References of "Desmecht, Daniel"
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See detailInvestigations on Surra-induced lymphopoenia in a murine model
Antoine-Moussiaux, Nicolas ULg; Cornet, Anne ULg; Cornet, et al

Conference (2009, March)

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See detailLa mannheimiose : d’une liaison (moléculaire) fatale à une des principales maladies d’élevage des ruminants
Fett, Thomas ULg; Zecchinon, Laurent; Vanden Bergh, Philippe et al

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2009), 153(1), 31-53

Les pneumonies bactériennes constituent un problème majeur dans l'élevage et l'engraissement des bovins, avec des répercussions très élevées en termes de morbidité et de mortalité. Parmi les différentes ... [more ▼]

Les pneumonies bactériennes constituent un problème majeur dans l'élevage et l'engraissement des bovins, avec des répercussions très élevées en termes de morbidité et de mortalité. Parmi les différentes causes biologiques recensées, Mannheimia haemolytica tient le haut de l’affiche puisqu’elle est connue comme agent pathogène compliquant principal, voire systématique. Une de ses particularités est qu’elle ne déclenche de pneumonie broncho-alvéolaire fibrino-hémorragique que chez les ruminants. Les lésions observées résultent d’une nécrose en masse des neutrophiles et macrophages et du relarguage de leurs différents constituants. Au niveau moléculaire, cette spécificité trouve son origine dans l’intimité de la liaison entre la leucotoxine, le facteur de virulence majeur de la bactérie, et la sous-unité CD18 des récepteurs de surface leucocytaires bêta2-intégrines. La revue décrit cette liaison et ses conséquences aux niveaux macroscopique et microscopique, avant de faire le point sur les dernières avancées de la recherche et d’ébaucher quelques perspectives thérapeutiques. [less ▲]

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See detailA Critical Appraisal of Carbon Monoxide Uptake Measurements for the Follow-up of Experimental Respiratory Diseases in the Laboratory Mouse
Habyarimana, Jean Adélite; Flandre, Thierry; Faisca, Pedro et al

in Scandinavian Journal of Laboratory Animal Science (2009), 36(3), 229-240

Adaptation of double-chamber plethysmography to the laboratory mouse was recently proven to yield stable and reliable pulmonary function values. This approach to investigation of the respiratory function ... [more ▼]

Adaptation of double-chamber plethysmography to the laboratory mouse was recently proven to yield stable and reliable pulmonary function values. This approach to investigation of the respiratory function in mice owes its success to its decisive advantages in terms of non-invasiveness, practical implementation and generation of quantitative flow/volume measurements and nondisputed airway resistance calculation. When implemented to screen the resistance/susceptibility patterns to pathogens displayed by a panel of mouse inbred strains, the resistance value obtained was indeed able to detect tracheobronchic inflammation and to scale its severity. However, extension of the pathological process to most distal parts of the respiratory system did not translate in further alteration of resistance, suggesting that its value rather reflects constraints acting on airflow in the airways than pathologic processes located in the more distal parts of the lungs. In this context, we hypothesized that a more exhaustive functional picture could be obtained, still noninvasively, by combining double-chamber plethysmography with carbon monoxide (CO) uptake measurements. The feasibility of CO-uptake measurements in mice was demonstrated and the conditions under which reproducibility can be maximized were defined. Differences linked to strain, somatic growth, and sex were examined and discussed, and reference values in growing male and female conscious and healthy BALB/cBy, SJL/J, C57BL/6, C3H/HeN, DBA/2 and 129/Sv mice were given. Finally, double-chamber plethysmography and CO-uptake values were proven to be exquisitely complementary in assessing and dissecting the functional impact of Sendai virus pneumonia in the laboratory mouse. [less ▲]

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See detailModulating mouse innate immunity to RNA viruses by expressing the Bos taurus Mx system.
Garigliany, Mutien-Marie ULg; Cloquette, Karine ULg; Leroy, Michael et al

in Transgenic Research (2009), 18(5), 719-32

Mx proteins are interferon-induced members of the dynamin superfamily of large guanosine triphosphatases. These proteins have attracted much attention because some display antiviral activity against ... [more ▼]

Mx proteins are interferon-induced members of the dynamin superfamily of large guanosine triphosphatases. These proteins have attracted much attention because some display antiviral activity against pathogenic RNA viruses, such as members of the orthomyxoviridae, bunyaviridae, and rhabdoviridae families. Among the diverse mammalian Mx proteins examined so far, we have recently demonstrated in vitro that the Bos taurus isoform 1 (boMx1) is endowed with exceptional anti-rabies-virus activity. This finding has prompted us to seek an appropriate in vivo model for confirming and evaluating gene therapy strategies. Using a BAC transgene, we have generated transgenic mouse lines expressing the antiviral boMx1 protein and boMx2 proteins under the control of their natural promoter and short- and long-range regulatory elements. Expressed boMx1 and boMx2 are correctly assembled, as deduced from mRNA sequencing and western blotting. Poly-I/C-subordinated expression of boMx1 was detected in various organs by immunohistochemistry, and transgenic lines were readily classified as high- or low-expression lines on the basis of tissue boMx1 concentrations measured by ELISA. Poly-I/C-induced Madin-Darby bovine kidney cells, bovine turbinate cells, and cultured cells from high-expression line of transgenic mice were found to contain about the same concentration of boMx1, suggesting that this protein is produced at near-physiological levels. Furthermore, insertion of the bovine Mx system rendered transgenic mice resistant to vesicular-stomatitis-virus-associated morbidity and mortality, and embryonic fibroblasts derived from high-expression transgenic mice were far less permissive to the virus. These results demonstrate that the Bos taurus Mx system is a powerful anti-VSV agent in vivo and suggest that the transgenic mouse lines generated here constitute a good model for studying in vivo the various antiviral functions-known and yet to be discovered-exerted by bovine Mx proteins, with priority emphasis on the antirabic function of boMx1. [less ▲]

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See detailContributions of experimental mouse models to the understanding of African trypanosomiasis.
Antoine-Moussiaux, Nicolas ULg; Magez, Stefan; Desmecht, Daniel ULg

in Trends in Parasitology (2008), 24(9), 411-8

African trypanosomiasis is the collective name for a wide variety of trypanosome infections that affect humans and livestock. In recent years, experimental mice infection models have provided new insights ... [more ▼]

African trypanosomiasis is the collective name for a wide variety of trypanosome infections that affect humans and livestock. In recent years, experimental mice infection models have provided new insights into both human and animal trypanosomiasis. Mouse models seem to be a valuable and versatile tool in trypanosomiasis-associated pathology and immunology research and highlight the variety shown by African trypanosomiases. Indeed, inbred mouse strains have enabled the study of genetic determinants of susceptibility and of the roles of anti-parasite antibodies, inflammatory mediators and anti-inflammatory mediators for each trypanosome species. Remarkable advances relating to the encephalitic stage of sleeping sickness have also been achieved thanks to murine models. The different contributions of murine models to the African trypanosomiases knowledge are presented here. Future search directions are finally proposed, with respect to mouse model opportunities and limitations. [less ▲]

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See detailFlow cytometric enumeration of parasitaemia and haematologic changes in trypanosoma-infected mice.
Antoine-Moussiaux, Nicolas ULg; Saerens, Dirk; Desmecht, Daniel ULg

in Acta Tropica (2008), 107(2), 139-44

African trypanosomiasis is a severe parasitic disease affecting both man and livestock. It is crucial to expand our fundamental knowledge of the intimate interactions between trypanosomes and their ... [more ▼]

African trypanosomiasis is a severe parasitic disease affecting both man and livestock. It is crucial to expand our fundamental knowledge of the intimate interactions between trypanosomes and their vertebrate hosts in order to develop new and efficient control strategies. The mouse model of trypanosomiasis is the most popular for research purposes because of all the logistic advantages of using this species. Studies of any aspect of trypanosomiases in the mouse systematically require the quantification of some phenotypic traits which translate its degree of resistance/susceptibility to the disease, as blood cell counts. The present study presents a methodological approach combining everyday microsampling of tail blood and its analysis by flow cytometry. The technical options and conditions permitting a fast, reliable and reproducible daily quantification of erythrocyte, reticulocyte, leucocyte and trypanosome counts in the inoculated mouse were established. The protocol proposed allows the multiplication of blood samplings without being exposed to the time-consuming constraint of visual countings, without causing iatrogenic blood cell alterations in the mouse and without requiring specific anti-trypanosome antibodies. [less ▲]

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See detailPathologie de l'infection par Trypanosoma evansi
Antoine-Moussiaux, Nicolas ULg; Desmecht, Daniel ULg

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2008), 152(2), 94-102

Trypanosoma evansi is an extracellular parasite found in the blood and tissues of mammals, mainly causing anaemia, immune depression and central nervous system disorders. Contrary to other African ... [more ▼]

Trypanosoma evansi is an extracellular parasite found in the blood and tissues of mammals, mainly causing anaemia, immune depression and central nervous system disorders. Contrary to other African trypanosomes, T. evansi is mechanically transmitted and thus presents a worldwide distribution. This review aims at summarizing clinical and pathological data about T. evansi infections in its various hosts. It presents the actual knowledge on pathogenesis and the recent development of which open new ways for infection control. [less ▲]

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See detailEpidémiologie de l'infection par Trypanosoma evansi
Antoine-Moussiaux, Nicolas ULg; Desmecht, Daniel ULg

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2008), 152(3), 191-201

Trypanosoma evansi is an extracellular parasite, found in blood and tissues, mainly causing anaemia, immune depression and central nervous system disorders. Contrary to other African trypanosomes, T ... [more ▼]

Trypanosoma evansi is an extracellular parasite, found in blood and tissues, mainly causing anaemia, immune depression and central nervous system disorders. Contrary to other African trypanosomes, T. evansi is adapted to mechanical transmission and thus, presents a worldwide distribution. This review summarizes the epidemiological data about T. evansi from its origins to the latest developments, as its addition in 2008 to the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) listed diseases and other diseases of importance to International Trade. This article puts emphasis on the need for a coordinated epidemiological control strategy and research for improving diagnostic and control tools. [less ▲]

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See detailCavernous hemangiosarcoma in a free-living red deer (Cervus elaphus)
Grégoire, Fabien ULg; Mousset, Bénédicte ULg; Hanrez, David ULg et al

in Veterinary Record : Journal of the British Veterinary Association (2008), 162

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See detailLes facteurs de virulence d’Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, l’agent étiologique de la pleuropneumonuie porcine
Vanden Bergh, Philippe ULg; Fett, Thomas ULg; Zecchinon, Laurent ULg et al

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2008), 152(2), 74-96

Porcine pleuropneumonia caused by Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is a frequent and highly infectious disease generating significant economic losses related to deficiency in zootechnical profits and ... [more ▼]

Porcine pleuropneumonia caused by Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is a frequent and highly infectious disease generating significant economic losses related to deficiency in zootechnical profits and intensive use of antibiotics. This synthesis aims to review the bacterium elements necessary to pathogenesis development. At first time, we describe activation, secretion and cytotoxic action of Apx toxins, recognized as A. pleuropneumoniae major virulence factors. Then, we develop the other ones which are the lipopolysaccharides, the polysaccharidic capsule, the fimbriae, iron and other nutrients capture systems, various proteases, installation of certain metabolic ways, flagella and the biofilm. [less ▲]

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See detailHighly effective SNP-based association mapping and management of recessive defects in livestock.
Charlier, Carole ULg; Coppieters, Wouter ULg; Rollin, Frédéric ULg et al

in Nature Genetics (2008), 40(4), 449-54

The widespread use of elite sires by means of artificial insemination in livestock breeding leads to the frequent emergence of recessive genetic defects, which cause significant economic and animal ... [more ▼]

The widespread use of elite sires by means of artificial insemination in livestock breeding leads to the frequent emergence of recessive genetic defects, which cause significant economic and animal welfare concerns. Here we show that the availability of genome-wide, high-density SNP panels, combined with the typical structure of livestock populations, markedly accelerates the positional identification of genes and mutations that cause inherited defects. We report the fine-scale mapping of five recessive disorders in cattle and the molecular basis for three of these: congenital muscular dystony (CMD) types 1 and 2 in Belgian Blue cattle and ichthyosis fetalis in Italian Chianina cattle. Identification of these causative mutations has an immediate translation into breeding practice, allowing marker assisted selection against the defects through avoidance of at-risk matings. [less ▲]

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See detailProbing of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae ApxIIIA toxin-dependent cytotoxicity towards mammalian peripheral blood mononucleated cells
Vanden Bergh, Philippe ULg; Zecchinon, Laurent ULg; Fett, Thomas ULg et al

in BMC Research Notes (2008)

BACKGROUND: Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, the causative bacterial agent of porcine pleuropneumonia, produces Apx toxins which belong to RTX toxin family and are recognized as the major virulence ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, the causative bacterial agent of porcine pleuropneumonia, produces Apx toxins which belong to RTX toxin family and are recognized as the major virulence factors. So far, their target receptor(s) has not been identified and the disease cytopathogenesis remains poorly understood. Production of an active Apx toxin and characterization of its toxic activity constitute the premises necessary to the description of its interaction with a potential receptor. From this point of view, we produced an active recombinant ApxIIIA toxin in order to characterize its toxicity on peripheral blood mononucleated cells (PBMCs) isolated from several species. FINDINGS: Toxin preparation exercises a strong cytotoxic action on porcine PBMCs which is directly related to recombinant ApxIIIA since preincubation with polymyxin B does not modify the cytotoxicity rate while preincubation with a monospecific polyclonal antiserum directed against ApxIIIA does. The cell death process triggered by ApxIIIA is extremely fast, the maximum rate of toxicity being already reached after 20 minutes of incubation. Moreover, ApxIIIA cytotoxicity is species-specific because llama, human, dog, rat and mouse PBMCs are resistant. Interestingly, bovine and caprine PBMCs are slightly sensitive to ApxIIIA toxin too. Finally, ApxIIIA cytotoxicity is cell type-specific as porcine epithelial cells are resistant. CONCLUSION: We have produced an active recombinant ApxIIIA toxin and characterized its specific cytotoxicity on porcine PBMCs which will allow us to get new insights on porcine pleuropneumonia pathogenesis in the future. [less ▲]

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See detailEvidence for transplacental transmission of the current wild-type strain of bluetongue virus serotype-8 in cattle
Desmecht, Daniel ULg; Vanden Bergh, Raphaël ULg; Sartelet, Arnaud ULg et al

in Veterinary Record : Journal of the British Veterinary Association (2008), 163

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See detailMannheimia haemolytica leukotoxin-induced cytolysis of caprine (Capra hircus) leukocytes is mediated by the CD18 subunit of beta2-integrins
Fett, Thomas ULg; Zecchinon, Laurent ULg; Vanden Bergh, Philippe ULg et al

in Microbial Pathogenesis (2008), 45

Mannheimiosis is the major respiratory disease among some ruminants, whereas it is not pathogenic for other mammals, an observation that has been attributed to a specific interaction between Mannheimia ... [more ▼]

Mannheimiosis is the major respiratory disease among some ruminants, whereas it is not pathogenic for other mammals, an observation that has been attributed to a specific interaction between Mannheimia haemolytica leukotoxin (Lkt) and bovine or ovine CD18 subunit of lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1) and Mac-1. We therefore hypothesized that Lkt utilizes CD18 as its receptor on caprine leukocytes as well. We have transiently transfected the b2-integrins-deficient K-562 cell line with cDNAs encoding caprine CD11a and caprine CD18 to determine the susceptibility of the transfectants to Lktinduced cytolysis. Flow cytometric analysis of the transfectants revealed surface expression of caprine LFA-1 and lysis by Lkt in a concentration-dependent manner whereas the parent cells were not. Moreover, K562 cells expressing caprine CD18 and human or bovine CD11a were also sensitive to Lkt whereas K-562 cells expressing caprine CD11a and human CD18 were not. Taken together, these results indicate that CD18 on caprine leukocytes serves as a receptor for Lkt. [less ▲]

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See detailRevue morphopathologique des myopathies équines
Cassart, Dominique ULg; Desmecht, Daniel ULg; Coignoul, Freddy ULg

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2008), 152(1), 01-16

Dans cette revue morphopathologique des myopathies du cheval, plus particulièrement de celles qui atteignent la musculature striée squelettique, l’accent est mis délibérément sur le fil conducteur ... [more ▼]

Dans cette revue morphopathologique des myopathies du cheval, plus particulièrement de celles qui atteignent la musculature striée squelettique, l’accent est mis délibérément sur le fil conducteur histopathologique et, plus particulièrement, sur les éléments morphologiques qui permettent de classer les lésions observées dans un groupe d’entités connues. Le mot myopathie est, dans cet article, pris au sens le plus large, c’est-à-dire au sens étymologique du terme, signifiant toute affection du système musculaire. Sur base des lésions histologiques, on distingue quatre groupes d’affections musculaires ou myopathies : (i) celles qui se caractérisent par une modification de la taille des fibres musculaires, (ii) celles qui se caractérisent par une modification de l’aspect des fibres musculaires, (iii) celles qui se caractérisent par un infiltrat cellulaire de l’interstitium et (iv) celles sans expression morphologique typique avec soit absence de lésions, soit présence concomitante de plusieurs types de lésions sans qu’une lésion domine le tableau. Pour chaque entité décrite dans ces différentes classes, les conditions d’apparition, un tableau clinique succinct, le mécanisme et l’étiologie lorsqu’ils sont connus ainsi que les lésions macroscopiques sont également exposés. [less ▲]

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See detailDendritic cells genetically engineered to express IL-10 induce long-lasting antigen-specific tolerance in experimental asthma.
Henry, E.; Desmet, Christophe ULg; Garze, V. et al

in Journal of Immunology (2008), 181(10), 7230-7242

Dendritic cells (DCs) are professional APCs that have a unique capacity to initiate primary immune responses, including tolerogenic responses. We have genetically engineered bone marrow-derived DCs to ... [more ▼]

Dendritic cells (DCs) are professional APCs that have a unique capacity to initiate primary immune responses, including tolerogenic responses. We have genetically engineered bone marrow-derived DCs to express the immunosuppressive cytokine IL-10 and tested the ability of these cells to control experimental asthma. A single intratracheal injection of OVA-pulsed IL-10-transduced DCs (OVA-IL-10-DCs) to naive mice before OVA sensitization and challenge prevented all of the cardinal features of airway allergy, namely, eosinophilic airway inflammation, airway hyperreactivity, and production of mucus, Ag-specific Igs, and IL-4. OVA-IL-10-DCs also reversed established experimental asthma and had long-lasting and Ag-specific effects. We furthermore showed, by using IL-10-deficient mice, that host IL-10 is required for mediating the immunomodulatory effects of OVA-IL-10-DCs and demonstrated a significant increase in the percentage of OVA-specific CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+)IL-10(+) regulatory T cells in the mediastinal lymph nodes of OVA-IL-10-DC-injected mice. Finally, adoptive transfer of CD4(+) mediastinal lymph node T cells from mice injected with OVA-IL-10-DCs protected OVA-sensitized recipients from airway eosinophilia upon OVA provocation. Our study describes a promising strategy to induce long-lasting Ag-specific tolerance in airway allergy. [less ▲]

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See detailFlow Cytometric Probing of Mitochondrial Function in Equine Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells
Cassart, Dominique ULg; Fett, Thomas ULg; Sarlet, Michaël ULg et al

in BMC Veterinary Research (2007), 3

BACKGROUND: The morphopathological picture of a subset of equine myopathies is compatible with a primary mitochondrial disease, but functional confirmation in vivo is still pending. The cationic dye JC-1 ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: The morphopathological picture of a subset of equine myopathies is compatible with a primary mitochondrial disease, but functional confirmation in vivo is still pending. The cationic dye JC-1 exhibits potential-dependent accumulation in mitochondria that is detectable by a fluorescence shift from green to orange. As a consequence, mitochondrial membrane potential can be optically measured by the orange/green fluorescence intensity ratio. A flow cytometric standardized analytic procedure of the mitochondrial function of equine peripheral blood mononuclear cells is proposed along with a critical appraisal of the crucial questions of technical aspects, reproducibility, effect of time elapsed between blood sampling and laboratory processing and reference values. RESULTS: The JC-1-associated fluorescence orange and green values and their ratio were proved to be stable over time, independent of age and sex and hypersensitive to intoxication with a mitochondrial potential dissipator. Unless time elapsed between blood sampling and laboratory processing does not exceed 5 hours, the values retrieved remain stable. Reference values for clinically normal horses are given. CONCLUSION: Whenever a quantitative measurement of mitochondrial function in a horse is desired, blood samples should be taken in sodium citrate tubes and kept at room temperature for a maximum of 5 hours before the laboratory procedure detailed here is started. The hope is that this new test may help in confirming, studying and preventing equine myopathies that are currently imputed to mitochondrial dysfunction. [less ▲]

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