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See detailExperimental test simulating a column loss in a composite frame
Demonceau, Jean-François ULg; Jaspart, Jean-Pierre ULg

in Advanced Steel Construction (2010), 6(Number 3), 891-913

Recent events such as natural catastrophes or terrorism attacks have highlighted the necessity to ensure the structural integrity of buildings under exceptional events. According to Eurocodes and some ... [more ▼]

Recent events such as natural catastrophes or terrorism attacks have highlighted the necessity to ensure the structural integrity of buildings under exceptional events. According to Eurocodes and some different other national design codes, the structural integrity of civil engineering structures should be ensured through appropriate measures. Design requirements are proposed in some codes but are nowadays seen generally as not satisfactory. In particular, it is not demonstrated that, even if these requirements are respected, the risk of a progressive collapse of the structure subjected to an exceptional event will really be mitigated. A European RFCS project entitled “Robust structures by joint ductility” has been set up in 2004, for three years, with the aim to provide requirements and practical guidelines allowing to ensure the structural integrity of steel and composite structures under exceptional events through an appropriate robustness. In particular, one substructure test simulating the loss of a column in a composite building was performed at Liège University. The present paper describes in details this substructure test. In particular, the development of membrane forces is illustrated and their effects on the behaviour of the beam-to-column joints are discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailAnforderungen an Stahl- und Verbundknoten bei Stützenausfall in einem Rahmentragwerk
Kuhlmann, Ulrike; Rölle, Lars; Jaspart, Jean-Pierre ULg et al

in Stahlbau (2010), 8(August 2010), 565-579

Local failure in a structure (e.g. sudden column loss due to impact or explosion) could lead to progressive collapse propagation of the global structural system resulting in a total collapse. To avoid ... [more ▼]

Local failure in a structure (e.g. sudden column loss due to impact or explosion) could lead to progressive collapse propagation of the global structural system resulting in a total collapse. To avoid progressive collapse initiated by local damage a redistribution of force from the damaged part of the structure has to be enabled by alternate load path. Activation of alternate load paths by change of the bearing mechanism from pure bending state to more or less pure membrane state is a measure but only possible by allowing large global deformations resulting in high de-formation requirements for the joints. In the frame of a European RFCS research project ductile joint solution have been developed to improve the robustness as characteristic of the structure. Main focus for the joint design was given to obtain the required deformation capacity for acci-dental design situations mainly from the joints and cause at the same time only less additional material and fabrication costs for the joints. As a result deformable and partial-strength joint solution has been chosen. Objective within the project was to determine requirements of the joints concerning deformation capacity as well as M-N-resistance to enable the activation of catenary action for the load case notional column removal. [less ▲]

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See detailNew simplified analytical method for the Prediction of global stability of steel and composite sway frames
Demonceau, Jean-François ULg; Ly, Dong Phuong Lam ULg; Coméliau, Ludivine ULg et al

in Proceedings of the annaual stability conference, 2010 (2010, May)

Eurocode 4 is the European design code for composite construction; in its so-called EN 1994-1-1 version, the design of “non-sway buildings” is mainly covered. As a result, EC4 focuses on the check of ... [more ▼]

Eurocode 4 is the European design code for composite construction; in its so-called EN 1994-1-1 version, the design of “non-sway buildings” is mainly covered. As a result, EC4 focuses on the check of structural elements like beams, columns, slabs and joints. However, in the last years, the construction of taller buildings and larger industrial halls without wind bracing systems tends to make global instability a relevant failure mode, which is not well covered by Eurocode 4. Recently, intensive experimental, numerical and theoretical investigations have been carried out at Liège University. The latter aimed at improving the knowledge in the field of sway composite building frames and at developing appropriate design rules. The rotational behavior of the beam-to-column composite joints is one of the key aspects of the problem to which a special attention has been paid. This paper reflects investigations carried out at Liege University on this topic. In particular, an innovative simplified analytical method to predict the ultimate loading factor and the associated collapse mode of both steel and composite frames subjected to static loadings is presented. [less ▲]

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See detailAnalytical model to characterize bolted beam-to-column joints with four bolts per row
Demonceau, Jean-François ULg; Weynand, Klaus; Jaspart, Jean-Pierre ULg et al

Report (2010)

Eurocode 3 Part 1-8 provides detailed application rules for the design of bolted end-plate connections. Although these rules apply to connections with any number of vertical bolt rows, most of them are ... [more ▼]

Eurocode 3 Part 1-8 provides detailed application rules for the design of bolted end-plate connections. Although these rules apply to connections with any number of vertical bolt rows, most of them are limited to configurations with two bolts only in each horizontal row, i.e. one bolt on each side of the beam or column web. However, it is sometimes more economic to place four bolts in one row, for instance when wide flange H-sections are used. This configuration is commonly met in different countries in Europe and, in particular, in Germany where this configuration is even standardized. The theoretical model on which the Eurocode 3 application rules are founded is general and can be potentially applied to connections with four bolts per horizontal row. However, specific design rules need to be developed. Within the present document, easy-to-apply analytical design rules aimed at predicting the mechanical properties of connections with four bolts per row in full agreement with the Eurocode 3 approach are detailed. The latter are validated through comparisons to experimental tests performed at the University of Dortmund. The present document is organised as follows: • First, the component method, on which the proposed analytical model is founded, is briefly described (§ 2); • Then, the T-stub model used to characterise the joint component in bending is detailed (§ 3) and adapted to connection with four bolts per row (§ 4). • Finally, the proposed adaptations of the analytical model are validated in § 5 and compare to previous analytical methods in § 6. [less ▲]

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See detailBehaviour of single sided composite joints at room temperature and in case of fire after an earthquake
Demonceau, Jean-François ULg; Hanus, François ULg; Jaspart, Jean-Pierre ULg et al

in International Journal of Steel Structures (2009), 9(4), 329-342

In 2003, a European research program entitled “PRECIOUS - Prefabricated composite beam-to-concrete filled tube or partially reinforced-concrete-encased column connections for severe seismic and fire ... [more ▼]

In 2003, a European research program entitled “PRECIOUS - Prefabricated composite beam-to-concrete filled tube or partially reinforced-concrete-encased column connections for severe seismic and fire loadings” and funded by the Research Fund for Coal and Steel (RFCS) was initiated for three years (Bursi et al, 2008). The objective of this project was to develop fundamental data, design guidelines and prequalification tools for two types of composite beam-to-column joints able to ensure a suitable behaviour during an earthquake and its eventual subsequent fire. At the University of Liege, as part of this project, analytical and numerical investigations were conducted mainly on single-sided beam-to-column composite joints at room and at elevated temperatures. The present paper summarizes the activities developed within this project and presents the main achievements. [less ▲]

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See detailFaites le pont... Cahier pédagogique
Cescotto, Serge ULg; Demonceau, Jean-François ULg

Learning material (2009)

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See detailRECENT STUDIES CONDUCTED AT LIEGE UNIVERSITY IN THE FIELD OF COMPOSITE CONSTRUCTION
Demonceau, Jean-François ULg; Jaspart, Jean-Pierre ULg

Report (2009)

The present informal document summarises recent or ongoing studies conducted at Liège University in the field of steel-concrete composite constructions; they are summarised in a Table presented at the ... [more ▼]

The present informal document summarises recent or ongoing studies conducted at Liège University in the field of steel-concrete composite constructions; they are summarised in a Table presented at the following page. Only the main results are presented herein. For all the addressed topics, references to documents, reports and articles where details are available will be made; a copy of these documents can be obtained by contacting us. At the end of each paragraph, a section dedicated to some perspectives is given. § 9.2 summarises the main topics in which investigations could be conducted in the future; these perspectives are also reported in the Table here after. The activities related to the response of composite structures subjected to seismic or fire actions (mainly covered in Liège by Prof. Plumier and Prof. Franssen respectively) are not reported here as they are covered by other more “transversal” technical committees of ECCS (TC3 for the fire and TC13 for the seismic action). The “composite joints” topic is included here even if a technical committee relative to the behaviour of joints exists within ECCS (TC10); indeed, in the past, all the developments relative to composite joints were discussed and accepted within TC11 and not within TC10. Of course, it is up to the present TC11 members to decide whether this topic has or not to be considered within TC11. Finally, the robustness of composite structures and in particular, the robustness of the structures subjected to the exceptional event “loss of a column further” is also considered herein as this topic is not yet covered by any other technical committee. Again, it is up to the TC11 members to decide whether this topic has to be discussed within TC11. [less ▲]

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See detailProposed design rules for iron columns reinforced by FRP
Ly, Dong Phuong Lam ULg; Demonceau, Jean-François ULg; Jaspart, Jean-Pierre ULg et al

in Mazzolani, F. M. (Ed.) Protection of historical buildings, Prohitech 09 (2009, June 21)

This paper presents design rules for iron columns under axial compression, strengthened with high modulus carbon fibre reinforced polymer (FRP) sheets. According to experimental and numerical results, it ... [more ▼]

This paper presents design rules for iron columns under axial compression, strengthened with high modulus carbon fibre reinforced polymer (FRP) sheets. According to experimental and numerical results, it is shown that the resistance and stiffness of iron columns can be significantly increased with the use of longitudinal FRP sheets because of the reduction of the column slenderness, but also that transverse FRP sheets should be used to prevent any local buckling of the longitudinal FRP sheets [less ▲]

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See detailExperimental and analytical investigations on the response of structural building frames further to a column loss
Demonceau, Jean-François ULg; Jaspart, Jean-Pierre ULg

in Proceedings of ASCE structure congress 2009 (2009, May)

Recent events such as natural catastrophes or terrorism attacks have highlighted the necessity to ensure the structural integrity of buildings under exceptional events. Design requirements are proposed in ... [more ▼]

Recent events such as natural catastrophes or terrorism attacks have highlighted the necessity to ensure the structural integrity of buildings under exceptional events. Design requirements are proposed in some codes but are generally not satisfactory. In particular, it is not demonstrated that, even if these requirements are respected, a structure subjected to an exceptional event will really behave properly. A European RFCS project called “Robust structures by joint ductility” has been set up in 2004, for three years, with the aim to provide requirements and practical guidelines so as to ensure the structural integrity of steel and composite structures under exceptional events through an appropriate robustness. The investigations performed at the University of Liège, as part of this European project, are mainly dedicated to the exceptional event “loss of a column in a steel or steel-concrete composite building frame”; the main objective is to develop a simplified analytical procedure to predict the frame response further to a column loss. The development of this simplified procedure is detailed in two complementary PhD theses: the thesis of Demonceau J.-F. and the thesis of Luu N.N.H. Present paper describes experimental and analytical studies carried out in [Demonceau, 2008]. In particular, a simplified analytical procedure for the prediction of the global frame response when significant membrane forces develop further to a column loss will be described; it allows: (i) to predict the development of the catenary action in a frame with joints subjected to combined bending moment and tension loads and (ii) to compute the requested rotation capacity at the joint level according to the loads applied on the frame. [less ▲]

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See detailEuropean design recommendations for simple joints in steel structures
Jaspart, Jean-Pierre ULg; Demonceau, Jean-François ULg; Renkin, S. et al

Book published by ECCS (European Convention for Constructional Steelwork) (2009)

This document intends to provide European recommendations for the design of simple joints in steel structures. Eurocode 3 Part 1-8 “Design of Connections” gives precise guidelines for the design of ... [more ▼]

This document intends to provide European recommendations for the design of simple joints in steel structures. Eurocode 3 Part 1-8 “Design of Connections” gives precise guidelines for the design of structural joints aimed at transferring bending moments. But for simple joints, information is only provided in Eurocode 3 for some specific failure modes. The way on how internal forces distribute amongst the various components within the joints is also not explicitly described. The present publication fills this gap by proposing practical guidelines for the design of simple joints commonly used in Europe. The design rules presented in this document are in full agreement with the principles of Eurocode 3, and in particular of Eurocode 3 Part 1-8. This document has been prepared at Liège University, editorially checked by Prof. D. Anderson from Warwick University and approved by the Technical Committee TC10. [less ▲]

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See detailExperimental and analytical investigations on the behaviour of building frames further to a column loss
Demonceau, Jean-François ULg; Jaspart, Jean-Pierre ULg

in Mazzolani, F.; Mistakidis, E.; Borg, R. P. (Eds.) et al Urban Habitat Constructions under Catastrophic Events (2008, October 23)

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See detailExperimental and numerical investigations on iron columns reinforced by FRP under axial compression
Ly, Dong Phuong Lam ULg; Jaspart, Jean-Pierre ULg; Demonceau, Jean-François ULg et al

in Camelbeeck, Th.; Degée, Hervé; Degrande, G. (Eds.) et al Seismic risk (2008, September 11)

This paper presents experimental and numerical investigations on iron columns under axial compression, strengthened with high modulus carbon fibre reinforced polymer (FRP) sheets. It is shown that the ... [more ▼]

This paper presents experimental and numerical investigations on iron columns under axial compression, strengthened with high modulus carbon fibre reinforced polymer (FRP) sheets. It is shown that the resistance and stiffness of iron columns can be increased significantly with the use of longitudinal FRP sheets as a result of the reduction of the column slenderness, but also that transverse FRP sheets should be used to prevent any local buckling of the longitudinal FRP sheets. [less ▲]

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See detailNew simplified analytical method for the prediction of global stability of composite sway frames
Ly, Dong Phuong Lam ULg; Demonceau, Jean-François ULg; Jaspart, Jean-Pierre ULg

in EUROSTEEL 2008, 5th European Conference on Steel and Composite Structures (2008, September)

In the last years, the construction of taller composite buildings and larger composite industrial halls without wind bracing systems is susceptible to make global instability a relevant failure mode. This ... [more ▼]

In the last years, the construction of taller composite buildings and larger composite industrial halls without wind bracing systems is susceptible to make global instability a relevant failure mode. This one is not yet covered by EC4 [2]. This paper reflects investigations carried out of Liege University on this topic. In particular, an innovative simplified analytical method to predict the ultimate loading factor and the associated collapse mode of composite frames is derived. [less ▲]

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See detailRecent developments on composite connections: behaviour of joints subjected to sagging bending moments and presentation of a free design dedicated software
Demonceau, Jean-François ULg; Jaspart, Jean-Pierre ULg; Klinkhammer, Ralf et al

in EUROSTEEL 2008, 5th European Conference on Steel and Composite Structures (2008, September)

In Eurocode 4, design rules are suggested for the evaluation of the mechanical properties of structural steel-concrete composite joints (rotational stiffness, resistance and ductility). These rules cover ... [more ▼]

In Eurocode 4, design rules are suggested for the evaluation of the mechanical properties of structural steel-concrete composite joints (rotational stiffness, resistance and ductility). These rules cover situations where the joints are subjected to moments and shear forces, but in hogging regions only. Recently, researches have been conducted on the behaviour of composite joints subjected to sagging bending moments and to combined bending moments and axial loads, types of loadings which appear in composite frame further to a column loss. In the present paper, recent developments allowing to extend the EC4 design rules to joints in sagging regions (loading which can occur, for instance, in sway composite frames) are presented and the proposed method is validated through comparisons with experimental test results. Also, an easy-to-apply design software (which will be freely available), applying the rules recommended in Eurocode 4 in a safe and easy way, is described. [less ▲]

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See detailDevelopment of membranar effects in frame beams: experimental and analytical investigations
Demonceau, Jean-François ULg; Luu, Nguyen Nam Hai; Jaspart, Jean-Pierre ULg

in EUROSTEEL 2008, 5th European Conference on Steel and Composite Structures (2008, September)

Recent events such as natural catastrophes or terrorism attacks have highlighted the necessity to ensure the structural integrity of buildings under exceptional events. According to Eurocodes and some ... [more ▼]

Recent events such as natural catastrophes or terrorism attacks have highlighted the necessity to ensure the structural integrity of buildings under exceptional events. According to Eurocodes and some different other national design codes, the structural integrity of civil engineering structures should be ensured through appropriate measures but, in most of the cases, no precise practical guidelines on how to achieve this goal are provided. A European RFCS project called “Robust structures by joint ductility” has been set up in 2004, for three years, with the aim to provide requirements and practical guidelines allowing to ensure the structural integrity of steel and composite structures under exceptional event through an appropriate robustness. The investigations performed at Liège University, as part of this European project, are mainly dedicated to the exceptional event “Loss of a column in a steel or steel-concrete composite building frame”; the main objective is to develop a simplified analytical procedure to predict the frame response further to a column loss. The development of this simplified procedure is detailed in two complementary PhD theses: the thesis of J.-F. Demonceau and the thesis of H.N.N. Luu. The present paper describes experimental and analytical studies carried out within the first PhD thesis. In particular, a simplified analytical method allowing the prediction of the frame response with account of the membranar effects is described. [less ▲]

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See detailGlobal structural behaviour of a building frame further to its partial destruction by column loss
Luu, Nguyen Nam Hai; Demonceau, Jean-François ULg; Jaspart, Jean-Pierre ULg

in Ofner, Robert; Beg, Darko; Fink, Josef (Eds.) et al EUROSTEEL 2008, 5th European Conference on Steel and Composite Structures (2008, September)

In 1969, a catastrophic event occurred in UK at the Ronal Point residential building where the progressive collapse of the building, initiated by a localized gas explosion, was observed. Further to this ... [more ▼]

In 1969, a catastrophic event occurred in UK at the Ronal Point residential building where the progressive collapse of the building, initiated by a localized gas explosion, was observed. Further to this event, some codes and standards, and in particular the British Standards, impose to the designer to ensure the structural integrity of building in order to avoid the progressive collapse of the latter further to an exceptional action. In fact, the progressive collapse of a building is the result of a change in the structural system and of the load path associated to the loss of one or more main structural members. In other words, the existing load path is suddenly modified and the loads supported by the building are reported to the foundation through an alternative load path. Accordingly, the remaining structural members are overloaded by additional loads; the latter have to be able to support these loads and to possess a sufficient ductility. In the last decade, researches on this topic were initiated at the Argenco Department of Liège University. The present paper reflects part of these activities; in particular, some investigations dedicated to the investigation of the behaviour of a frame further to a column loss are presented. In another article presented by J.F Demonceau, H.N.N. Luu and J.P Jaspart within the present conference is devoted to the investigation of the behaviour of the frame when significant membranar forces developed within the structure. In particular, in this paper, a simplified substructure which is able to simulate the behaviour of a structure further to a column loss is defined. The present paper presents the analytical methods requested to define the parameters influencing the response of the simplified substructure. [less ▲]

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See detailComposite joints in robust building frames
Jaspart, Jean-Pierre ULg; Demonceau, Jean-François ULg

(2008, July)

Recent events such as natural catastrophes or terrorism attacks have highlighted the necessity to ensure the structural integrity of buildings under exceptional actions. Accordingly, a European RFCS ... [more ▼]

Recent events such as natural catastrophes or terrorism attacks have highlighted the necessity to ensure the structural integrity of buildings under exceptional actions. Accordingly, a European RFCS project entitled “Robust structures by joint ductility” has been set up in 2004, for three years, with the aim to provide requirements and practical guidelines for the design of steel and composite structures under exceptional actions. In this project, the importance of the structural joints has been shown; as a particular case, these ones experience additional high tying forces after the loss of a column, as a result of the development of membrane forces in the beams located just above the damaged column. Moreover a reversal of moments occurs in some joints. In this paper design models for the evaluation of the mechanical properties of joints in such extreme situations are presented. References are made to recent tests on joints in isolation and joints in frames recently achieved at Stuttgart and at Liège University in the framework of the above-mentioned RFCS project. [less ▲]

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See detailRobustness of structures - behaviour of composite joints
Demonceau, Jean-François ULg; Jaspart, Jean-Pierre ULg

in Sixth International Workshop on Connections in Steel Structures (2008, June 23)

Recent events such as natural catastrophes or terrorism attacks have highlighted the necessity to ensure the structural integrity of buildings under exceptional loading. Accordingly, a European RFCS ... [more ▼]

Recent events such as natural catastrophes or terrorism attacks have highlighted the necessity to ensure the structural integrity of buildings under exceptional loading. Accordingly, a European RFCS project entitled “Robust structures by joint ductility” has been set up in 2004, for three years, with the aim to provide requirements and practical guidelines to ensure the structural integrity of steel and composite structures under exceptional loading through an appropriate robustness. In this project, the importance of the structural joints has been shown; indeed, these ones experience additional high tying forces after the loss of a column, as a result of the development of membrane forces in the beams located just above the damaged column. Moreover a reversal of moments occurs in some joints. In this paper design models for the evaluation of the mechanical properties of joints in such extreme situations are presented. References are made to recent tests on joints in isolation recently achieved in the framework of the above-mentioned RFCS project. [less ▲]

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See detailSteel and composite building frames: sway response under conventional loading and developmet of membrane effects in beams further to an exceptional action
Demonceau, Jean-François ULg

Doctoral thesis (2008)

The present thesis is dedicated to the study of the behaviour of steel and composite steel-concrete building frames with a particular attention paid to the beam-to-column joint behaviour. Two main topics ... [more ▼]

The present thesis is dedicated to the study of the behaviour of steel and composite steel-concrete building frames with a particular attention paid to the beam-to-column joint behaviour. Two main topics are investigated herein: the behaviour of sway building frames subjected to “conventional” loadings and the development of the membrane forces in structural beams further to the loss of a column. Regarding the first topic, the main objective is to propose a simplified analytical method to predict the ultimate load factor of composite sway building frames, a case not yet covered by the actual codes and standards. To achieve this goal, the behaviour of composite joints subjected to bending moments is first studied through experimental and analytical investigations; indeed, the joints are key elements influencing the response of sway frames. Through these investigations, a new collapse mode is identified for single-sided composite joints subjected to hogging moments and an analytical method is proposed and validated to introduce this new collapse mode in the joint design. In addition, an analytical method is also proposed and validated to predict the response of composite joints subjected to sagging moment, a situation which can occur in composite sway frames subjected to horizontal loads but not yet covered by the actual codes. Afterwards, the numerical tool used to predict the response of composite sway frames is validated through a benchmark study and through comparisons with experimental test results coming from two tests performed in European laboratories. With the so-validated software, the behaviour of actual sway building frames (i.e. frames extracted from existing buildings) is investigated, highlighting their particularities. The applicability to composite sway frames of two simplified analytical method initially developed for steel sway frames (an elastic one called the “amplified sway moment method” and a plastic one called the “Merchant-Rankine approach”) is then studied. From these investigations, it is demonstrated that the elastic method can be applied with good confidence to composite sway frames while the plastic one illustrates the same problems of accuracy already observed in previous studies on steel sway frames; in particular, the plastic method may prove to be very unsafe if the collapse mode associated to the ultimate limit state is a panel plastic mechanism. Finally, according to these results, a simplified analytical method is developed for the prediction of the ultimate load factor of steel and composite sway frames. The proposed method is founded on the Ayrton-Perry formulation and is validated through comparison to results obtained with full non-linear numerical analyses performed on more than 300 steel and composite frames. The so-validated method is easy to apply and permits to predict with a very good accuracy the ultimate load factor of a sway frame and the collapse mode appearing at the ultimate limit state. Founded on the knowledge gained from the previous topic on the structural behaviour of steel and composite structures, the behaviour of such structures subjected to an exceptional event is investigated within the second topic. The main objective is to propose a simplified analytical procedure to predict the development of the membrane forces within a structure further to the loss of a column and their effects on the structural response. In a first step, a general procedure allowing the prediction of the response of a structure further to the loss of a column is first defined, with a particular attention paid to the influence of the development of the catenary action on this response. Then, an experimental test performed at Liège University and simulating the loss of a column in a composite frame is described. The objective of this test is to observe the development of the catenary action within the tested structure and its effect on the joint behaviour. The described test constitutes a European first in this domain. Also, as for the previous topic, the behaviour of joints is investigated in details. Here, the particularity is the fact that the joints are subjected to combined bending moments and axial loads when the membrane effects developed in the structure. In a previous PhD thesis presented at Liège University, an analytical procedure founded on the component method was developed to predict the response of steel joints subjected to such loading. Within the present thesis, this method is extended to composite joints and validated through comparisons to experimental tests. Afterwards, the numerical tool used for the numerical investigations is validated through a benchmark study and through comparisons with the results of the experimental test performed at Liège University. In particular, the difficulty of simulating the actual behaviour of beam-to-column joints subjected to combined bending moments and axial loads is illustrated. With the so-validated software, a simplified substructure modelling, on which the developed analytical method is founded, is then validated. In addition, parametric numerical studies are performed on the substructure modelling in order to identify the parameters to be considered within the developed method. Finally, the developed simplified analytical method is described and validated through comparisons between the experimental results and the analytical prediction. With this “easy-to-apply” method, a very good accuracy is achieved; in particular, it is possible to predict the requested deformation capacity in the structural elements where plastic hinges are developed and the membrane forces which have to be supported by the structure [less ▲]

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