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See detailLanduse change and future flood risk: the influence of micro-scale spatial patterns (FloodLand) - 5th progress report
Dewals, Benjamin ULg; Bruwier, Martin ULg; El Saeid Mustafa, Ahmed Mohamed ULg et al

Report (2017)

The goal of the project FloodLand is to investigate the complex interactions between landuse change and future flood risk. Landuse change is assumed to be mainly driven by population growth and socio ... [more ▼]

The goal of the project FloodLand is to investigate the complex interactions between landuse change and future flood risk. Landuse change is assumed to be mainly driven by population growth and socio-economic factors. It affects future flood risk by altering catchment hydrology as well as vulnerability in the floodplains; but the feedback effect of (the perception of) changes in flood hazard on landuse evolution is also considered. The research is based on a chain of modelling tools, which represent parts of the natural and human systems, including: landuse change modelling, transportation modelling as an onset for the estimation of indirect flood damage, continuous hydrological modelling (forced by precipitation and temperature data disturbed according to climate change scenarios), as well as efficient hydraulic modelling of inundation flow in the floodplains. Besides reproducing a broad spectrum of processes, the modelling approach spans over multiple scales, from the regional or catchment level down to the floodplain and building levels. This distinctive feature is reflected both within the individual models and through their combination involving fine-scale detailed analyses (or data) embedded within coarser models at a broader level. [less ▲]

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See detailComputing flooding of crossroads with obstacles using a 2D numerical model (Discussion)
Bruwier, Martin ULg; Erpicum, Sébastien ULg; Archambeau, Pierre ULg et al

in Journal of Hydraulic Research (2017), 55(5), 737-741

Based on an operational 2D shallow-water model, the Authors computed subcritical dividing flow at a three-branch crossroad, considering obstacles located at different positions. The numerical predictions ... [more ▼]

Based on an operational 2D shallow-water model, the Authors computed subcritical dividing flow at a three-branch crossroad, considering obstacles located at different positions. The numerical predictions were compared to observations from Mignot et al. (2013). Two issues are addressed here, related respectively to the efficiency and relevance of the turbulence model, and to the representation of the obstacles in operational flood models. [less ▲]

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See detailUnderground pumped hydroelectric energy storage in Wallonia (Belgium) using old mines - Hydraulic modelling of the reservoirs
Erpicum, Sébastien ULg; Archambeau, Pierre ULg; Dewals, Benjamin ULg et al

in Aminuddin, Ab. Ghani (Ed.) Proceedings of the 37th IAHR World Congress (2017)

Pumped Storage Hydroelectricity (PSH) is a well-known and efficient technology to store and release various amounts of electricity. To overcome the problem of available land surface to create new ... [more ▼]

Pumped Storage Hydroelectricity (PSH) is a well-known and efficient technology to store and release various amounts of electricity. To overcome the problem of available land surface to create new reservoirs, an alternative consists in using underground volumes to build so-called Underground Pumping Storage Hydroelectricity (UPSH) plants. A research project is currently investigating the feasibility of such UPSH plants in Wallonia (Belgium) using abandoned mines and underground quarries. The paper presents the main features of this multidisciplinary project and focuses on the numerical models developed specifically to consider the reservoirs’ hydraulics. Indeed, the detailed prediction of the water mass movements in the reservoirs is a key element of a feasibility analysis, as they may affect the turbomachines operation as well as the solicitations of the reservoirs limits. On the other hand, such prediction is challenging because of the complex geometry, the continuous discharge variations and the possible exchanges with the surrounding soil or the interaction with air in underground reservoirs. The application of the hydraulic model to an abandoned slate quarry highlights the usefulness of the approach and also its limitations. [less ▲]

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See detail15 years of composite modelling to enhance hydraulic structures studies
Erpicum, Sébastien ULg; Dewals, Benjamin ULg; Archambeau, Pierre ULg et al

in SimHydro 2017: choosing the right model in applied hydralilcs (2017)

Physical and numerical modelling may be combined within so-called composite or hybrid modelling. This enables to taking optimal benefit of the respective strengths of each modelling approach, while ... [more ▼]

Physical and numerical modelling may be combined within so-called composite or hybrid modelling. This enables to taking optimal benefit of the respective strengths of each modelling approach, while compensating for their specific drawbacks. Different types of composite modelling may be identified, such as embedding a detailed physical model within a broader scale numerical model, interconnecting different physical and numerical models focusing each on specific processes, or validating a numerical model from experimental data before exploiting the numerical model to generate more results than available from the experimental facility. Besides, specifically in more basic research, composite modelling may also be used to improve in-depth understanding of the relative importance of different processes which act simultaneously in the experimental test and may be artificially separated in numerical simulations. All these advantages of composite modelling are illustrated in this paper through the presentation of several application examples resulting from the experience of the Research Group HECE of the University of Liege. [less ▲]

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See detailHydraulics of Piano Key Weirs: A review
Erpicum, Sébastien ULg; Archambeau, Pierre ULg; Dewals, Benjamin ULg et al

in Erpicum, Sébastien; Laugier, Frédéric; Ho Ta Khanh, Michel (Eds.) et al Labyrinth and Piano Key Weirs III - PKW 2017 (2017)

The Piano Key Weir (PKW) is a rectangular-labyrinth-type weir that utilizes cantilevered apexes in order to maximize the allowable weir length that can fit in a given spillway channel width, while ... [more ▼]

The Piano Key Weir (PKW) is a rectangular-labyrinth-type weir that utilizes cantilevered apexes in order to maximize the allowable weir length that can fit in a given spillway channel width, while reducing the required structural footprint. These features make it an interesting and viable solution for increasing discharge capacity at existing dams as well as new projects. Since the early works at the University of Biskra in 2000, numerous re-search and development works have been carried out in several laboratories to understand the PKW hydraulic behavior, optimize its design and prove its advantages and drawbacks. Beside, more than 25 PKWs are now in operation or under construction all over the world. This paper aims at summarizing the information available to date about PKW hydraulics in order to provide a synthetic overview and a reference list to students, researchers and practitioners and thus help them to understand how such a complex structure operates and what could be the possible further steps in research and development. [less ▲]

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See detailA Piano Key Weir to improve the discharge capacity of the Oule Dam spillway (France)
Erpicum, Sébastien ULg; Archambeau, Pierre ULg; Dewals, Benjamin ULg et al

in Erpicum, Sébastien; Laugier, Frédéric; Ho Ta Khanh, Michel (Eds.) et al Labyrinth and Piano key weirs III - PKW 2017 (2017)

The Oule dam spillway (France) is made of a lateral weir on the right bank of the reservoir, a collecting channel, a macro-steps channel and a downstream lateral weir for water release in the natural ... [more ▼]

The Oule dam spillway (France) is made of a lateral weir on the right bank of the reservoir, a collecting channel, a macro-steps channel and a downstream lateral weir for water release in the natural river bed. This spillway presents a deficit in discharge capacity. In order to solve this problem, several rehabilitation solutions have been analyzed. From this process, a piano key weir solution to improve the discharge capacity of the lateral upstream weir has been selected. This piano key weir will replace the existing ogee crest while keeping weir level and thus normal reservoir elevation constant. The piano key weir, 1 m high, has been designed with steel and is made of 22.5 units for a total width of 33 m. Its main advantage is to drastically increase the discharge capacity at low heads, enabling the release of the design flood peak discharge just below the reservoir maximum elevation by optimizing the reservoir temporary storage. [less ▲]

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See detailLooking beyond general metrics for model comparison – lessons from an international model intercomparison study
de Boer-Euser, Tanja; Bouaziz, Laurène; De Niel, Jan et al

in Hydrology and Earth System Sciences (2017), 21

International collaboration between research institutes and universities is a promising way to reach consensus on hydrological model development. Although comparative studies are very valuable for ... [more ▼]

International collaboration between research institutes and universities is a promising way to reach consensus on hydrological model development. Although comparative studies are very valuable for international cooperation, they do often not lead to very clear new insights regarding the relevance of the modelled processes. We hypothesise that this is partly caused by model complexity and the comparison methods used, which focus too much on a good overall performance instead of focusing on specific events. In this study, we use an approach that focuses on the evaluation of specific events and characteristics. Eight international research groups calibrated their hourly model on the Ourthe catchment in Belgium and carried out a validation in time for the Ourthe catchment and a validation in space for nested and neighbouring catchments. The same protocol was followed for each model and an ensemble of best performing parameter sets was selected. Although the models showed similar performances based on general metrics (i.e. Nash–Sutcliffe Efficiency), clear differences could be observed for specific events. The results illustrate the relevance of including a very quick flow reservoir preceding the root zone storage to model peaks during low flows and including a slow reservoir in parallel with the fast reservoir to model the recession for the Ourthe catchment. This intercomparison enhanced the understanding of the hydrological functioning of the catchment and, above all, helped to evaluate each model against a set of alternative models. [less ▲]

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See detailCould Piano key weirs be subject to nappe oscillations?
Lodomez, Maurine ULg; Pirotton, Michel ULg; Dewals, Benjamin ULg et al

in 3rd International Workshop on Labyrinth and Piano Key Weirs - PKW 2017 (2017)

Nappe oscillation may affect a variety of free overflow hydraulic structures operating at low heads such as crest gates and various types of weirs. This phenomenon produces oscillations in the thin nappe ... [more ▼]

Nappe oscillation may affect a variety of free overflow hydraulic structures operating at low heads such as crest gates and various types of weirs. This phenomenon produces oscillations in the thin nappe cascading downstream of the control structure. These oscillations can result in a high noise levels that may affect people and structures located nearby. With long linear and thin overtopping walls, piano key weirs might be subject to strong nappe oscillation risks, as a few documented cases with labyrinth weirs. However, the specific geometric features of piano key weirs, such as the outlet ramps or the limited width of the inlet apex, could perhaps prevent the development of nappe oscillation. In this paper, a prototype-scale linear weir is operated to assess the risk of nappe oscillations on a piano key weir like configuration (sidewall). In particular, the effect of the weir width and inclined apron is analyzed. The experimental results show that nappe oscillation development should not occur on piano key weir, contrary to what might be observed on a labyrinth weir with the same crest. [less ▲]

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See detailLanduse change and future flood risk: the influence of micro-scale spatial patterns (FloodLand) - 4th progress report
Dewals, Benjamin ULg; Bruwier, Martin ULg; El Saeid Mustafa, Ahmed Mohamed ULg et al

Report (2016)

The goal of the project FloodLand is to investigate the complex interactions between landuse change and future flood risk. Landuse change is assumed to be mainly driven by population growth and socio ... [more ▼]

The goal of the project FloodLand is to investigate the complex interactions between landuse change and future flood risk. Landuse change is assumed to be mainly driven by population growth and socio-economic factors. It affects future flood risk by altering catchment hydrology as well as vulnerability in the floodplains; but the feedback effect of (the perception of) changes in flood hazard on landuse evolution is also considered. The research is based on a chain of modelling tools, which represent parts of the natural and human systems, including: landuse change modelling, transportation modelling as an onset for the estimation of indirect flood damage, continuous hydrological modelling (forced by precipitation and temperature data disturbed according to climate change scenarios), as well as efficient hydraulic modelling of inundation flow in the floodplains. Besides reproducing a broad spectrum of processes, the modelling approach spans over multiple scales, from the regional or catchment level down to the floodplain and building levels. This distinctive feature is reflected both within the individual models and through their combination involving fine-scale detailed analyses (or data) embedded within coarser models at a broader level. [less ▲]

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See detailEvaluation et gestion des scenarii de dysfonctionnement des barrages-réservoirs en Belgique
Liégeois, Benoît; Pirotton, Michel ULg; Dewals, Benjamin ULg et al

in Sûreté des barrages et enjeux (2016, November)

Belgium has fifteen structures included in the list of large dams of the International Committee on Large Dams. Six are managed by Engie Company, the other nine are owned by the Walloon regional public ... [more ▼]

Belgium has fifteen structures included in the list of large dams of the International Committee on Large Dams. Six are managed by Engie Company, the other nine are owned by the Walloon regional public authority. The Belgian legislator has never enacted specific rules for large dams. However, managers have always been concerned with this issue. They developed procedures and methods that were subject to exchanges of experience with their counterparts, in particular through the Belgian Committee on Large Dams. In this ongoing research of security, the impact of multiple failure scenarios (dam break, quick emptying …) on the people and the environment downstream of dams is a particular focal point. An impact study has been conducted for the main plants. This study is based on a deterministic numerical method. The methodology, the assumptions regarding the failure mode or emptying and the lessons learned from the analyses are presented. These results are an important step in the assessment and the management of risks. Indeed, regulations were recently enacted for the management and the coordination of any activity likely to seriously impact public safety during crisis periods. These rules apply therefore for large dams. In this context, managers have established an emergency plan for each structure. This paper provides a broad overview on the issues of the evaluation and the management of dysfunction risks of Belgian dams, as well as on approaches and collaborations initiated between the private managers and public authority. [less ▲]

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See detailA benchmark for urban flood modelling
Arrault, Anaïs; Finaud-Guyot, Pascal; Archambeau, Pierre ULg et al

Poster (2016, October 25)

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See detail1-D shallow water model for industrial practice: Application to the River Romanche
Goffin, Louis ULg; Dewals, Benjamin ULg; Erpicum, Sébastien ULg et al

Scientific conference (2016, October 25)

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See detailMonitoring topography of laboratory fluvial dike models subjected to breaching based on a laser profilometry technique
Rifai, Ismail ULg; Erpicum, Sébastien ULg; Archambeau, Pierre ULg et al

in International Symposium on River Sedimentation: Stuttgart 19th-22d september 2016 (2016, September)

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See detailPreface
Dewals, Benjamin ULg; Erpicum, Sébastien ULg

in Archambeau, Pierre; Pirotton, Michel; Erpicum, Sébastien (Eds.) et al Sustainable Hydraulics in the Era of Global Change (2016, July 07)

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See detailFailure of fluvial dikes: how does the flow in the main channel influence the breach development?
Rifai, Ismail ULg; Erpicum, Sébastien ULg; Archambeau, Pierre ULg et al

in Dewals, Benjamin; Archambeau, Pierre; Pirotton, Michel (Eds.) et al Sustainable Hydraulics in the Era of Global Change (2016, July)

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See detailInfluence of non-uniform flow conditions on riverbed stability: the case of smooth-to-rough transitions
Duma, Diana ULg; Erpicum, Sébastien ULg; Archambeau, Pierre ULg et al

in Dewals, Benjamin; Archambeau, Pierre; Pirotton, Michel (Eds.) et al Sustainable Hydraulics in the Era of Global Change (2016, July)

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