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See detailSendai virus-induced alterations in lung structure/function correlate with viral loads and reveal a wide resistance/susceptibility spectrum among mouse strains
Faisca, Pedro; Bui Tran Anh, Dao; Desmecht, Daniel ULg

in American Journal of Physiology - Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology (2005), 289

The Paramyxoviridae family includes some of the most important and ubiquitous disease-causing viruses of infants and children, most of which cause significant infections of the respiratory tract. Evidence ... [more ▼]

The Paramyxoviridae family includes some of the most important and ubiquitous disease-causing viruses of infants and children, most of which cause significant infections of the respiratory tract. Evidence is accumulating in humans that genetic factors are involved in the severity of clinical presentation. As a first step toward the identification of the genes involved, this study was undertaken to establish whether laboratory mouse strains differ in susceptibility to Sendai virus, the murine counterpart of human type-1 parainfluenza virus which, historically, has been used extensively in studies that have defined the basic biological properties of paramyxoviruses in general. With this purpose in mind, double-chamber plethysmography data were collected daily for 7 days after inoculation of Sendai virus in six inbred strains of mice. In parallel, histological examinations and lung viral titration were carried out from day 5 to day 7 after inoculation. Pulmonary structure/function values closely reflected the success of viral replication in the lungs and revealed a pattern of continuous variation with resistant, intermediate, and susceptible strains. The results unambiguously suggest that BALB/c (resistant) and 129Sv (susceptible) strains should be used in crossing experiments aimed at identifying the genes involved in resistance to Paramyxoviridae by the positional cloning approach. [less ▲]

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See detailMolecular characterization of the caprine (Capra hircus) lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 alpha subunit
Fett, Thomas ULg; Zecchinon, Laurent ULg; Baise, Etienne ULg et al

in BMC Veterinary Research (2005)

Background: Lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1, CD11a/CD18, alpha L beta 2) is required for many cellular adhesive interactions during the immune response. Results: The Capra hircus CD11a ... [more ▼]

Background: Lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1, CD11a/CD18, alpha L beta 2) is required for many cellular adhesive interactions during the immune response. Results: The Capra hircus CD11a-encoding cDNA was sequenced and compared with its human, murine, rat, bovine and ovine counterparts. Despite some focal differences, it shares all the main characteristics of its known mammalian homologues. Conclusion: Therefore, along with the caprine CD18-encoding cDNA, which has been available for a few months, the sequence data revealed here will allow the Capra hircus LFA-1 expression in vitro as a tool to explore the specificities of inflammation in the caprine species. [less ▲]

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See detailTreatment of experimental asthma by decoy-mediated local inhibition of activator protein-1
Desmet, Christophe ULg; Gosset, P.; Henry, E. et al

in American Journal of Respiratory & Critical Care Medicine (2005), 172(6), 671-678

Rationale: Asthma is associated with increased expression of a typical array of genes involved in immune and inflammatory responses, including those encoding the prototypic Th2 cytokines interleukin (IL ... [more ▼]

Rationale: Asthma is associated with increased expression of a typical array of genes involved in immune and inflammatory responses, including those encoding the prototypic Th2 cytokines interleukin (IL) 4, IL-5, and IL-13. Most of these genes contain binding sites for activator protein-1 (AP-1) within their promoter and are therefore believed to depend on AP-1 for their expression, suggesting that this transcription factor could be of particular importance in asthma pathophysiology. Objective: To clarify the role of AP-1 in the effector phase of pulmonary allergy. Methods: Ovalbumin (OVA)-sensitized mice were intratracheally given decoy oligodeoxyribonucleotides (ODNs) specifically directed to AP-1 or scrambled control ODNs before challenge with aerosolized OVA. Twenty-four hours after the last OVA challenge, airway hyperresponsiveness was measured and allergic airway inflammation was evaluated quantitatively. AP-1 decoys were localized using flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry. AP-1 activity in the lung was assessed using electrophoretic mobility shift assay. Measurements and Main Results: Intratracheally delivered AP-1 decoys efficiently targeted airway immune cells, thus precluding AP-1 activation on OVA challenge. Decoy-mediated local inhibition of AP-1 resulted in significant attenuation of all the pathophysiologic features of experimental asthma-namely, eosinophilic airway inflammation, airway hyperresponsiveness, mucous cell hyperplasia, production of allergen-specific immunoglobulins, and synthesis of IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13. Scrambled control ODNs had no detectable effects. Conclusions: Our results reveal a key role for AP-1 in the effector phase of pulmonary allergy and indicate that specific AP-1 inhibition in the airways may have therapeutic value in the control of established asthma. [less ▲]

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See detailClues for Differential Diagnosis of atypical myopathy
Votion, Dominique ULg; Amory, Hélène ULg; Sandersen, Charlotte ULg et al

in Proceeding of the Maastricht International Congress on Equine Medicine (MICEM) (2004, December)

Atypical myopathy (AM), also called “atypical myoglobinuria”, is a frequently and rapidly fatal myopathy of unknown origin occurring sporadically in grazing horses. As opposed to the exertional ... [more ▼]

Atypical myopathy (AM), also called “atypical myoglobinuria”, is a frequently and rapidly fatal myopathy of unknown origin occurring sporadically in grazing horses. As opposed to the exertional rhabdomyolysis syndrome (ERS), clinical signs of AM are not induced by exercise. The condition has been reported in several European countries including Belgium, France, Germany and Great Britain. Clinical signs of AM are characterised by muscular weakness, stiffness, recumbency, sweating and when urine is observed, myoglobinuria. These signs are characteristic but not pathognomonic of the disease; the differential diagnosis of sudden weakness, severe myopathy and/or unexpected death includes several neurogenic and myopathic disorders. The main pathologies that share clinical similarities with AM include the acute form of grass sickness (GS), acute piroplasmosis, botulism, ERS, the hyperkalemic periodic paresis (HPP), nutritional myopathy (NM; i.e. vitamin E and/or selenium deficiency), plants or drugs (i.e. ionophores intoxication) intoxication, tetanus and postanaesthesia myopathy. This report aims at reviewing key facts in history, clinical signs, clinical examination and laboratory findings that contribute towards the diagnosis of AM and/or invalidate the diagnosis of other pathologies. [less ▲]

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See detailErgot poisoning in cattle
Brihoum, M.; Desmecht, Daniel ULg; Bony, S. et al

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2004), 148(2), 97-101

In addition to the financial losses that ergot ( Claviceps purpurea) contamination causes in crops, the ingestion of ergot-contaminated food by cattle results in an intoxication that develops in several ... [more ▼]

In addition to the financial losses that ergot ( Claviceps purpurea) contamination causes in crops, the ingestion of ergot-contaminated food by cattle results in an intoxication that develops in several patterns. The observed clinical troubles may involve different systems. In this paper, we reviewed the clinical signs observed in ergot-poisoned cattle and some diagnostic and prevention aspects. [less ▲]

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See detailBiochemical findings associated with atypical myopathy in grazing horses
Votion, Dominique ULg; Delguste, Catherine ULg; Amory, Hélène ULg et al

in Pflügers Archiv : European Journal of Physiology (2004), 447

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See detailAtypical Myopathy (Atypical Myoglobinuria)
Votion, Dominique ULg; Amory, Hélène ULg; Demoulin, Vincent ULg et al

in IVIS Reviews in Veterinary Medicine (2004)

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See detailMolecular cloning and characterisation of the CD18 partner in ovine (Ovis aries) beta(2)-integrins
Zecchinon, Laurent ULg; Fett, Thomas ULg; Baise, Etienne ULg et al

in Gene (2004), 334

The leukocyte integrins play a critical role in a number of cellular adhesive interactions during the immune response. We describe here the isolation and characterization of the ovine beta(2) (CD18 ... [more ▼]

The leukocyte integrins play a critical role in a number of cellular adhesive interactions during the immune response. We describe here the isolation and characterization of the ovine beta(2) (CD18) subunit, common to the leukocyte beta(2)-integrin family. The deduced 770-amino-acid sequence reveals a transmembrane protein with 81%, 83% and 95% identity with its murine, human and bovine homologues, respectively. Comparisons of CD18 sequences emphasize the functional importance of the beta(2) subunit I-like domain and included metal ion-dependent adhesion site (MIDAS)-like motif and confirm that of the cytoplasmic tail. The data provided here will offer the possibility to explore new avenues in studies based on the ovine model. (C) 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailThe bovine (Bos taurus) CD11a-encoding cDNA: molecular cloning, characterisation and comparison with the human and murine glycoproteins
Fett, Thomas ULg; Zecchinon, Laurent ULg; Baise, Etienne ULg et al

in Gene (2004), 325

The bovine cDNA encoding CD11 a cell-surface glycoprotein involved in multiple leukocyte functions, was sequenced and compared with the human and murine sequences. Despite some focal differences, it ... [more ▼]

The bovine cDNA encoding CD11 a cell-surface glycoprotein involved in multiple leukocyte functions, was sequenced and compared with the human and murine sequences. Despite some focal differences, it shares all the main characteristics of its known mammalian homologs. Along with the bovine CD18-encoding cDNA, which is available for a long time, the sequence data provided here will allow the successful expression of bovine CD11a, thus giving the first opportunity to express the Bos taurus beta(2)-integrin CD11a/CD18 (LFA-1, alpha(L)beta(2)) in vitro as a tool to examine the specificities of inflammation in the bovine species. (C) 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailCharacterization of the caprine (Capra hircus) beta-2 integrin CD18-encoding cDNA and identification of mutations potentially responsible for the ruminant-specific virulence of Mannheimia haemolytica
Zecchinon, Laurent ULg; Fett, Thomas ULg; Baise, Etienne ULg et al

in Molecular Membrane Biology (2004), 21(5, Sep-Oct), 289-295

The leukocyte integrins play a critical role in a great number of cellular adhesive interactions during the immune response. We describe here the isolation and characterization of the caprine beta(2 ... [more ▼]

The leukocyte integrins play a critical role in a great number of cellular adhesive interactions during the immune response. We describe here the isolation and characterization of the caprine beta(2) (CD18) sub-unit, common to the leukocyte beta(2)-integrin family. The deduced 770-amino-acid sequence reveals a transmembrane protein with 80, 81, 83, 96 and 99% identity with its canine, murine, human, bovine and ovine homologues respectively. Analysis of CD18 sequences emphasizes the functional importance of the beta(2) sub-unit I-like domain, and included metal ion-dependent adhesion site-like motif and confirms that of the cytoplasmic tail. Moreover, comparisons of ruminant versus non-ruminant CD18 sequences allowed the identification of 16 potential mutation sites that could be held responsible for the unique virulence of Mannheimia haemolytica for ruminants. Mannheimiosis is known to be the major respiratory disease among ruminants, whereas it is not pathogenic for other mammals, an observation that has been attributed to a specific interaction between M. haemolytica leukotoxin and ruminants' CD18. Therefore, the data provided here offer the possibility to explore new avenues in studies based on the caprine model and provide key information for future studies aimed at elucidating the molecular mechanisms underlying the ruminant-specific virulence of M. haemolytica. [less ▲]

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See detailExtensive mast cell degranulation in bovine respiratory syncytial virus-associated paroxystic respiratory distress syndrome
Jolly, Sandra ULg; Detilleux, Johann ULg; Desmecht, Daniel ULg

in Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology (2004), 97(3-4), 125-136

Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) infection is an important cause of outbreaks of respiratory disease among calves. This virus commonly induces mild to severe respiratory signs but, in a ... [more ▼]

Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) infection is an important cause of outbreaks of respiratory disease among calves. This virus commonly induces mild to severe respiratory signs but, in a substantial proportion of cases, is also reported to be associated with paroxystic respiratory distress syndrome (PRDS). The pathogenesis of this 'malignant' clinical form has not been fully elucidated. The present study aimed at determining whether mast cell (MC) degranulation plays a role in the physiopathologic cascade leading to the PRDS. Paired serum samples were taken in herds during outbreaks of severe respiratory diseases (acute sera) and 3 weeks after (convalescent sera). Based on seroconversion to BRSV and clinical picture, 67 pairs of sera were selected from calves with a BRSV-associated PRDS for circulating MC tryptase determination. A MC metachromatic score was measured in post-mortem lungs from animals died from a BRSV-associated PRDS (principals) and compared with reference scores obtained from healthy lungs (controls). Levels of tryptase were significantly higher in acute sera (26.6+/-12.4 mug/l) compared to convalescent sera (8.4+/-7.8 mug/l; P < 0.001). Metachromatic scores yielded significantly different results between controls and principals (P < 0.01), demonstrating a significant disappearance of metachromatic granules from lung MCs in principals. Taken together, these data demonstrate the presence of an extensive MC degranulation in BRSV-associated PRDS. (C) 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailConditional expression of type I interferon-induced bovine Mx1 GTPase in a stable transgenic vero cell line interferes with replication of vesicular stomatitis virus
Baise, Etienne ULg; Pire, Grégory; Leroy, Michael et al

in Journal of Interferon & Cytokine Research (2004), 24(9), 513-521

In some vertebrate species, type I interferon(IFN)-induced Mx gene expression has been shown to confer resistance to some single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) viruses in vitro. Because the bovine species is ... [more ▼]

In some vertebrate species, type I interferon(IFN)-induced Mx gene expression has been shown to confer resistance to some single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) viruses in vitro. Because the bovine species is subject to an exceptionally wide array of infections caused by such viruses, it is anticipated that an antiviral allele should have been retained by evolution at the bovine Mx locus. The identification of such allele may help in evaluating the real significance of the Mx genotype for disease resistance in vivo, in deciphering host-virus molecular interactions involved, or in improving innate disease resistance of livestock through marker-assisted selection. We validated a double transgenic Vero cell clone in which the bovine Mx1 reference allele is placed under control of the human cytomegalovirus (CMV) enhancer-promoter sequence containing elements from the bacterial tetracycline resistance operon to regulate transcription. In the selected clone, transgene repression was very tight, and derepression by doxycycline led to homogeneous 48-h duration expression of physiologic levels of bovine Mx1. Expression of the transgene caused a dramatic decrease in cytopathic efficiency and a 500-5000-fold yield reduction of the Indiana and New Jersey serotypes of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV). To our knowledge, the transgenic clone developed here is the first ever reported that allows conditional expression of an Mx protein, thus providing a valuable tool for studying functions of Mx proteins in general and that of bovine Mx1 in particular. This latter may henceforward be included in the group of Mx proteins with authenticated anti-VSV activity, which offers new research avenues into the field of host-virus interactions. [less ▲]

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See detailGenomic structure, organisation, and promoter analysis of the bovine (Bos taurus) Mx1 gene
Gérardin; Baise, Etienne ULg; Pire, Grégory et al

in Gene (2004), 326

Some MX proteins are known to confer a specific resistance against a panel of single-stranded RNA viruses. Many diseases due to such viruses are known to affect cattle worldwide, raising the possibility ... [more ▼]

Some MX proteins are known to confer a specific resistance against a panel of single-stranded RNA viruses. Many diseases due to such viruses are known to affect cattle worldwide, raising the possibility that the identification of an antiviral isoform of a bovine MX protein would allow the implementation of genetic selection programs aimed at improving innate resistance of cattle. With this potential application in mind, the present study was designed to isolate the bovine Mx1 gene including its promoter region and to investigate its genomic organisation and promoter reactivity. The bovine Mx1 gene is made up of 15 exons. All exon-intron boundaries conformed to the consensus sequences. A PCR product that contained a approximately 1-kb, 5'-flanking region upstream from the putative transcription start site was sequenced. Unexpectedly, this DNA region did not contain TATA or CCAAT motifs. A computer scan of the region disclosed a series of putative binding sites for known cytokines and transcription factors. There was a GAAAN(1-2)GAAA(C/G) motif, typical of an interferon-sensitive responsive element, between -118 and -107 from the putative transcription start site. There were also a NF-kappaB, two interleukin-6 binding sites, two Sp1 sites and five GC-rich boxes. The region also contained 12 stretches of the GAAA type, as described in all IFN-inducible genes. Bovine Mx1 expression was assessed by Northern blotting and immunofluorescence in the Madin Darby bovine kidney cells (MDBK) cell line treated with several stimuli. In conclusion, the bovine Mx1 gene and promoter region share the major structural and functional characteristics displayed by their homologs described in the rainbow trout, chicken, mouse and man. [less ▲]

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See detailLa myopathie atypique des équidés: particularités cliniques, examens complémentaires et hypothèses étiologiques.
Votion, Dominique ULg; Delguste, Catherine ULg; Amory, Hélène ULg et al

in Journée AVEF (Association des Vétérinaires Equins Français) (2003, October)

La myopathie atypique (MA) des équidés, encore appelée myoglobinurie atypique des chevaux au pré, est un syndrome caractérisé par l’apparition soudaine de faiblesse musculaire, de raideur, de tremblements ... [more ▼]

La myopathie atypique (MA) des équidés, encore appelée myoglobinurie atypique des chevaux au pré, est un syndrome caractérisé par l’apparition soudaine de faiblesse musculaire, de raideur, de tremblements et de sudation profuse généralisée ou localisée. L’animal adopte rapidement une position en décubitus sternal ou latéral. Lorsque de l’urine est émise, celle-ci a une couleur brune « chocolatée ». L’examen clinique révèle fréquemment de la tachycardie, de l’hypothermie et de la dyspnée. Le dosage de l’activité sérique de la créatinine kinase contribue à la présomption de MA en démontrant une destruction musculaire massive mais le diagnostic définitif repose nécessairement sur l’examen histologique des muscles intervenant dans la posture et la respiration, muscles généralement atteints lors de cette maladie ainsi que sur l’examen du muscle cardiaque où des lésions de dégénérescence sont occasionnellement observées. Diverses hypothèses étiologiques sont en cours d’investigation et les plus probables incriminent l’action d’une mycotoxine ou d’une toxine d’origine bactérienne, ingérée ou produite dans le tractus digestif. Néanmoins, une carence nutritionnelle n’est pas exclue. Quelle que soit la cause, il semble que des conditions climatiques défavorables favorisent le déclenchement des symptômes. La récolte de données épidémiologiques permettra de mieux définir les moyens de prévention de cette maladie souvent fatale. [less ▲]

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See detailDifferential diagnosis of neurologically expressed disorders in Western European cattle
Saegerman, Claude ULg; Claes, L.; Dewaele, Albert et al

in Revue Scientifique et Technique (International Office of Epizootics) (2003), 22(1), 83-102

A classification of neurological or neurologically expressed disorders that occur in Western European cattle aged 12 month and over has been established on the basis of aetiology, frequency and conditions ... [more ▼]

A classification of neurological or neurologically expressed disorders that occur in Western European cattle aged 12 month and over has been established on the basis of aetiology, frequency and conditions of appearance, age and type of animals concerned and the main clinical signs observed. Neurologically expressed disorders have been classified according to different groups of causes: biological, non-biological and non-specific or unknown. Differential diagnosis of neurologically expressed disorders is an essential element in the clinical epidemiological surveillance of bovine spongiform encephalopathy. A growing number of aetiologies are described in the scientific literature. The identification and centralised management of neurological disorders will make it possible, one the one hand, to take account of the inherent variability in the clinical forms encountered and in the diagnostic approaches of the observers and, on the other hand, to identify new risk factors in order to control them. [less ▲]

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See detailModulating skeletal muscle mass by postnatal, muscle-specific inactivation of the myostatin gene.
Grobet, Luc ULg; Pirottin, Dimitri ULg; Farnir, Frédéric ULg et al

in Genesis (2003), 35(4), 227-38

By using a conditional gene targeting approach exploiting the cre-lox system, we show that postnatal inactivation of the myostatin gene in striated muscle is sufficient to cause a generalized muscular ... [more ▼]

By using a conditional gene targeting approach exploiting the cre-lox system, we show that postnatal inactivation of the myostatin gene in striated muscle is sufficient to cause a generalized muscular hypertrophy of the same magnitude as that observed for constitutive myostatin knockout mice. This formally demonstrates that striated muscle is the production site of functional myostatin and that this member of the TGFbeta family of growth and differentiation factors regulates muscle mass not only during early embryogenesis but throughout development. It indicates that myostatin antagonist could be used to treat muscle wasting and to promote muscle growth in man and animals. [less ▲]

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See detailL'herpèsvirus alcélaphin 1, l'agent responsable de la forme africaine du coryza gangreneux
Dewals, Benjamin G ULg; Boudry, Christel ULg; Markine-Goriaynoff, Nicolas ULg et al

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2003), 147(1, FEB-MAR), 1-15

Malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) is a pathology usually lethal which has been described in a large number of ruminant species. Based on the etiology, two main forms of MCF have been described, i.e., the ... [more ▼]

Malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) is a pathology usually lethal which has been described in a large number of ruminant species. Based on the etiology, two main forms of MCF have been described, i.e., the European and the African forms due to ovine herpesvirus 2 (OvHV-2) and alcelaphine herpesvirus 1 (AlHV-1), respectively. The present review is devoted to the African form of MCF and to its causative agent AlHV-1. AlHV-1 belongs to the Gammaherpesvirinae subfamily of the Herpesviridae family. Wildebeests (Connochaetes spp) carry AlHV-1, which is lethal for a large number of ruminant species, while apparently harmless to its natural host. In hosts susceptible to MCF, the pathology is characterized by fever, extensive lymphadenopathy, ulcerative lesions of the digestive and the upper respiratory tracts mucous membranes and severe keratoconjunctivitis. In the present paper, we will review the data available to date on AlHV-1 and on the African form of MCF with emphasis on the pathogenesis, clinical signs and anatomo-pathological lesions of MCF. Finally, we will discuss the relationship between AlHV-1 and wildebeest as an example of symbiosis between a virus and its natural host. [less ▲]

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See detailEpisode de dyspnée consécutive à une intoxication par l’ergot dans une exploitation laitière
Brihoum, Mounir ULg; Desmecht, Daniel ULg; Bony, S. et al

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2003), 147(5), 353-358

A chronic consumption (3.5 months) of ergot (Claviceps purpurea) contaminated triticale in dairy cows resulted in dyspnea, mainly expiratory, consistent with interstitial pneumonia and emphysema. These ... [more ▼]

A chronic consumption (3.5 months) of ergot (Claviceps purpurea) contaminated triticale in dairy cows resulted in dyspnea, mainly expiratory, consistent with interstitial pneumonia and emphysema. These troubles can be compared to many observations done in humans after long lasting treatments with ergot derivatives [less ▲]

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See detailDiagnostic différentiel des troubles à expression nerveuse dans l’espèce bovine en Europe occidentale
Saegerman, Claude ULg; Claes, L.; Dewaele, A. et al

in Revue Scientifique et Technique (International Office of Epizootics) (2003), 22(1), 61-82

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See detailEffect of somatic growth, strain and sex on double-chamber plethymosgraphic respiratory function values in healthy mice
Flandre, Th.; Leroy, Pascal ULg; Desmecht, Daniel ULg

in Journal of Applied Physiology (2003), 94(3), 1129-1136

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