References of "Delille, Bruno"
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See detailSea ice as a source of bioavailable iron to the Southern Ocean
Schoemann, Véronique; Lannuzel, Delphine; de Jong et al

Conference (2012, May)

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See detailInorganic carbon dynamics in coastal arctic sea ice and related air-ice CO2 exchanges
Geilfus, Nicolas-Xavier ULg; Tison, J.-L.; Carnat, G. et al

Poster (2012, April)

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See detailHow convection and diffusion processes might affect biological imprints, a challenge for modelers
Tison, J.-L.; Zhou, Jiayun ULg; Thomas, D. et al

Conference (2012, April)

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See detailDynamics of pCO2 and related air-ice CO2 fluxes in the Arctic coastal zone (Amundsen Gulf, Beaufort Sea)
Geilfus, Nicolas-Xavier ULg; Carnat, G.; Papakyriakou, T. et al

in Journal of Geophysical Research. Oceans (2012), 117(C00G10),

We present an Arctic seasonal survey of carbon dioxide partial pressure (pCO2) dynamics within sea ice brine and related air-ice CO2 fluxes. The survey was carried out from early spring to the beginning ... [more ▼]

We present an Arctic seasonal survey of carbon dioxide partial pressure (pCO2) dynamics within sea ice brine and related air-ice CO2 fluxes. The survey was carried out from early spring to the beginning of summer in the Arctic coastal waters of the Amundsen Gulf. High concentrations of pCO2 (up to 1834 matm) were observed in the sea ice in early April as a consequence of concentration of solutes in brines, CaCO3 precipitation and microbial respiration. CaCO3 precipitation was detected through anomalies in total alkalinity (TA) and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC). This precipitation seems to have occurred in highly saline brine in the upper part of the ice cover and in bulk ice. As summer draws near, the ice temperature increases and brine pCO2 shifts from a large supersaturation (1834 matm) to a marked undersaturation (down to almost 0 matm). This decrease was ascribed to brine dilution by ice meltwater, dissolution of CaCO3 and photosynthesis during the sympagic algal bloom. The magnitude of the CO2 fluxes was controlled by ice temperature (through its control on brine volume and brine channels connectivity) and the concentration gradient between brine and the atmosphere. However, the state of the ice-interface clearly affects air-ice CO2 fluxes. [less ▲]

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See detailVariability of carbon dioxide and methane in the epilimnion of Lake Kivu
Borges, Alberto ULg; Bouillon, S.; Abril, G. et al

in Descy, J.-P.; Darchambeau, François; Schmid, M. (Eds.) Lake Kivu: Limnology and biogeochemistry of a tropical great lake (2012)

We report a dataset of the partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) and me-thane concentrations (CH4) in the surface waters of Lake Kivu ob-tained during four cruises covering the two main seasons (rainy and dry ... [more ▼]

We report a dataset of the partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) and me-thane concentrations (CH4) in the surface waters of Lake Kivu ob-tained during four cruises covering the two main seasons (rainy and dry). Spatial gradients of surface pCO2 and CH4 concentrations were modest in the main basin. In Kabuno Bay, pCO2 and CH4 concentra-tions in surface waters were higher, owing to the stronger influence of subaquatic springs from depth. Seasonal variations of pCO2 and CH4 in the main basin of Lake Kivu were strongly driven by deepen-ing of the epilimnion and the resulting entrainment of water charac-terized by higher pCO2 and CH4 concentrations. Physical and chem-ical vertical patterns in Kabuno Bay were seasonally stable, owing to a stronger stratification and smaller surface area inducing fetch limi-tation of wind driven turbulence. A global and regional cross-system comparison of pCO2 and CH4 concentrations in surface waters of lakes highlights the peculiarity of Kabuno Bay in terms of pCO2 values in surface waters. In terms of surface CH4 concentrations, both Kabuno Bay and the main basin of Lake Kivu are at the lower end of values in lakes globally, despite the huge amounts of CH4 and CO2 in the deeper layers of the lake. [less ▲]

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See detailTowards a method for high vertical resolution measurements of the partial pressure of CO2 within bulk sea ice
Geilfus, Nicolas-Xavier ULg; Delille, Bruno ULg; Verbeke, Véronique et al

in Journal of Glaciology (2012), 58(208), 287-300

Fluxes of atmospheric CO2 have been reported over sea ice during winter and spring. These fluxes are partly driven by the gradient of the CO2 concentration between sea ice and the atmosphere. We present a ... [more ▼]

Fluxes of atmospheric CO2 have been reported over sea ice during winter and spring. These fluxes are partly driven by the gradient of the CO2 concentration between sea ice and the atmosphere. We present a new non-destructive method to measure the pCO2 of bulk sea ice at its in situ temperature. This method is based on an equilibration procedure between sea ice and a standard gas of known CO2 concentration. The concentration is measured by gas chromatography with a precision of 5%. Tests were performed on artificial standard sea ice and confirmed the reproducibility of the technique in the range of precision of the gas chromatograph. To test the accuracy of this method, the first profiles of pCO2 measured in bulk sea ice are reported and compared with direct in situ measurements of brine pCO2 over depth-integrated intervals. [less ▲]

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See detailSpatial and temporal CO2 exchanges measured by Eddy Covariance over a temperate intertidal flat and their relationships to net ecosystem production
Polsenaere, P.; Lamaud, E.; Lafon, V. et al

in Biogeosciences (2012), 9(1), 249--268

Measurements of carbon dioxide fluxes were performed over a temperate intertidal mudflat in southwestern France using the micrometeorological Eddy Covariance (EC) technique. EC measurements were carried ... [more ▼]

Measurements of carbon dioxide fluxes were performed over a temperate intertidal mudflat in southwestern France using the micrometeorological Eddy Covariance (EC) technique. EC measurements were carried out in two contrasting sites of the Arcachon flat during four periods and in three different seasons (autumn 2007, summer 2008, autumn 2008 and spring 2009). In addition, satellite images of the tidal flat at low tide were used to link the net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) with the occupation of the mudflat by primary producers, particularly by Zostera noltii meadows. CO2 fluxes during the four deployments showed important spatial and temporal variations, with the flat rapidly shifting from sink to source with the tide. Absolute CO2 fluxes showed generally small negative (influx) and positive (efflux) values, with larger values up to −13 μmol m−2 s−1 for influxes and 19 μmol m−2 s−1 for effluxes. Low tide during the day was mostly associated with a net uptake of atmospheric CO2. In contrast, during immersion and during low tide at night, CO2 fluxes where positive, negative or close to zero, depending on the season and the site. During the autumn of 2007, at the innermost station with a patchy Zostera noltii bed (cover of 22 ± 14% in the wind direction of measurements), CO2 influx was −1.7 ± 1.7 μmol m−2 s−1 at low tide during the day, and the efflux was 2.7 ± 3.7 μmol m−2 s−1 at low tide during the night. A gross primary production (GPP) of 4.4 ± 4.1 μmol m−2 s−1 during emersion could be attributed to microphytobenthic communities. During the summer and autumn of 2008, at the central station with a dense eelgrass bed (92 ± 10%), CO2 uptakes at low tide during the day were −1.5 ± 1.2 and −0.9 ± 1.7 μmol m−2 s−1, respectively. Night time effluxes of CO2 were 1.0 ± 0.9 and 0.2 ± 1.1 μmol m−2 s−1 in summer and autumn, respectively, resulting in a GPP during emersion of 2.5 ± 1.5 and 1.1 ± 2.0 μmol m−2 s−1, respectively, attributed primarily to the seagrass community. At the same station in April 2009, before Zostera noltii started to grow, the CO2 uptake at low tide during the day was the highest (−2.7 ± 2.0 μmol m−2 s−1). Influxes of CO2 were also observed during immersion at the central station in spring and early autumn and were apparently related to phytoplankton blooms occurring at the mouth of the flat, followed by the advection of CO2-depleted water with the flooding tide. Although winter data as well as water carbon measurements would be necessary to determine a precise CO2 budget for the flat, our results suggest that tidal flat ecosystems are a modest contributor to the CO2 budget of the coastal ocean. [less ▲]

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See detailSea ice contribution to the air-sea CO2 exchange in the Arctic and Southern Oceans
Rysgaard, Søren; Bendtsen; Delille, Bruno ULg et al

in Tellus : Series B (2011), 63(5), 823-830

Although salt rejection from sea ice is a key process in deep-water formation in ice-covered seas, the concurrent rejection of CO2 and the subsequent effect on air–sea CO2 exchange have received little ... [more ▼]

Although salt rejection from sea ice is a key process in deep-water formation in ice-covered seas, the concurrent rejection of CO2 and the subsequent effect on air–sea CO2 exchange have received little attention. We review the mechanisms by which sea ice directly and indirectly controls the air–sea CO2 exchange and use recent measurements of inorganic carbon compounds in bulk sea ice to estimate that oceanic CO2 uptake during the seasonal cycle of sea-ice growth and decay in ice-covered oceanic regions equals almost half of the net atmospheric CO2 uptake in ice-free polar seas. This sea-ice driven CO2 uptake has not been considered so far in estimates of global oceanic CO2 uptake. Net CO2 uptake in sea-ice–covered oceans can be driven by; (1) rejection during sea–ice formation and sinking of CO2-rich brine into intermediate and abyssal oceanic water masses, (2) blocking of air–sea CO2 exchange during winter, and (3) release of CO2-depleted melt water with excess total alkalinity during sea-ice decay and (4) biological CO2 drawdown during primary production in sea ice and surface oceanic waters. [less ▲]

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See detailVariability of methane in the epilimnion of Lake Kivu
Borges, Alberto ULg; Abril, Gwenael; Delille, Bruno ULg et al

Poster (2011, July 11)

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See detailO2/Ar and CH4 measurements in sea ice : clues for the key status of sea ice in the climate system
Zhou, Jiayun; Tison, Jean-Louis; Eicken, Hajo et al

in Geophysical Research Abstracts (2011, April 08), 13

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See detailVariability of methane in the epilimnion of Lake Kivu
Borges, Alberto ULg; Abril, G.; Delille, Bruno ULg et al

Poster (2011, April 08)

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See detailParticulate carbon export during a bloom of Emiliania huxleyi in the Northwest European continental margin (northern Bay of Biscay)
Schmidt, Sabine; Harlay, Jérôme ULg; Borges, Alberto ULg et al

Poster (2011, April 03)

Coccolithophores, the dominant pelagic calcifiers in the oceans, play a key role in the marine carbon cycle through calcification, primary production and carbon export, the main drivers of the biological ... [more ▼]

Coccolithophores, the dominant pelagic calcifiers in the oceans, play a key role in the marine carbon cycle through calcification, primary production and carbon export, the main drivers of the biological CO2 pump. Massive blooms of Emiliania huxleyi are observed each year at the continental margin of the Bay of Biscay. The BG02/11 cruise (RV Belgica), supported by near-real time remote sensing data, was conducted in early May 2002, along a transect on the outer shelf of the Northern Bay of Biscay between the La Chapelle Bank (southern region of the transect) and Goban Spur (northern region of the transect) (47.0°-50.5°N, 5.0°-11.0°W). Biogeochemical variables including primary production, calcification, partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2), chlorophyll-a (Chl-a), particle load, particulate organic and inorganic carbon (POC, PIC), Th-234 were measured in surface waters to assess particle dynamics, and carbon export in relation to the development of a coccolithophore bloom. We observed a marked northward decrease in water irradiance, Chl-a concentration and calcification rates: the bloom exhibited lower values and may have been less well developed in the Goban Spur area. There was also a large northward decrease in particulate 234Th settling fluxes along the transect from La Chapelle Bank to Goban Spur. The export fluxes of POC and PIC from the top 80 m, determined using the ratios of POC and PIC to Th-234 of particles, ranged from 81 to 323 mgC m-2 d-1 and from 30 to 128 mgC m-2 d-1, respectively. The highest fluxes were observed in waters presenting a well-developed coccolithophore bloom, as shown by high reflectance of surface waters. Despite the high calcification rates at the southernmost stations, surface waters were a net sink of atmospheric CO2 during this cruise. These results tend to demonstrate the enhancement of coccolithophore blooms on the efficiency of the surface community to export carbon to deep ocean. However, improvements in the estimation of POC and PIC export during coccolithophore blooms are needed to not only understand the present calcification to primary production (C:P) ratio, but also to help understand future sequestration of organic and inorganic carbon to the deep ocean. [less ▲]

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See detailTemporal evolution of biogeochemical properties of landfast sea ice at Barrow (Alaska)
Zhou, Jiayun ULg; Tison, Jean-Louis; Eicken, Hajo et al

Poster (2011, March)

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See detailA multidisciplinary approach to understanding the sea ice system: implications on gas. Gordon Research Seminars
Zhou, Jiayun ULg; Tison, Jean-Louis; Eicken, Hajo et al

Conference (2011, March)

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See detailBiogeochemistry and carbon mass balance of a coccolithophore bloom in the northern Bay of Biscay (June 2006)
Harlay, Jérôme ULg; Chou, Lei; De Bodt, Caroline et al

in Deep-Sea Research Part I, Oceanographic Research Papers (2011), 58(2), 111-127

Primary production (PP), calcification (CAL), bacterial production (BP) and dark community respiration (DCR) were measured along with a set of various biogeochemical variables, in early June 2006, at ... [more ▼]

Primary production (PP), calcification (CAL), bacterial production (BP) and dark community respiration (DCR) were measured along with a set of various biogeochemical variables, in early June 2006, at several stations at the shelf break of the northern Bay of Biscay. The cruise was carried out after the main spring diatom bloom that, based on the analysis of a time-series of remotely sensed chlorophyll-a (Chl-a), peaked in mid-April. Remotely sensed sea surface temperature (SST) indicated the occurrence of enhanced vertical mixing (due to internal tides) at the continental slope, while adjacent waters on the continental shelf were stratified, as confirmed by vertical profiles of temperature acquired during the cruise. The surface layer of the stratified water masses (on the continental shelf) was depleted of inorganic nutrients. Dissolved silicate (DSi) levels probably did not allow significant diatom development. We hypothesize that mixing at the continental slope allowed the injection of inorganic nutrients that triggered the blooming of mixed phytoplanktonic communities dominated by coccolithophores (Emiliania huxleyi) that were favoured with regards to diatoms due to the low DSi levels. Based on this conceptual frame, we used an indicator of vertical stratification to classify the different sampled stations, and to reconstruct the possible evolution of the bloom from the onset at the continental slope (triggered by vertical mixing) through its development as the water mass was advected on-shelf and stratified. We also established a carbon mass balance at each station by integrating in the photic layer PP, CAL and DCR. This allowed computation at each station of the contribution of PP, CAL and DCR to CO2 fluxes in the photic layer, and how they changed from one station to another along the sequence of bloom development (as traced by the stratification indicator). This also showed a shift from net autotrophy to net heterotrophy as the water mass aged (stratified), and suggested the importance of extracellular production of carbon to sustain the bacterial demand in the photic and aphotic layers. [less ▲]

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See detailOverview of CO2 dynamics within sea ice
Delille, Bruno ULg; Geilfus, Nicolas-Xavier ULg; Vancoppenolle, M. et al

Conference (2011)

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See detailGas concentrations in Barrow landfast sea ice: the winter/spring contrasts
Zhou, Jiayun ULg; Tison, Jean-Louis; Brabant, Frédéric et al

in Solas News (2011), 13(Summer), 22-23

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See detailSea ice and snow cover characteristics during the winter-spring transition in the Bellingshausen Sea: an overview of SIMBA 2007
Lewis, M. J.; Tison, Jean-Louis; Weissling et al

in Deep-Sea Research Part II, Topical Studies in Oceanography (2011), 58(9-10), 10191038

The Sea Ice Mass Balance in the Antarctic (SIMBA) experiment was conducted from the RVIB N.B. Palmer in September and October 2007 in the Bellingshausen Sea in an area recently experiencing considerable ... [more ▼]

The Sea Ice Mass Balance in the Antarctic (SIMBA) experiment was conducted from the RVIB N.B. Palmer in September and October 2007 in the Bellingshausen Sea in an area recently experiencing considerable changes in both climate and sea ice cover. Snow and ice properties were observed at 3 short-term stations and a 27-day drift station (Ice Station Belgica, ISB) during the winter-spring transition. Repeat measurements were performed on sea ice and snow cover at 5 ISB sites, each having different physical characteristics, with mean ice (snow) thicknesses varying from 0.6m (0.1m) to 2.3m (0.7m). Ice cores retrieved every five days from 2 sites and measured for physical, biological, and chemical properties. Three ice mass-balance buoys (IMBs) provided continuous records of snow and ice thickness and temperature. Meteorological conditions changed from warm fronts with high winds and precipitation followed by cold and calm periods through four cycles during ISB. The snow cover regulated temperature flux and controlled the physical regime in which sea ice morphology changed. Level thin ice areas had little snow accumulation and experienced greater thermal fluctuations resulting in brine salinity and volume changes, and winter maximum thermodynamic growth of ~0.6m in this region. Flooding and snow-ice formation occurred during cold spells in ice and snow of intermediate instead nearly isothermal, highly permeable ice persisted. In spring, short-lived cold air episodes did not effectively penetrate the sea ice nor overcome the effect of ocean heat flux, thus favoring net ice thinning from bottom melt over ice thickening from snow-ice growth, in all cases. These warm ice conditions were consistent with regional remote sensing observations of earlier ice breakup and a shorter sea ice season, more recently observed in the Bellingshausen Sea. [less ▲]

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