparison of several elite wheat cultivars. A detailed histological analysis of the chronological sequence of morphological events during ontogeny was conducted. Compared with cultures of immature zygotic embryos, we found that the embryogenic pathway occurs slightly earlier and is of a different origin in our model. Cytological, physiological, and some biochemical aspects of somatic embryo formation in wheat ME culture are discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailEFSA's scientific activities and achievements on the risk assessment of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) during its first decade of existence: looking back and ahead.
Devos, Yann; Aguilera, Jaime; Diveki, Zoltan et al

in Transgenic research (2014), 23(1), 1-25

Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and derived food and feed products are subject to a risk analysis and regulatory approval before they can enter the market in the European Union (EU). In this risk ... [more ▼]

Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and derived food and feed products are subject to a risk analysis and regulatory approval before they can enter the market in the European Union (EU). In this risk analysis process, the role of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), which was created in 2002 in response to multiple food crises, is to independently assess and provide scientific advice to risk managers on any possible risks that the use of GMOs may pose to human and animal health and the environment. EFSA's scientific advice is elaborated by its GMO Panel with the scientific support of several working groups and EFSA's GMO Unit. This review presents EFSA's scientific activities and highlights its achievements on the risk assessment of GMOs for the first 10 years of its existence. Since 2002, EFSA has issued 69 scientific opinions on genetically modified (GM) plant market registration applications, of which 62 for import and processing for food and feed uses, six for cultivation and one for the use of pollen (as or in food), and 19 scientific opinions on applications for marketing products made with GM microorganisms. Several guidelines for the risk assessment of GM plants, GM microorganisms and GM animals, as well as on specific issues such as post-market environmental monitoring (PMEM) were elaborated. EFSA also provided scientific advice upon request of the European Commission on safeguard clause and emergency measures invoked by EU Member States, annual PMEM reports, the potential risks of new biotechnology-based plant breeding techniques, evaluations of previously assessed GMOs in the light of new scientific publications, and the use of antibiotic resistance marker genes in GM plants. Future challenges relevant to the risk assessment of GMOs are discussed. EFSA's risk assessments of GMO applications ensure that data are analysed and presented in a way that facilitates scientifically sound decisions that protect human and animal health and the environment. [less ▲]

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See detailReprogramming of fatty acid and oxylipin synthesis in rhizobacteria-induced systemic resistance in tomato
Mariutto, Martin; Fauconnier, Marie-Laure ULg; Ongena, Marc ULg et al

in Plant Molecular Biology (2013), 84(4-5), 455-476

The rhizobacterium Pseudomonas putida BTP1 stimulates induced systemic resistance (ISR) in tomato. A previous work showed that the resistance is associated in leaves with the induction of the first enzyme ... [more ▼]

The rhizobacterium Pseudomonas putida BTP1 stimulates induced systemic resistance (ISR) in tomato. A previous work showed that the resistance is associated in leaves with the induction of the first enzyme of the oxylipin pathway, the lipoxygenase (LOX), leading to a faster accumulation of its product, the free 13-hydroperoxy octadecatrienoic acid (13-HPOT), 2 days after Botrytis cinerea inoculation. In the present study, we further investigated the stimulation of the oxylipin pathway: metabolites and enzymes of the pathway were analyzed to understand the fate of the 13-HPOT in ISR. Actually the stimulation began upstream the LOX: free linolenic acid accumulated faster in P. putida BTP1-treated plants than in control. Downstream, the LOX products 13-fatty acid hydroperoxides esterified to galactolipids and phospholipids were more abundant in bacterized plants than in control before infection. These metabolites could constitute a pool that will be used after pathogen attack to produce free fungitoxic metabolites through the action of phospholipase A2, which is enhanced in bacterized plants upon infection. Enzymatic branches which can use as substrate the fatty acid hydroperoxides were differentially regulated in bacterized plants in comparison to control plants, so as to lead to the accumulation of the most fungitoxic compounds against B. cinerea. Our study, which is the first to demonstrate the accumulation of an esterified defense metabolite during rhizobacteria-mediated induced systemic resistance, showed that the oxylipin pathway is differentially regulated. It suggests that this allows the plant to prepare to a future infection, and to respond faster and in a more effective way to B. cinerea invasion. [less ▲]

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See detailInfluence of rhizobacterial volatile compounds on growth and root system architecture of Brachypodium distachyon (L.) Beauv.
Mendaluk, Magdalena ULg; Varin, Sébastien; Baudson, Caroline ULg et al

Poster (2013, February 08)

Many rhizobacterial strains are classified as plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) and are potentially useful to enhance plant fitness and productivity. Among the mechanisms by which PGPR improve ... [more ▼]

Many rhizobacterial strains are classified as plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) and are potentially useful to enhance plant fitness and productivity. Among the mechanisms by which PGPR improve plant growth, the emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and their biological impacts on plants remain little documented. The aim of this work is to evaluate the growth promotion ability of 19 bacterial strains on the model grass Brachypodium distachyon Bd21 (Bd21), with a focus on this peculiar mode of interaction. A collection of 19 strains was selected for their known growth promotion potential. The impact of the rhizobacteria on the model grass was studied using an in vitro cocultivation system allowing interactions through VOCs without physical contact between plants and bacteria. The results show that the VOCs of several strains promote total biomass production, modulate biomass partitioning and affect shoot and root architecture of Bd21. The effects of the PGPR strains emitting different volatile blends were investigated via principal component analysis coupled to clustering and univariate analysis to unravel their biological effects. On the basis of volatile emissions and of their effects on plant growth, two strains have been selected in order to evaluate such interactions using an ex vitro system. The set-up of this system is in progress. [less ▲]

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See detailDevelopment of an experimental device allowing plant-plant interaction studies and in situ dynamic trapping of volatile organic compounds emitted by barley (Hordeum distichon L.) roots
Delory, Benjamin ULg; Delaplace, Pierre ULg; Fauconnier, Marie-Laure ULg et al

in Communications in Agricultural and Applied Biological Sciences (2013, February 08), 78(1), 97-102

In response to wounding or herbivore attack, leaves and roots of higher plants release volatile organic compounds (VOCs). To date, VOCs analysis and plant−plant interaction studies have been mainly ... [more ▼]

In response to wounding or herbivore attack, leaves and roots of higher plants release volatile organic compounds (VOCs). To date, VOCs analysis and plant−plant interaction studies have been mainly performed on aboveground plant tissues, leaving the roles played by root VOCs in plant−plant interaction unexplored. In this context, this project aims at setting up an original experimental device allowing both dynamic trapping of VOCs emitted by mechanically damaged H. distichon roots and the study of the roles played by root VOCs in intra and interspecific plant−plant interactions. The experimental device consists of Barley seedlings cultivated in closed PTFE reactors filled with wet sand. Before being analysed by gas chromatography−mass spectrometry, root VOCs are trapped via a dynamic system on Tenax cartridges using a charcoal-filtered and humidified air. Preliminary results show that 7 day-old wounded Barley roots emit C9 fatty acid derivatives (E-non-2-enal and nona-2,6-dienal) as major compounds, contrasting with aboveground plant tissues that mainly emit C6 alcohols, aldehydes, and their derivative esters. For plant−plant interaction studies, receiver plants are exposed to an airflow enriched with VOCs from root damaged Barley plants of the same age. [less ▲]

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See detailImplication of microRNAs in the response of Brachypodium distachyon (L.) Beauv. root system architecture to rhizobacterial volatiles
Baudson, Caroline ULg; Bouché, Frédéric ULg; Saunier de Cazenave, Magdalena ULg et al

Scientific conference (2013, February)

The metabolic roles of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted by plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) and the identity of the molecules responsible for the growth promotion are still poorly ... [more ▼]

The metabolic roles of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted by plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) and the identity of the molecules responsible for the growth promotion are still poorly documented. As well, the implication of microRNAs in root development is a recent discovery that deserves to be explored. In this study, the implication of microRNAs in the response of Brachypodium distachyon (L.) Beauv. Bd21 root architecture to rhizobacterial VOCs was investigated. Nineteen PGPR strains were screened to select those showing the strongest phenotypic effects. The strain Bacillus subtilis AP305-GB03 induced the most important promotion of biomass production and root development. Total RNA extraction and RT-qPCR analysis of microRNAs were performed on Bd21 root samples. The expression of miR160 a-d, miR164 f, miR167 c-d, miR397 b and miR399 a-b was measured in roots every 2 days during the first 10 days of Bd21 development, in the presence or absence of the bacterial VOCs. Differences in the expression profile of miR164 f and miR167 c-d were observed in the roots exposed to GB03 VOCs, as compared to the control. These differences could be correlated to the root system architecture modifications observed after 10 days of growth with GB03. miR397 b and miR399 a-b also showed differences in the expression profile of roots exposed to the bacterial VOCs. These microRNAs have been respectively involved in cold stress tolerance and in the response to phosphate starvation. [less ▲]

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See detail"Penser la technique" : clé pour un développement durable
du Jardin, Patrick ULg

in Ypersele, Jean-Pascal; Hudon, Marek (Eds.) 1er colloque interdisicplinaire du développement durable : Namur 31 janvier au 1er février 2013 (2013)

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See detailCharacterization of volatile organic compounds emitted by Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) roots and their attractiveness to wireworms
Gfeller, Aurélie; Laloux, Morgan; Barsics, Fanny ULg et al

in Journal of Chemical Ecology (2013), 39(8), 1129-1139

Root volatile organic compounds (VOCs), their chemistry and ecological functions have garnered less attention than aboveground emitted plant VOCs. We report here for the first time on the identification ... [more ▼]

Root volatile organic compounds (VOCs), their chemistry and ecological functions have garnered less attention than aboveground emitted plant VOCs. We report here for the first time on the identification of VOCs emitted by barley roots (Hordeum vulgare L.). Twenty nine VOCs were identified from isolated 21-d-old roots. The detection of root volatiles was dependent on the medium used for root cultivation. From 7-d-old roots cultivated on sterile Hoagland gelified medium, 24 VOCs were identified, on sterile vermiculite 33 VOCs, and on non-sterile vermiculite 34 VOCs. The major VOCs identified were fatty acid derived compounds, including hexanal, methyl hexanoate, (E)-hex-2-enal, 2-pentylfuran, pentan-1-ol, (Z)-2-(pentenyl)-furan, (Z)-pent-2-en-1-ol, hexan-1-ol, (Z)-hex-3-en-1-ol, (E)-hex-2-en-1-ol, oct-1-en-3-ol, 2-ethylhexan-1-ol (likely a contaminant), (E)-non-2-enal, octan-1-ol, (2E,6Z)-nona-2,6-dienal), methyl (E)-non-2-enoate, nonan-1-ol, (Z)-non-3-en-1-ol, (E)-non-2-en-1-ol, nona-3,6-dien-1-ol and nona-2,6-dien-1-ol. In an olfactometer assay, wireworms (larvae of Agriotes sordidus Illiger, Coleoptera: Elateridae) were attracted to chemical cues emanating from barley seedlings. We discuss the role of individual root volatiles or a blend of the root volatiles detected here and their interaction with CO2for wireworm attraction. [less ▲]

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See detailImprovement of Ylang-Ylang Essential Oil Characterization by GCxGC-TOFMS
Brokl, Michal ULg; Fauconnier, Marie-Laure ULg; Benini, Céline et al

in Molecules (2013), 18(2), 1783-1797

A single fraction of essential oil can often contain hundreds of compounds. Despite of the technical improvements and the enhanced selectivity currently offered by the state-of-the-art gas chromatography ... [more ▼]

A single fraction of essential oil can often contain hundreds of compounds. Despite of the technical improvements and the enhanced selectivity currently offered by the state-of-the-art gas chromatography (GC) and mass spectrometry (MS) instruments, the complexity of essential oils is frequently underestimated. Comprehensive two-dimensional GC coupled to time-of-flight MS (GC×GC-TOFMS) was used to improve the chemical characterization of ylang-ylang essential oil fractions recently reported in a previous one-dimensional (1D) GC study. Based on both, the enhanced chromatographic separation and the mass spectral deconvolution, 161 individual compounds were identified and labeled as potentially characteristic analytes found in both low and high boiling fractions issued from distillation of mature ylang-ylang flowers. Compared to the most recent full GC-MS characterization, this represents 75 new compounds, essentially consisting of terpenes, terpenoid esters, and alcohols. [less ▲]

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See detailAllelopathic potential of Tunisian barley against weeds
Bouhaouel, Imen ULg; Gfeller, Aurélie; Fauconnier, Marie-Laure ULg et al

Poster (2012, December)

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See detailPlant growth- promoting rhizobacteria emit volatiles compounds with biostimulation activity in dicot and monocot plant species.
du Jardin, Patrick ULg; Delaplace, Pierre ULg; Varin, Sébastien et al

in Perata, Pierdomenico; Brown, Patrick; Ponchet, Michel (Eds.) Abstracts Book for Oral and Poster Presentations of the 1st World Congress on the use of Biostimulants in Agriculture (2012, November)

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See detailConservation and management of a threatened traditional agroresource, ylang-ylang Cananga odorata [Lam.] Hook f. & Thomson forma genuina, in the Indian Ocean islands
benini, céline; Mahy, Grégory ULg; jacquemin, jean-marie et al

in Crop Science (2012), 52(6), 2606-2618

In order to handle future economic, social and environmental changes, the assessment, management and conservation of the local genetic resources of cash crop species is a fundamental requirement. We ... [more ▼]

In order to handle future economic, social and environmental changes, the assessment, management and conservation of the local genetic resources of cash crop species is a fundamental requirement. We investigated the pattern of genetic and morphological diversity of Cananga odorata (Lam.) Hook f. & Thomson forma genuina, an important essential oil tree for the perfume industry in the introduction area of the western Indian Ocean islands. We sought to identify key elements for developing a conservation and management strategy for ylang-ylang genetic resources. Genetic and morphological variations were assessed using Amplified Fragments Length Polymorphism and morphometrics traits and information about farmers' practices were collected. The existence of substantial overall genetic diversity (HT = 0.2599) and the grouping of plantations into different genetic groups suggest that there have been a series of introduction events in the area, with limited exchanges of genetic material within and between islands, which is not what is suggested in the historical records. The morphological study revealed high phenotypic variability despite very similar agronomical practices throughout the studied area. The morphological and genetic variability might have been created and maintained without any planned or conscious management, and this has largely determined the genetic structuring in the area (11.74% genetic variation among islands and 20.68% among plantations). With this species, where past introduction events and farmers’ practices have shaped the genetic variation, on-farm preservation and the maintenance of the current management practices is recommended. Ex situ conservation efforts should also be undertaken, if economically affordable. [less ▲]

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