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See detailCharacterization of the resistance of SJL/J mice to pneumonia virus of mice, a model for infantile bronchiolitis due to a respiratory syncytial virus
Glineur, Stéphanie ULg; bui tran anh, dao; Sarlet, Michaël ULg et al

in PLoS ONE (2012), 7(10), 44581

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), a prominent cause of airway morbidity in children, maintains an excessive hospitalization rate despite decades of research. Host factors are assumed to influence the ... [more ▼]

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), a prominent cause of airway morbidity in children, maintains an excessive hospitalization rate despite decades of research. Host factors are assumed to influence the disease severity. As a first step toward identifying the underlying resistance mechanisms, we recently showed that inbred mouse strains differ dramatically as regards their susceptibility to pneumonia virus of mice (PVM), the murine counterpart of RSV. PVM infection in mice has been shown to faithfully mimic the severe RSV disease in human infants. This study aimed at dissecting the remarkable PVM-resistance shown by the SJL/J strain. To characterize its genetic component, we assessed clinical, physiopathological, and virological resistance/susceptibility traits in large first (F1) and second (F2) generations obtained by crossing the SJL/J (resistant) and 129/Sv (susceptible) strains. Then, to acquire conclusive in vivo evidence in support of the hypothesis that certain radiosensitive hematopoietic cells might play a significant role in PVM-resistance, we monitored the same resistance/susceptibility traits in mock- and γ-irradiated SJL/J mice. Segregation analysis showed that (i) PVM-resistance is polygenic, (ii) the resistance alleles are recessive, and (iii) all resistance-encoding alleles are concentrated in SJL/J. Furthermore, there was no alteration of SJL/J PVM resistance after immunosuppression by γ-irradiation, which suggests that adaptive immunity is not involved. We conclude that host resistance to pneumoviruses should be amenable to genetic dissection in this mouse model and that radioresistant lung epithelial cells and/or alveolar macrophages may control the clinical severity of pneumovirus-associated lung disease. [less ▲]

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See detailPreliminary results on in vitro murine norovirus susceptibility to Mx-mediated innate immunity
Mauroy, Axel ULg; Garigliany, Mutien-Marie ULg; Desmecht, Daniel ULg et al

Poster (2012, September)

Objectives Murine norovirus (MuNoV) belongs to the family Caliciviridae, genus Norovirus and is currently used as study model for human noroviruses, major aetiologic agents of gastroenteritis worldwide ... [more ▼]

Objectives Murine norovirus (MuNoV) belongs to the family Caliciviridae, genus Norovirus and is currently used as study model for human noroviruses, major aetiologic agents of gastroenteritis worldwide. Myxovirus (Mx) protein is an interferon-induced protein that host cell can oppose virus infection and was detected in several species including human being. In mice, two genes encoding Mx1 and 2 proteins are present but it was evidenced that these genes were inactivated by deletions in several laboratory mouse strains. Mx antiviral activity was detected on several negative stranded RNA viruses but information are still lacking for most of positive stranded RNA viruses. In this study, the susceptibility of the MuNoV to specific and interspecific Mx proteins was investigated. Methods RAW264.7 cells (murine macrophages) were first tested for constitutive expression of Mx1 proteins. Plasmids containing the murine Mx1, bovine Mx1 and human MxA genes under the CMV immediate early promotor were then used to transfect RAW264.7 cells for transient Mx expression. Negative control consisted in a plasmid expressing eGFP. Four hours after transfection, cells were infected at low MOI with the CW1 MuNoV strain. Cells and supernatants were harvested 24h post infection. RNA was extracted and viral genomic copies were measured by real time RT-PCR. Results An effect was confirmed on CW1 replication for both specific and interspecific Mx proteins. The highest effect was obtained with the bovine Mx1 protein. Conclusion In conclusion, we showed in these preliminary in vitro studies the MuNoV susceptibility to specific and interspecific Mx proteins. Bovine Mx1 protein was already demonstrated to have important antiviral activity on negative stranded RNA viruses (influenza- and paramyxoviruses) and co-evolution with the host could explain a higher susceptibility to interspecific Mx proteins. Important implications of this adaptation could be expected on zoonotic concerns associated to NoV. Moreover, even if several control studies are still be conducted to validate these preliminary results, they could drive several pertaining questions on the MuNoV model used with laboratory mice. Perspectives of this work consist to validate the susceptibility in vivo and also to test the murine Mx2 antiviral activity on MuNoV. [less ▲]

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See detailSchmallenberg virus in domestic cattle, Belgium, 2012
Garigliany, Mutien-Marie ULg; Bayrou, Calixte ULg; Kleijnen, Déborah ULg et al

in Emerging Infectious Diseases (2012), 18(9), 1512-1514

The Schmallenberg virus emerged in summer-fall 2011 in North-West Europe. Nine months later, 91% of adult cattle living about 250 km from the emergence location tested positive for IgGs targeting the new ... [more ▼]

The Schmallenberg virus emerged in summer-fall 2011 in North-West Europe. Nine months later, 91% of adult cattle living about 250 km from the emergence location tested positive for IgGs targeting the new virus nucleoprotein. Further, the risk of infection of the fetus in an immunologically naive herd is 28%. [less ▲]

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See detailDetection of new biallelic polymorphisms in the human MxA gene
Tran Thi Duc, Tam; Farnir, Frédéric ULg; Michaux, Charles ULg et al

in Molecular Biology Reports (2012), 39(8), 8533-8538

The interferon-inducible human MxA protein plays an important role in innate defense against an array of viruses. One might expect allelic diversity at the MxA locus to influence the timing and magnitude ... [more ▼]

The interferon-inducible human MxA protein plays an important role in innate defense against an array of viruses. One might expect allelic diversity at the MxA locus to influence the timing and magnitude of its expression or even the range of viruses whose biological cycle is inhibited by the encoded product. Here we have collected 267 samples of genomic DNA from three distinct populations (European, Asian, and African) and have systematically sequenced the promoter of the MxA gene and its 17 exons in order to inventory its allelic variants. Fifteen single-nucleotide polymorphisms were detected, four of which had never been identified before. Two of these, located in the promoter (at positions -309 and -101 respectively), might affect the MxA expression pattern. The other two result in substitutions (Gly255Glu and Val268Met) in the protein’s N-terminal region that might directly affect its antiviral function. [less ▲]

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See detailIn vivo modulation of the innate response to pneumovirus by type-I and -III interferon-induced Bos taurus Mx1
Dermine, Martin ULg; Desmecht, Daniel ULg

in Journal of Interferon & Cytokine Research (2012), 32(7), 332-337

The respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a major pathogen of the human species. This pneumovirus is a prominent cause of airway morbidity in children and maintains an excessive hospitalization rate ... [more ▼]

The respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a major pathogen of the human species. This pneumovirus is a prominent cause of airway morbidity in children and maintains an excessive hospitalization rate despite decades of research. As involvement of a genetic vulnerability is a possibility supported by recent data, we addressed the question of whether the Mx gene products, the typical target of which consists in single-stranded negative-polarity RNA viruses, could alter the course of pneumovirus-associated disease in vivo. Wild-type and Bos taurus Mx1-expressing transgenic FVB/J mice were inoculated with the mouse counterpart and closest phylogenetic relative of RSV, pneumonia virus of mice. Survival data and follow-up of body weight, histological scores, lung virus spread and lung viral load unequivocally showed that the viral infection was severely repressed in Mx-transgenic mice, thus suggesting that pneumoviruses belong to the antiviral spectrum of mammalian Mx GTPases. Elucidating the underlying mechanisms at the molecular level could reveal critical information for the development of new anti-RSV molecules. [less ▲]

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See detailHuman/bovine chimeric MxA-like GTPases reveal a contribution of N-terminal domains to the magnitude of anti-influenza A activity
Garigliany, Mutien-Marie ULg; Cornet, Anne ULg; Desmecht, Daniel ULg

in Journal of Interferon & Cytokine Research (2012), 32(7), 326-331

Type I interferons (IFN-) provide powerful and universal innate intracellular defence mechanisms against viruses. Among the antiviral effectors induced by IFN-, Mx proteins of some species appear as ... [more ▼]

Type I interferons (IFN-) provide powerful and universal innate intracellular defence mechanisms against viruses. Among the antiviral effectors induced by IFN-, Mx proteins of some species appear as key components of defence against influenza A viruses. The body of work published to date suggests that to exert anti-influenza activity, an Mx protein must possess a GTP-binding site, structural bases allowing multimerisation, and a specific C-terminal GTPase effector domain (GED). The human MxA and bovine Mx1 proteins both meet these minimal requirements, but the bovine protein is more active against influenza viruses. Here we measured the anti-influenza activity exerted by two human/bovine chimeric Mx proteins. We show that substituting the bovine GED for the human one in human MxA does not affect the magnitude of anti-influenza activity. Strikingly, however, substituting the human GED for the bovine one in bovine Mx1 yields a chimeric protein with much higher anti-influenza activity than the human protein. We conclude, in contradiction to the hypothesis currently in vogue in the literature, that the GED is not the sole determinant controlling the magnitude of the anti-influenza activity exercised by an Mx protein that can bind GTP and multimerise. Our results suggest that one or several motifs that remain to be discovered, located N-terminally with respect to the GED, may interact with a viral component or a cellular factor so as to alter the viral cycle. Identifying, in the N-terminal portion of bovine Mx1, the motif(s) responsible for its higher anti-influenza activity could contribute to the development of new anti-influenza molecules. [less ▲]

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See detailSchmallenberg virus: a new Shamonda/Sathuperi-like virus on the rise in Europe
Garigliany, Mutien-Marie ULg; Bayrou, Calixte ULg; Kleijnen, Déborah ULg et al

in Antiviral Research (2012), 95

In the summer-fall of 2011, a nonspecific febrile syndrome characterized by hyperthermia, drop in milk production and watery diarrhea was reported in adult dairy cows from a series of farms located in ... [more ▼]

In the summer-fall of 2011, a nonspecific febrile syndrome characterized by hyperthermia, drop in milk production and watery diarrhea was reported in adult dairy cows from a series of farms located in North-West Europe. Further, in November 2011, an enzootic outbreak of abortion, stillbirth and birth at term of lambs, kids and calves with neurologic signs and/or head, spine or limb malformations emerged throughout several European countries. Both syndromes were associated with the presence in the blood (adults) or in the central nervous system (newborns) of the genome of a new Shamonda-like orthobunyavirus provisionally named Schmallenberg virus after the place where the first positive samples were collected. The clinical, pathological, virological and epidemiological facts that were made publicly available during the first 6 months after the emergence are presented here. Current knowledge of the epidemiology of the phylogenetically closest relatives of the newcomer (Shamonda, Aino and Akabane viruses) is not exhaustive enough to predict whether the current outbreak of Schmallenberg virus is the prelude to endemicity or to a 2 years long outbreak before the infection burns out when serologically naïve animals are no longer available. In the future, cyclic epizootic reemergences are a possibility too, either synchronized with a global decrease of herd immunity or due to antigenic variants escaping the immunity acquired against their predecessors. The latter hypothesis seems unlikely because of the wide array of biologic constraints acting on the genome of viruses whose life cycle requires transmission by a vector, which represses genetic drift. The remarkable stability of the Shamonda virus genome over the last forty years is reassuring in this regard. [less ▲]

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See detailGranulomatous meningo-encephalitis caused by Toxoplasma gondii in three bulls, a possible explanation for unexplained sporadic bovine meningo-encephalitis
Theron, Léonard ULg; Tabaran, F; Cassart, Dominique ULg et al

in Revista Portuguesa de Buiatria (2012, June), (Special Edition),

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See detailDetection of disease resistance and susceptibility alleles in pigs using oligonucleotide microarray hybridization
Pastoret, Soumya; Ameels, Hélène; Bossiroy, Frédérique et al

in Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation (2012), 24(3), 479-488

A multiplex DNA microarray chip aimed at the identification of allelic polymorphisms was developed for simultaneous detection of swine disease resistance genes underlying malignant hyperthermia (RYR ... [more ▼]

A multiplex DNA microarray chip aimed at the identification of allelic polymorphisms was developed for simultaneous detection of swine disease resistance genes underlying malignant hyperthermia (RYR ), postweaning diarrhea, edema disease (FUT1), neonatal diarrhea (MUC4), and influenza (MX1). The on-chip detection was performed with fragmented polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-amplified products. Particular emphasis was placed on the reduction of the number of PCR reactions required. The targets were biotin labeled during the PCR reaction, and the arrays were detected using a colorimetric methodology. Target recognition was provided by specific capture probes designed for each susceptible or resistant allelic variant. Sequencing was chosen as the golden standard to assess chip’s accuracy. All genotypes retrieved from the microarray (476) fitted with sequencing data in spite of the fact that each pig was heterozygote for at least 1 target gene. [less ▲]

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See detailSchmallenberg virus in calf born at term with porencephaly, Belgium
Garigliany, Mutien-Marie ULg; Hoffmann, Bernd; Dive, Marc et al

in Emerging Infectious Diseases (2012), 18(6), 1005-1006

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See detailGenital re-excretion of Murid gammaherpesvirus 4 following intranasal infection
François, Sylvie ULg; Vidick, Sarah ULg; Sarlet, Michaël ULg et al

in Proceedings of the 1st Scientific Meeting of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine (2011, December 09)

Gammaherpesviruses are the archetypes of persistent viruses that have been identified in a range of animals from mice to man. As the human gammaviruses have no well-established in vivo infection model ... [more ▼]

Gammaherpesviruses are the archetypes of persistent viruses that have been identified in a range of animals from mice to man. As the human gammaviruses have no well-established in vivo infection model, related animal gammaherpesviruses are an important source of information. We are studying Murid herpesvirus 4 (MuHV-4) in inbred laboratory mouse strains which are commonly accepted as a good model for studying gammaherpesviruses in vivo. To date, it has however never been possible to monitor viral reexcretion and virus transmission in this species. In order to identify potential re-excretion sites, intranasally infected mice were followed through global luciferase imaging for up to six months after infection. Surprisingly, we detected transient viral replication in mice genital tract at various times after latency establishment. Ex vivo imaging, quantitative PCR and immunohistochemistry revealed that virus genomes were present in high quantity in the vaginal tissue and that viral replication occurred mainly at the vaginal external border. Moreover, we highlighted the presence of free infectious viruses in the vaginal cavity at the moment of the observation of viral replication. As this ephemeral viral reexcretion could reveal a link with reproductive cycle, we compared reexcretion in normal and ovariectomized mice. Interestingly, no viral reactivation was observed in absence of hormonal cycle. In conclusion, we experimentally indentified for the first time a reexcretion site for MuHV-4 in mice that had been intranasaly infected. In the future, these results could help us to better understand the biology of gammaherpesviruses but should also allow us to develop strategies that could prevent the spread of these viruses in natural populations. [less ▲]

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See detailContribution à l’identification des domaines impliqués dans l’activité anti- influenza des protéines « Mx »
Heinen, Marie-Pierre ULg; Cornet, Anne; Willems, Jérôme ULg et al

Poster (2011, December)

Les protéines Mx sont des GTPases formant une classe distincte dans la superfamille des dynamines. Elles sont induites par des interférons et sont le résultat du produit de deux à trois gènes distincts ... [more ▼]

Les protéines Mx sont des GTPases formant une classe distincte dans la superfamille des dynamines. Elles sont induites par des interférons et sont le résultat du produit de deux à trois gènes distincts selon l’espèce. Structurellement, on peut les subdiviser en trois domaines majeurs, le domaine GTPase N-terminal (G domain), un domaine intermédiaire (MD) et le domaine effecteur GTPase C-terminal (GED). Face à l’influenza, certaines isoformes (Homo sapiens, Mus musculus, Rattus norvegicus, Sus scrofa et Bos taurus) exercent une activité anti-virale significative alors que, malgré une identité de séquence, d’autres isoformes (Gallus gallus, Anas platyrhynchos) n’ont pas d’activité anti-virale reconnue à ce jour. Bien que la connaissance des mécanismes impliqués dans leurs effets anti-viraux reste très limitée, nous savons que la liaison au GTP est indispensable (G Domain) et qu’une partie du potentiel antiviral résulte de leur capacité à se lier avec des protéines virales ou cellulaires entraînant l’inhibition du cycle viral (MD et GED). D’ailleurs, des mutations ponctuelles et des délétions dans ces derniers domaines sont connues pour abolir l’activité antivirale de la protéine. Le projet de recherche entamé ici consiste à produire un jeu de chimères entre une protéine Mx dépourvue d’activité anti-influenza (la protéine aviaire) et une protéine Mx très active contre les virus influenza (la protéine bovine) dans le but d’identifier le support structural minimum sous-jacent à l’activité anti-influenza des protéines Mx en général. Le projet en cours consiste à produire un jeu de cellules véro inductible capable de produire conditionnellement, les chimères précitées. [less ▲]

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See detailThe presence of bluetongue virus serotype 8 RNA in Belgian cattle since 2008.
Garigliany, Mutien-Marie ULg; Desmecht, Daniel ULg; De Clercq, Kris

in Transboundary and Emerging Diseases (2011), 58(6), 503-509

After a short winter break, bluetongue virus serotype 8 was responsible in 2007 for a large-scale epidemic among ruminant populations in Western Europe. Little is known about the mechanisms allowing the ... [more ▼]

After a short winter break, bluetongue virus serotype 8 was responsible in 2007 for a large-scale epidemic among ruminant populations in Western Europe. Little is known about the mechanisms allowing the virus to survive winter conditions. A yearly mass vaccination of cattle and sheep started in spring 2008, which was recognized as successful in terms of clinical protection, but occult circulation of the bluetongue virus has not been adequately addressed. We studied the carriage of bluetongue RNA in the spleen of cattle in the vector-free period and the circulation of bluetongue virus in cattle populations in Belgium since the introduction of vaccination programmes. Overall, the results presented here show evidence for the long-term carriage of bluetongue virus RNA in the spleen of cattle and demonstrated a low but significant circulation and transplacental transmission of bluetongue virus in Belgian cattle in 2009, with apparent disappearance in 2010. [less ▲]

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See detailGenital re-excretion of Murid gammaherpesvirus 4 following intranasal infection
François, Sylvie ULg; Vidick, Sarah ULg; Sarlet, Michaël ULg et al

Poster (2011, November 16)

Gammaherpesviruses are the archetypes of persistent viruses that have been identified in a range of animals from mice to man. As the human gammaviruses have no well-established in vivo infection model ... [more ▼]

Gammaherpesviruses are the archetypes of persistent viruses that have been identified in a range of animals from mice to man. As the human gammaviruses have no well-established in vivo infection model, related animal gammaherpesviruses are an important source of information. We are studying Murid herpesvirus 4 (MuHV-4) in inbred laboratory mouse strains which are commonly accepted as a good model for studying gammaherpesviruses in vivo. To date, it has however never been possible to monitor viral reexcretion and virus transmission in this species. In order to identify potential re-excretion sites, intranasally infected mice were followed through global luciferase imaging for up to six months after infection. Surprisingly, we detected transient viral replication in mice genital tract at various times after latency establishment. Ex vivo imaging, quantitative PCR and immunohistochemistry revealed that virus genomes were present in high quantity in the vaginal tissue and that viral replication occurred mainly at the vaginal external border. Moreover, we highlighted the presence of free infectious viruses in the vaginal cavity at the moment of the observation of viral replication. As this ephemeral viral reexcretion could reveal a link with reproductive cycle, we compared reexcretion in normal and ovariectomized mice. Interestingly, no viral reactivation was observed in absence of hormonal cycle. In conclusion, we experimentally indentified for the first time a reexcretion site for MuHV-4 in mice that had been intranasaly infected. In the future, these results could help us to better understand the biology of gammaherpesviruses but should also allow us to develop strategies that could prevent the spread of these viruses in natural populations. [less ▲]

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See detailChemR23 dampens lung inflammation and enhances anti-viral immunity in a mouse model of acute viral pneumonia
Bondue, Benjamin; Vosters, Olivier; de Nadai, Patricia et al

in PLoS Pathogens (2011), 7(11), 1002358

Viral diseases of the respiratory tract, which include influenza pandemic, children acute bronchiolitis, and viral pneumonia of the elderly, represent major health problems. Plasmacytoid dendritic cells ... [more ▼]

Viral diseases of the respiratory tract, which include influenza pandemic, children acute bronchiolitis, and viral pneumonia of the elderly, represent major health problems. Plasmacytoid dendritic cells play an important role in anti-viral immunity, and these cells were recently shown to express ChemR23, the receptor for the chemoattractant protein chemerin, which is expressed by epithelial cells in the lung. Our aim was to determine the role played by the chemerin/ChemR23 system in the physiopathology of viral pneumonia, using the pneumonia virus of mice (PVM) as a model. Wild-type and ChemR23 knock-out mice were infected by PVM and followed for functional and inflammatory parameters. ChemR23(-/-) mice displayed higher mortality/morbidity, alteration of lung function, delayed viral clearance and increased neutrophilic infiltration. We demonstrated in these mice a lower recruitment of plasmacytoid dendritic cells and a reduction in type I interferon production. The role of plasmacytoid dendritic cells was further addressed by performing depletion and adoptive transfer experiments as well as by the generation of chimeric mice, demonstrating two opposite effects of the chemerin/ChemR23 system. First, the ChemR23-dependent recruitment of plasmacytoid dendritic cells contributes to adaptive immune responses and viral clearance, but also enhances the inflammatory response. Second, increased morbidity/mortality in ChemR23(-/-) mice is not due to defective plasmacytoid dendritic cells recruitment, but rather to the loss of an anti-inflammatory pathway involving ChemR23 expressed by non-leukocytic cells. The chemerin/ChemR23 system plays important roles in the physiopathology of viral pneumonia, and might therefore be considered as a therapeutic target for anti-viral and anti-inflammatory therapies. [less ▲]

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See detailGenetic and splice variations of Bos taurus CD46 shift cell permissivity to BVDV, the bovine pestivirus.
Zezafoun, Hussein ULg; Decreux, Annabelle; Desmecht, Daniel ULg

in Veterinary Microbiology (2011), 152(3-4), 315-27

The pestivirus bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is known to bind to the CD46 molecule, which subsequently promotes entry of the virus. Mapping of the BVD-virion-binding site has shown that two peptides ... [more ▼]

The pestivirus bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is known to bind to the CD46 molecule, which subsequently promotes entry of the virus. Mapping of the BVD-virion-binding site has shown that two peptides, 66EQIV69 and 82GQVLAL87, located on antiparallel beta sheets in the most distal complement control protein module (CCP1), provide the attachment platform. In the present study, we reveal the existence of ten distinct allelic versions of the CCP1 module, varying significantly in frequency among taurine and indicine races. A complex mRNA splicing pattern was also evidenced for bovine CD46, generating three different serine-threonine-proline segments and five different cytoplasmic domains. The four most frequent allelic variants and the six splice variants were then expressed in BVDV-nonpermissive porcine cells and the quantity of progeny virions generated by each cell preparation was measured 48 h post-infection. As expected, ectopic expression of the 10 bovine CD46 isoforms rendered the PK15 cells permissive to BVDV, as attested by the 100,000-fold greater recovery of virions from these cells than from non-transfected cells. This permissivity increase was significantly lower (-33%, P<0.001) when the canonical CCP1 was replaced with the variant most frequent in zebus, suggesting positive or negative selection of this allele in the latter and in the former, respectively. The predicted secondary structure of this variant suggests that the measured loss of function is due to the disappearance of one of the two beta sheets constituting the BVDV attachment platform. On the other hand we showed that for a given CCP1, the titer recovered at 48 hpi also depended on the nature of the CD46 cytoplasmic domain (P<0.001). This result implies that virus binding generates a cytoplasmic-tail-dependent outside-in signal that determines permissivity to BVDV. [less ▲]

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See detailUpdate on Bovine neonatal pancytopenia non Pregsure cases
Theron, Léonard ULg; Rollin, Frédéric ULg; Hanzen, Christian ULg et al

Conference (2011, September 07)

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See detailPost-mortem examination and laboratory-based analysis for the diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis among dairy cattle in Ecuador
Proano-Perez, F.; Benitez-Ortiz, Washington; Desmecht, Daniel ULg et al

in Preventive Veterinary Medicine (2011), 101(1-2), 65-72

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See detailClinical evaluation of cardiac effects of experimental doxycycline overdosing in healthy calves
Brihoum, Mounir ULg; Rollin, Frédéric ULg; Desmecht, Daniel ULg et al

in Biomedcentral Veterinary Research (2011), 7

Background Cardiac morphologic and functional changes consistent with cardiomyopathy have been reported in field cases of calves with accidental doxycycline overdosing. The purpose of this study was to ... [more ▼]

Background Cardiac morphologic and functional changes consistent with cardiomyopathy have been reported in field cases of calves with accidental doxycycline overdosing. The purpose of this study was to evaluate clinically the cardiac effects of an experimentally-induced doxycycline overdosing in healthy calves. Twelve 2 months-old healthy Belgian Blue calves were studied. Six of them (group 1) received the normal dose (5 mg/kg, BID) and the six others (group 2) received five times the normal dose (25 mg/kg, BID) of oral doxycycline for five consecutive days (D1 to D5). Each calf was clinically examined daily. Measurement of serum AST, CK, Iso-CKs and LDH activities and an echocardiographic examination were performed before (D0) and one day after (D6) the last doxycycline administration. An ECG tracing was recorded at D0, D4, and D6. Results In both groups, no clinical, blood, echocardiographic or electrocardiographic changes suggestive of a cardiomyopathy were observed. Only a decreased appetite was observed in the calves of the group 2 between D3 and D6. Conclusions This trial failed to reproduce cardiac changes reported in accidental doxycycline-poisoning in calves, suggesting that high doses of doxycycline may not be the only etiologic factor of the cardiomyopathy reported in the field cases. [less ▲]

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See detailDetection of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in Dermacentor reticulatus ticks
Wirtgen, Marc ULg; Nahayo, A.; Linden, Annick ULg et al

in Veterinary Record : Journal of the British Veterinary Association (2011), 168(9), 248

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