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See detailFrom the design to the clinical application of thromboxane modulators
Dogné, Jean-Michel ULg; Hanson, Julien ULg; de Leval, Xavier et al

in Current Pharmaceutical Design (2006), 12(8), 903-923

Arachidonic acid (AA) metabolites are key mediators involved in the pathogenesis of numerous cardiovascular, pulmonary, inflammatory, and thromboembolic diseases. One of these bioactive metabolites of ... [more ▼]

Arachidonic acid (AA) metabolites are key mediators involved in the pathogenesis of numerous cardiovascular, pulmonary, inflammatory, and thromboembolic diseases. One of these bioactive metabolites of particular importance is thromboxane A(2) (TXA(2)). It is produced by the action of thromboxane synthase on the prostaglandin endoperoxide H-2 (PGH(2)) which results from the enzymatic transformation of AA by the cyclooxygenases. It is a potent inducer of platelet aggregation, vasoconstriction and bronchoconstriction, and has been involved in a series of major pathophysiological conditions. Therefore, TXA(2) receptor antagonists, thromboxane synthase inhibitors and drugs combining both properties have been developed by different laboratories since the early 1980s. Several Compounds have been launched on the market and others are tinder clinical evaluation. In the first part of this review. we will describe the physiological properties of TXA(2), thromboxane synthase and thromboxane receptors. The second part is dedicated to a description of each class of thromboxane modulators with the advantages and disadvantages they offer. In the third part. we aim to describe recent studies performed with the most interesting thromboxane modulators in major pathologies: myocardial infarction and thrombosis, atherosclerosis, diabetes, pulmonary embolism, septic shock.. preeclampsia, and asthma. Each pathology will be systematically reviewed. Finally, in the last part we will highlight the latest perspectives in drug design of thromboxane modulators and in their future therapeutic applications such as cancer, metastasis and angiogenesis. [less ▲]

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See detailPhysiologie de la Reproduction animale TOME 3 (de 3)
Drion, Pierre ULg; Beckers, Jean-François ULg; Derivaux, Jules et al

Learning material (2005)

Ce document reprend le 3è TOME de "Physiologie de la Reproduction" de "Drion, Beckers, Derivaux, Hanzen, Ectors". Daprès le même intitulé ("Derivaux, Ectors, Reproduction chez les animaux domestiques ... [more ▼]

Ce document reprend le 3è TOME de "Physiologie de la Reproduction" de "Drion, Beckers, Derivaux, Hanzen, Ectors". Daprès le même intitulé ("Derivaux, Ectors, Reproduction chez les animaux domestiques", Cabay, Louvain la neuve, 1986), revisité et mis à jour, avec l'aide des auteurs, annuellement de 2000 à 2005. Il constitue la base de l'enseignement du cours de 3è Bac en Médecine Vétérinaire à l'Université de Liège. [less ▲]

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See detailPhysiologie de la Reproduction animale TOME 2 (de 3)
Drion, Pierre ULg; Beckers, Jean-François ULg; Derivaux, Jules et al

Learning material (2005)

Ce document reprend le 2è TOME de "Physiologie de la Reproduction" de "Drion, Beckers, Derivaux, Hanzen, Ectors". Daprès le même intitulé ("Derivaux, Ectors, Reproduction chez les animaux domestiques ... [more ▼]

Ce document reprend le 2è TOME de "Physiologie de la Reproduction" de "Drion, Beckers, Derivaux, Hanzen, Ectors". Daprès le même intitulé ("Derivaux, Ectors, Reproduction chez les animaux domestiques", Cabay, Louvain la neuve, 1986), revisité et mis à jour, avec l'aide des auteurs, annuellement de 2000 à 2005. Il constitue la base de l'enseignement du cours de 3è Bac en Médecine Vétérinaire à l'Université de Liège. [less ▲]

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See detailPhysiologie de la Reproduction animale TOME 1 (de 3)
Drion, Pierre ULg; Beckers, Jean-François ULg; Derivaux, Jules et al

Learning material (2005)

Ce document reprend le 1er TOME de "Physiologie de la Reproduction" de "Drion, Beckers, Derivaux, Hanzen, Ectors". Daprès le même intitulé ("Derivaux, Ectors, Reproduction chez les animaux domestiques ... [more ▼]

Ce document reprend le 1er TOME de "Physiologie de la Reproduction" de "Drion, Beckers, Derivaux, Hanzen, Ectors". Daprès le même intitulé ("Derivaux, Ectors, Reproduction chez les animaux domestiques", Cabay, Louvain la neuve, 1986), revisité et mis à jour, avec l'aide des auteurs, annuellement de 2000 à 2005. Il constitue la base de l'enseignement du cours de 3è Bac en Médecine Vétérinaire à l'Université de Liège. [less ▲]

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See detailCharacterization of an original model of myocardial infarction provoked by coronary artery thrombosis induced by ferric chloride in pig
Dogné, Jean-Michel ULg; Rolin, Stéphanie; Petein, Michel et al

in Thrombosis Research (2005), 116(5), 431-442

Background: Great advances have been made in the prevention of thrombotic disorders by developments of new pharmacological and surgical treatments. Animal models of arterial thrombosis have largely ... [more ▼]

Background: Great advances have been made in the prevention of thrombotic disorders by developments of new pharmacological and surgical treatments. Animal models of arterial thrombosis have largely contributed to the discovery and to the validation of original treatments. The purpose of the present work was to develop and validate an original model of acute myocardial infarction provoked in pig by thrombosis of the left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery induced by topical application of ferric chloride solution. Methods and results: Myocardial infarction, resulting from an occlusive and adherent mixed thrombus formed in the LAD coronary artery, was examined at macroscopic level using dual staining technique (Evans blue dye; triphenyltetrazolium chloride) and at microscopic level using conventional histological analyses and immunohistochemical detection of desmin. Biochemical markers (troponin T and ATP), platelet reactivity and standard hemodynamic parameters (such as stroke volume, ejection fraction, stroke work and cardiac output) have also been evaluated. From these analyses, it was demonstrated that each pig developed a transmural area of irreversible damage mainly located in the anteroseptal region of the left ventricle. The more progressive development of coronary artery occlusion, as compared to an abrupt Ligation, was accompanied by a correspondingly progressive impairment in hemodynamics. Conclusion: We conclude that this original porcine model of myocardial infarction is quite close to clinical pathophysiological conditions, such as thrombus formation occurring after atherosclerotic plaque rupture. This certainly constitutes a further argument in favour of this model to assess pharmaceutical or mechanical support of an acutely ischemic heart. (c) 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailUtilisation raisonnable des gonadotrophines exogènes dans le contrôle de la reproduction
Drion, Pierre ULg

in Folia Veterinaria (2005)

De nombreuses substances pharmacologiques (tableau 1) incluant des stéroïdes, des peptides et des glycoprotéines potentiellement immunogènes sont fréquemment utilisées dans les programmes thérapeutiques ... [more ▼]

De nombreuses substances pharmacologiques (tableau 1) incluant des stéroïdes, des peptides et des glycoprotéines potentiellement immunogènes sont fréquemment utilisées dans les programmes thérapeutiques ou de gestion de la reproduction chez les animaux domestiques et dans les programmes de procréation assistée chez l'homme. De nombreuses investigations non invasives ont été menées dans différentes espèces en vue de récolter des informations objectives sur les effets secondaires possibles d'administrations répétées de gonadotrophines exogènes, tels la présence d'anticorps circulants et la diminution de la réponse biologique aux traitements. De manière synthétique, il apparaît que l'exposition répétée d'un animal à une molécule gonadotrope exogène, entraîne chez celui-ci la formation d'anticorps spécifiques dirigés contre cette molécule. Cependant, les taux de liaison des anticorps plasmatiques aux gonadotrophines injectées ne suffisent pas à expliquer l'intégralité d'une modification des performances de reproduction. La littérature portant sur les programmes d'immunisation contre les stéroïdes ou l'inhibine -utilisés pour améliorer les performances de reproduction- constitue une bonne illustration du contrôle multifactoriel de telles régulations et de la difficulté à obtenir les effets souhaités. [less ▲]

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See detailLes protéines de choc thermique (heat shock proteins). II Les protéines de choc thermique (heat shock proteins). II. Hsp70, biomarqueur, bioprotecteur.
Wirth, Delphine; Gustin, Pascal ULg; Drion, Pierre ULg et al

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2003), 147(2), 127-144

The exposure of any organism to high temperature induces rapid and transient cellular overexpression of specific proteins, the heat shock proteins (Hsps). This response, called heat shock response, was ... [more ▼]

The exposure of any organism to high temperature induces rapid and transient cellular overexpression of specific proteins, the heat shock proteins (Hsps). This response, called heat shock response, was initially discovered in Drosophila. The genes hsps were among the first eukaryotic genes to be cloned and whose regulation, which involves activation of heat shock factor (HSF), was elucidated. More recently, study of Hsp functions, particularly Hsp70, started. Their protective role, related to their molecular chaperon function, was inferred from experiments showing that Hsp70 expression, induced by a first stress, results in a cellular tolerance to second stress. Better understanding of the heat shock response had led to the development of two search fields on Hsp70 expression : (1) its use as biomarker of cellular stress and (2) the exploitation of its cytoprotective functions against various insults. This review includes historic of the research on the heat shock response, description of regulation mechanism of Hsp70 expression, and the interesting perspectives allocated to Hsp70 as biomarker and therapeutic tool. ----------- L’exposition de tout organisme à des températures élevées induit l'expression cellulaire rapide et transitoire de protéines spécifiques, les protéines de choc thermique (Hsps pour " heat shock proteins "). Cette réponse des cellules au choc thermique ou " heat shock response " a été initialement découverte chez la drosophile. Les gènes hsps furent parmi les premiers gènes eucaryotes à être clonés et utilisés comme paradigme dans l'étude des mécanismes de régulation transcriptionnelle faisant intervenir l'activation d'un ou plusieurs " heat shock factors" (HSFs). C'est plus récemment que l'étude des fonctions des Hsps, particulièrement Hsp70, a débuté. Le rôle protecteur de celle-ci, lié à sa fonction de " chaperon " protéique, a été déduit d'expériences montrant que l'induction de l'expression de Hsp70 lors d'un stress était associée au développement d'une tolérance cellulaire vis-à-vis d'un stress ultérieur. En plus d'un intérêt fondamental pour la compréhension de la "réponse au choc thermique", deux axes de recherche appliquée se sont développés visant à investiguer la possibilité d'utiliser l'expression de Hsp70 comme biomarqueur de souffrance cellulaire d'une part et, d'autre part, d'exploiter ses fonctions comme moyen de protection des cellules contre divers types d'agressions. Cette revue décrit l'historique des découvertes sur la " réponse au choc thermique ", le mécanisme régulant l'expression de Hsp70 ainsi que les perspectives intéressantes s'ouvrant à l'utilisation de l'expression de Hsp70 en tant que biomarqueur et outil thérapeutique. [less ▲]

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See detailThe use of blood pepsinogen as a biomarker of the integrity of the porcine gastric mucosa. 2. Measurements of blood pepsinogen and its usefull in the detection of gastric diseases
Banga-Mboko, Henri; Godeau, Jean-Marie ULg; Drion, Pierre ULg et al

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2003), 147(2, APR-MAY), 95-104

Pepsinogen is one component of the gastric juice which participes in the digestion. This macromolecule enters the blood circulation in a small measurable quantities in healthy subjects. Therefore, blood ... [more ▼]

Pepsinogen is one component of the gastric juice which participes in the digestion. This macromolecule enters the blood circulation in a small measurable quantities in healthy subjects. Therefore, blood pepsinogen is claimed to be an indicator of the integrity of the gastric mucosa. This paper was written to review the use of porcine in the diagnostic of stomach ulcers and Hyostrongylus rubidus infection. The methods of measurement of blood pepsinogen and the diagnostic values are discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailPhysiology of reproduction and endocrinology in cervids. A review
Drion, Pierre ULg; Hanzen, Christian ULg; Wirth, Delphine - in memoriam et al

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2003), 147(5), 291-313

Knowledge about cervids are rapidly growing. This work aims to present the more recent scientific information on reproductive physiology and endocrinology of the cervids: anatomy of the genital tract ... [more ▼]

Knowledge about cervids are rapidly growing. This work aims to present the more recent scientific information on reproductive physiology and endocrinology of the cervids: anatomy of the genital tract, length of breeding season, parameters and endocrinology of the reproductive cycle, endocrinology of pregnancy. It also aims to highlight differences between cervids and domestic ruminants such as embryonic diapause observed in Capreolus capreolus. [less ▲]

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See detailFrom the germinal cells to the newborn animal: The transmission of genes and life through the generations
Drion, Pierre ULg; Szenci, Otto; Ectors, Fabien ULg et al

in Acta Veterinaria Hungarica (2003), 51(3), 371-384

The technology of reproduction progressed considerably during the last decade, leading to a certain availability of in vitro methods for fertilisation, oocyte maturation and embryo culture. The most ... [more ▼]

The technology of reproduction progressed considerably during the last decade, leading to a certain availability of in vitro methods for fertilisation, oocyte maturation and embryo culture. The most spectacular manipulations are cloning and transgenesis. This review focuses on the early appearance of germinal cell precursors and the long-standing fate of gametes in mammals. The evident complexity and long-term programming of events in gametes and early embryos explain part of the difficulties encountered during the development of in vitro and in vivo methods such as multiple Ovulation and embryo transfer (MOET), oestrus synchronisation, ovulation induction, superovulation, in vitro maturation and fertilisation, cryopreservation, transgenesis, nuclear transfer and cloning) and the occurrence of unexpected alterations of development, e.g. embryonic or fetal mortality, large-weight newborn syndrome and other dysregulations ill imprinting or DNA transmission. [less ▲]

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See detailEffets du protocole GPG sur l’activité ovarienne
Hanzen, Christian ULg; Boudry, B.; Drion, Pierre ULg

in Point Vétérinaire (2003), 34(237), 26-30

The GPG protocol or OvSynch includes an injection of GnRH and followed seven days later by an injection of PgF(2alpha), which is preceded forty-eight hours earlier by a second injection of GnRH. The ... [more ▼]

The GPG protocol or OvSynch includes an injection of GnRH and followed seven days later by an injection of PgF(2alpha), which is preceded forty-eight hours earlier by a second injection of GnRH. The effects of GnRH on follicular tissue are either ovulation or luteinization depending at which stage of the cycle the cow is injected i.e. metoestrus, dioestrus or end of dioestrus. Observation of one or the other effect suggests a close association between the stage of follicular development, the function of the follicular tissue present and also the concentration of progesterone. [less ▲]

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See detailInduction et synchronisation de l'oestrus par la PGF2alpha
Hanzen, Christian ULg; Boudry, B.; Drion, Pierre ULg

in Point Vétérinaire (2003), 34(236), 22-23

Hormonal management of reproduction uses treatments that regulate both luteal activity and follicular growth to achieve expulsion in the shortest period of an oocyte capable of being fertilised. Therefore ... [more ▼]

Hormonal management of reproduction uses treatments that regulate both luteal activity and follicular growth to achieve expulsion in the shortest period of an oocyte capable of being fertilised. Therefore, PgF2alpha has been the object of numerous trials either as sin e or repeated injections, alone or in association with other hormones such as gonadorelin. Systematic insemination is more difficult after a single injection because return to ea is variable. A single injection is better for the physiology of follicular growth than the corpus luteum. Use of a double injection of PgF2alpha improves the degree of synchronisation but doesn't affect the ovulation rate. [less ▲]

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See detailProstaglandines et reproduction animale: données générales
Hanzen, Christian ULg; Drion, Pierre ULg

in Le grand livre des prostaglandines (2003)

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See detailApplication des prostaglandines en reproduction des espèces moins fréquentes ou de laboratoires: Souris, Rat, Hamster, Gerbille, Cobaye, Furet, Cervidés, Buffalos, Zebu, Bison
Drion, Pierre ULg; Hanzen, Christian ULg; Wirth, Delphine et al

in Le grand livre des Prostaglandines (2003)

En l'an 300 avant notre ère, Herophilus d'Alexandrie fut le premier qui reconnut les ovaires comme entités propres à la femelle de la même manière que les testicules sont des attributs propres au mâle ... [more ▼]

En l'an 300 avant notre ère, Herophilus d'Alexandrie fut le premier qui reconnut les ovaires comme entités propres à la femelle de la même manière que les testicules sont des attributs propres au mâle. Pourtant, ce fut Soran d'Ephèse qui en 50 après J.C. décrivit en détail les ovaires en insistant sur leur existence par paire. Vésale de Padoue en 1555 est crédité pour avoir décrit pour la première fois le corps jaune humain. En 1609, Fabricius, élève de Fallope fournit une première illustration d'un traité d'anatomie comparée des organes reproducteurs; Fabricius parlait déjà de l'ovaire et du corps jaune comme de multiples glandes conjointes. En plus de sa contribution majeure aux connaissances du développement folliculaire, Rainier de Graaf en 1672 observa que chez les lapines, le nombre d'embryons correspond au nombre de corps glandulaires ovariens. La dénomination "corps jaune" est créditée à Malpighi en 1697... Deux cents ans plus tard, Louis Auguste Prenant émet l'hypothèse que le corps jaune est une glande à sécrétion interne... Ce qui sera confirmé en 1901 par Magnus et en 1903 par Fraenkel qui démontrent (indépendamment l'un de l'autre) que l'ovariectomie ou l'exérèse du corps jaune par cautérisation, entraînent l'avortement et la résorption embryonnaire. Ensuite, Bouin et Ancel (1910) rapportent que la présence du corps jaune est associée à une prolifération des glandes endométriales. Cette découverte constitue la base du dosage biologique qui permit à Corner et Allen d'isoler la progestérone à partir du corps jaune (1929). Ensuite, quatre auteurs: Allen (1934), Slotta (1934), Butenand (1934) et Hartman (1934) élucidèrent la structure chimique de ce stéroïde. Une autre contribution de cette époque se révélera très importante par la suite: c'est l'observation de Leo Loeb (1923 & 1927) qui montra que l'hystérectomie chez le cobaye résulte en une prolongation de la phase lutéale pour une durée à peu près égale ou même supérieure à celle de la gestation normale (dont la durée est de 65 à 70 jours). Comme nous le verrons plus tard, cette observation permet dès cette époque d'attribuer à l'utérus un rôle déterminant dans la lutéolyse cyclique chez le cobaye et les animaux de la ferme par la production d'un facteur lutéolytique. La littérature concernant les espèces moins fréquemment envisagées dans la pratique courante que les ruminants, équins, porcins… n’est pas pauvre. Celle concernant plus spécifiquement l’utilisation des prostaglandines chez ces mêmes espèces est par contre relativement plus rare. Divers essais thérapeutiques ou expérimentaux ont cependant été réalisés chez ces espèces. Le plus connu sans doute est celui qui permit dès 1923 à Loeb de mettre en évidence la persistance de la phase lutéale chez des femelles cobayes hystérectomisées. A cet égard, la physiologie de la reproduction du cobaye sera un peu plus largement détaillée. Dès 1927-1928, Asscheim et Zondeck signalaient la présence d’une hormone à activité LH-like dans l’urine de femme enceinte, hCG, caractérisée plus tard comme étant le signal embryonnaire transformant le corps jaune cyclique chez celle-ci en corps jaune gestatif. En 1930 et 1931, Brouha et Cole décrivent les effets du sérum de jument gestante sur la maturation du tractus génital, des ovaires et des glandes annexes chez des rats et des lapins immatures. L’eCG sécrétée dès les jours 30 à 40 de la gestation et postulée au départ comme étant le signal embryonnaire chez la jument, laisse ce rôle par la suite à l’equine Trophoblastic Protein, véritable signal embryonnaire dans cette espèce. Leurs successeurs (Spriggs & Bletchley chez la vache en 1946 puis Wiltbank & Casida en 1956 chez la brebis, Du Mesnil du Buisson en 1961 chez la truie et Bland en 1970 chez la vache) poursuivirent la voie empruntée et précédèrent les expériences de Mc Cracken qui en 1969 confirmait la persistance naturelle du corps jaune chez une brebis présentant une absence congénitale d’une des deux cornes utérines. Mc Cracken toujours, présenta en 1972 l’origine endométriale des prostaglandines et leur action à distance dans le déclenchement de la lutéolyse cyclique chez la brebis (McCracken JA, Carlson JC, Glew ME, Goding JR, Baird DT, Green K, Samuelsson B. Prostaglandin F2 identified as a luteolytic hormone in sheep. Nat New Biol. 1972; 238(83): 129-134). Les essais se succédèrent et virent la mise sur le marché de molécules tant naturelles que synthétiques… Ce chapitre, présentera l’utilisation expérimentale et thérapeutique des prostaglandines dans les espèces énumérées ci plus haut et dans un but d’éclaircissement pour le lecteur, y mêlera le rappel de la sexualité des espèces envisagées. Il sera volontairement non exhaustif, la diversité et le nombre des espèces qu’il serait possible d’envisager rendant en effet possible l’édition d’un livre complet pour ces espèces seules. [less ▲]

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See detailSignaux embryonnaires de la gestation
Melo de Sousa, Noelita ULg; El Amiri, B.; Remy, Benoit et al

in Journées Européennes de la Société Française de Buiatrie (2002, October 29)

Entre l’endomètre et le trophectoderme, les interactions complexes qui aboutissent à l’implantation et à la mise en place du placenta sont harmonisées par le conceptus qui envoie des signaux auxquels ... [more ▼]

Entre l’endomètre et le trophectoderme, les interactions complexes qui aboutissent à l’implantation et à la mise en place du placenta sont harmonisées par le conceptus qui envoie des signaux auxquels l’utérus répond localement ou qui contribuent à modifier l’endocrinologie maternelle (Thibault et al, 1998). Les principaux signaux embryonnaires associés à l’établissement de la gestation seront passés en revue sur base des connaissances actuelles disponibles dans la littérature scientifique. [less ▲]

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See detailHeat shock proteins. I : Classification and roles in pathological processes
Wirth, Delphine; Gustin, Pascal ULg; Drion, Pierre ULg et al

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2002), 146(4), 201-216

All living systems have evolved mechanisms to maintain homeostasis in the face of rapid environmental changes. When exposed to elevated temperatures, most of the cells activate the synthesis of a specific ... [more ▼]

All living systems have evolved mechanisms to maintain homeostasis in the face of rapid environmental changes. When exposed to elevated temperatures, most of the cells activate the synthesis of a specific group of proteins called Heat Shock Proteins (Hsps). This heat shock response, under control of specific transcription factors, the Heat Shock factors (HSF), is an evolutionarily conserved mechanism, from bacteria to humans. Heat Shock Proteins are classified into families according to their molecular weight (Hsp 25, 40, 70, 90, 105). They play the role of molecular chaperones by binding and protecting other molecules (proteins, RNAs). The function of Hsp is to prevent accumulation of non-native proteins either by assisting proper folding of polypeptides or by driving them to proteosome pathway for degradation. Hsps are involved in various pathological processes that are accompanied by protein alterations such as chronic or degenerative diseases. This review describes structural and functional characteristics of the six main Hsps classes. It also focuses on their respective role in highly studied pathologies. The diversity of Hsps implications in these diseases explains that they became recently a strategic target in development of new therapeutic strategies. [less ▲]

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See detailThe use of blood pepsinogen as a biomarker of the integrity of the porcine gastric mucosa : A review. Part 1: History, physiopathology of gastric mucosa and different forms of pepsinogens
Banga-Mboko, Henri; Godeau, Jean-Marie ULg; Drion, Pierre ULg et al

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2002), 146(6), 339-346

Because the history is defined as the account of the passed events, this manuscript is an Update research on swine pepsinogens since their discovery by Theodor Schwann. Progress was particularly made in ... [more ▼]

Because the history is defined as the account of the passed events, this manuscript is an Update research on swine pepsinogens since their discovery by Theodor Schwann. Progress was particularly made in the localization within the gastric mucosa membrane of the specialized cells involved in the secretion of pepsinogens. These progresses also included identification, isolation purification and the classification of the zymogens. [less ▲]

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See detailAspartic proteinase members secreted by the ruminant placenta: Specificity of three radioimmunoassay systems for the measurement of pregnancy-associated glycoproteins
Perenyi, Z. S.; Szenci, O.; Drion, Pierre ULg et al

in Reproduction in Domestic Animals (2002), 37(6), 324-329

Pregnancy-associated glycoproteins (PAGs) isolated from the placenta of various ruminant species are enzymatically inactive members of the aspartic proteinase family. The measurement of these proteins in ... [more ▼]

Pregnancy-associated glycoproteins (PAGs) isolated from the placenta of various ruminant species are enzymatically inactive members of the aspartic proteinase family. The measurement of these proteins in the maternal blood can be a good indicator of the presence of a live embryo. As certain aspartic proteinases are present in biological fluids in physiological and pathological conditions at various concentrations, it was necessary to determine the specificity of three radioimmunoassay (RIA) systems currently used for the detection of PAG molecules. Commercially available members of the aspartic proteinase family like pepsinogen, pepsin, chymosin, rennet, cathepsin D and renin were tested in a wide concentration range (10 ng/ml - 1 mg/ml). Pepsinogen cross-reacted in RIA 1, RIA 2 and RIA 3 over 1 mg/ml, 50 microg/ml and 500 microg/ml concentrations, respectively. In the presence of pepsin, cross-reaction was observed in RIA 1, RIA 2 and RIA 3 over 1 mg/ml, 500 microg/ml and 1 mg/ml concentrations, respectively. Chymosin and rennet could cross-react in RIA 2 and RIA 3, while renin and cathepsin D did not decrease the binding of the tracer to antisera more, than that of the minimal detection limit. As the plasma/serum concentrations of the examined aspartic proteinases reported in the literature were outside the concentration range where cross-reaction was observed, it can be concluded that these RIA systems were specific for the detection of PAGs in biological fluids. [less ▲]

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See detailComparison of the ability of three radioimmunoassay to detect pregnancy-associated glycoproteins in bovine plasma
Perenyi, Z. S.; Szenci, Otto; Sulon, Joseph ULg et al

in Reproduction in Domestic Animals (2002), 37(2), 100-104

Pregnancy-associated glycoproteins (PAGs) constitute a large family of glycoproteins that are synthesized in the superficial layer of the ruminant placenta according to a spatial and temporal expression ... [more ▼]

Pregnancy-associated glycoproteins (PAGs) constitute a large family of glycoproteins that are synthesized in the superficial layer of the ruminant placenta according to a spatial and temporal expression pattern. When PAGs are released in the maternal blood they can be used for pregnancy diagnosis, pregnancy follow-up and for the monitoring of the trophoblastic function. Three different radioimmunoassay systems (RIA 1, RIA 2 and RIA 3) using antisera produced against PAG I67 (RIA 1), PAG55+62 (RIA 2) and PAG55+59 (RIA 3) were used in this investigation in order to measure the PAG concentration in plasma samples withdrawn from pregnant cows and heifers during different periods following artificial insemination (AI). These systems were able to detect PAG molecules in the maternal blood as early as 21 days after AI in different concentrations (RIA 1: 0.43 +/- 0.24 ng/ml, mean +/- SD; RIA 2: 0.48 +/- 0.24 ng/ml; RIA 3: 0.64 +/- 0.37 ng/ml). On days 32 and 42 RIA 2 (4.30 +/- 1.32 ng/ml and 5.56 +/- 1.95 ng/ml) and RIA 3 (4.17 +/- 1.15 ng/ml and 5.60 +/- 1.89 ng/ml) presented significantly (p < 0.0001) higher PAG concentrations than those of RIA 1 (2.43 +/- 0.81 ng/ml and 4.01 +/- 1.48 ng/ml), respectively. After day 21, significant correlations (p < 0.0001; r >/= 0.929) were determined between the three systems. Additionally the three individual PAG profiles presented in this study showed that PAG molecules secreted in the maternal blood between 21 and 50 days after AI were better recognized by the RIA 2 and RIA 3 systems. This study clearly indicated that the ability of a RIA test to recognize PAG molecules in the maternal blood can be improved by carefully selecting the antiserum. [less ▲]

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