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See detailSeasonal Variability of Carbon Dioxide in the Rivers and Lagoons of Ivory Coast (West Africa)
Koné, Yéfanlan José-Mathieu; Abril, Gwenaël; Kouadio, K. N. et al

in Estuaries and Coasts (2009), 32

We report partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) and ancillary data in three rivers (Bia, Tanoé, and Comoé) and five lagoons (Tendo, Aby, Ebrié, Potou, and Grand-Lahou) in Ivory Coast (West Africa), during four ... [more ▼]

We report partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) and ancillary data in three rivers (Bia, Tanoé, and Comoé) and five lagoons (Tendo, Aby, Ebrié, Potou, and Grand-Lahou) in Ivory Coast (West Africa), during four cruises covering the main climatic seasons. The three rivers were oversaturated in CO2 with respect to atmospheric equilibrium, and the seasonal variability of pCO2 was due to dilution during the flooding period. Surface waters of the Potou, Ebrié, and Grand-Lahou lagoons were oversaturated in CO2 during all seasons. These lagoons behaved similarly to the oligohaline regions of macrotidal estuaries that are CO2 sources to the atmosphere due to net ecosystem heterotrophy and inputs of riverine CO2 rich waters. The Aby and Tendo lagoons were undersaturated in CO2 with respect to the atmosphere because of their permanent haline stratification (unlike the other lagoons) that seemed to lead to higher phytoplankton production and export of organic carbon below the pycnocline. [less ▲]

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See detailInfluence of giant kelp beds (Macrocystis pyrifera) on diel cycles of pCO2 and DIC in the Sub-Antarctic coastal area
Delille, Bruno ULg; Borges, Alberto ULg; Delille, Daniel

in Estuarine Coastal & Shelf Science (2009), 81

The partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) were monitored in shallow coastal waters located inside and outside giant kelp beds (Macrocystis pyrifera) located in the Kerguelen ... [more ▼]

The partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) were monitored in shallow coastal waters located inside and outside giant kelp beds (Macrocystis pyrifera) located in the Kerguelen Archipelago (Southern Ocean). Photosynthesis and respiration by microplankton and kelp lead to marked pCO2 and DIC diel cycles. Daily variations of pCO2 and DIC are significant in the spring and summer, but absent in the winter, reflecting the seasonal cycle of biological activity in the kelp beds. If the kelp beds seem to favour the onset of phytoplankton blooms, most of the primary production inside the kelp beds is due to the kelp itself. The primary production of Macrocystis kelp beds in the Sub-Antarctic high-nutrient, low-chlorophyll (HNLC) waters off the Kerguelen Archipelago is elevated and closely linked to light availability. This production is significant from October to March and reaches its climax in December at the solar radiation maximum. [less ▲]

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See detailCarbon cycling in the mixolimnion of Lake Kivu (East Africa)
Borges, Alberto ULg; Descy, J.-P.; Delille, Bruno ULg et al

Poster (2009)

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See detailSeasonal variability of carbon dioxide and methane in the rivers and lagoons of Ivory Coast (West Africa)
Koné, Y. J. M.; Abril, G.; Delille, Bruno ULg et al

Poster (2009)

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See detailCarbon cycling in the mixolimnion of Lake Kivu (East Africa)
Borges, Alberto ULg; Descy, J.-P.; Delille, Bruno ULg et al

Conference (2009)

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See detailCarbon cycling in the mixolimnion of Lake Kivu (East Africa)
Borges, Alberto ULg; Descy, J.-P.; Delille, Bruno ULg et al

Poster (2009)

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See detailBiogeochemical Investigations of Coccolithophore Blooms along the Continental Margin of the Northern Bay of Biscay: Highlights of the PEACE Project
Chou, Lei; Harlay, Jérôme ULg; De Bodt, Caroline et al

Poster (2008, October 06)

Recent studies have demonstrated that changing ocean chemistry due to ocean acidification poses a growing threat for marine organisms such as corals, coccolithophores and many others that form calcareous ... [more ▼]

Recent studies have demonstrated that changing ocean chemistry due to ocean acidification poses a growing threat for marine organisms such as corals, coccolithophores and many others that form calcareous skeletons. Its biogeochemical feedbacks and impact on the oceanic carbon cycle are yet to be quantified. Coccolithophores are the major calcifying phytoplankton in the sub-polar and temperate regions of the world’s ocean. They produce furthermore transparent exopolymer particles (TEP), which are known to promote aggregate formation. Combined with the CaCO3 ballast effect, large-scale coccolithophore blooms could thus contribute to the export of organic carbon to deep waters on relatively short time scales. During the Belgian PEACE project, we have conducted yearly interdisciplinary biogeochemical surveys, assisted by remote sensing, along the continental margin of the northern Bay of Biscay where coccolithophore blooms dominated by Emiliania huxleyi are frequently and recurrently observed (Figure 1). Rates of various processes governing the coccolithophore ecosystem dynamics have been determined and associated biogeochemical parameters analysed. The overall objective is to evaluate the role in climate regulation of calcification, primary production and export processes during coccolithophore blooms. Here we report the principal results obtained during the 2006 campaign. [less ▲]

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See detailNet ecosystem production and carbon dioxide fluxes in the Scheldt estuarine plume
Borges, Alberto ULg; Ruddick, Kevin; Schiettecatte, Laure-Sophie et al

in BMC Ecology (2008), 8(15),

Background A time series of 4 consecutive years of measurements of the partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) in the Scheldt estuarine plume is used here to estimate net ecosystem production (NEP). Results NEP in ... [more ▼]

Background A time series of 4 consecutive years of measurements of the partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) in the Scheldt estuarine plume is used here to estimate net ecosystem production (NEP). Results NEP in the Scheldt estuarine plume is estimated from the temporal changes of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC). The strong seasonal variations of NEP are consistent with previous reports on organic carbon dynamics in the area. These variations are related to successive phytoplankton blooms that partly feed seasonally variable heterotrophy the rest of the year. On an annual time scale the Scheldt estuarine plume behaves as a net heterotrophic system sustained with organic carbon input from the Scheldt inner estuary and the Belgian coast. During one of the years of the time-series the estuarine plume behaved annually as a net autotrophic system. This anomalous ecosystem metabolic behaviour seemed to result from a combination of bottom-up factors affecting the spring phytoplankton bloom (increased nutrient delivery and more favourable incoming light conditions). This net autotrophy seemed to lead to a transient aa accumulation of organic carbon, most probably in the sediments, that fed a stronger heterotrophy the following year. Conclusion The present work highlights the potential of using pCO2 data to derive detailed seasonal estimates of NEP in highly dynamic coastal environments. These can be used to determine potential inter-annual variability of NEP due to natural climatic oscillations or due to changes in anthropogenic impacts. [less ▲]

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See detailA mathematical modelling of bloom of the coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi in a mesocosm experiment
Joassin, Pascal ULg; Delille, Bruno ULg; Soetaert, Karline et al

Poster (2008, July 23)

A dynamic model has been developed to represent biogeochemical variables and processes observed during a bloom of Emiliania huxleyi coccolithophore. This bloom was induced in a mesocosm experiment during ... [more ▼]

A dynamic model has been developed to represent biogeochemical variables and processes observed during a bloom of Emiliania huxleyi coccolithophore. This bloom was induced in a mesocosm experiment during which the ecosystem development was followed over a period of 23-days through changes in various biogeochemical parameters such as inorganic nutrients (nitrate, ammonium and phosphate), total alkalinity (TA), dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2), dissolved oxygen (O2), photosynthetic pigments, particulate organic carbon (POC), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), Transparent Exopolymer Particles (TEP), primary production, and calcification. This dynamic model is based on unbalanced algal growth and balanced bacterial growth. In order to adequately reproduce the observations, the model includes an explicit description of phosphorus cycling, calcification, TEP production and an enhanced mortality due to viral lysis. The model represented carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus fluxes observed in the mesocosms. Modelled profiles of algal biomass and final concentrations of DIC and nutrients are in agreement with the experimental observations. [less ▲]

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See detailMicrobiological control on the cycling of Fe and its isotopes in Antarctic sea ice
Schoemann, V.; de Jong, J.; Lannuzel, D. et al

Poster (2008, July)

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See detailCarbon dioxide dynamics in lake Kivu during the dry and wet seasons
Borges, Alberto ULg; Delille, Bruno ULg; Descy, J.-P. et al

Poster (2008, April)

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See detailMeasuring CO2 in sea ice: caveats and improvements
Geilfus, Nicolas-Xavier ULg; Delille, Bruno ULg; Verbeke, Véronique et al

Poster (2008, April)

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See detailSea ice pCO2 dynamics and related air-ice CO2 fluxes during a flood-freeze cycle (Bellingshausen Sea, Antarctica)
Geilfus, Nicolas-Xavier ULg; Tison, Jean Louis; Carnat, Gauthier et al

Poster (2008, April)

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See detailA mathematical modelling of bloom of the coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi in a mesocosm experiment
Joassin, Pascal ULg; Delille, Bruno ULg; Soetaert, K. et al

in Biogeosciences Discussions (2008), 5

A dynamic model has been developed to represent biogeochemical variables and processes observed during a bloom of Emiliania huxleyi coccolithophore. This bloom was induced in a mesocosm experiment during ... [more ▼]

A dynamic model has been developed to represent biogeochemical variables and processes observed during a bloom of Emiliania huxleyi coccolithophore. This bloom was induced in a mesocosm experiment during which the ecosystem development was followed over a period of 23-days through changes in various biogeochemical parameters such as inorganic nutrients (nitrate, ammonium and phosphate), total alkalinity (TA), dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), partial pressure of CO[SUB]2[/SUB] (pCO[SUB]2[/SUB]), dissolved oxygen (O[SUB]2[/SUB]), photosynthetic pigments, particulate organic carbon (POC), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), Transparent Exopolymer Particles (TEP), primary production, and calcification. This dynamic model is based on unbalanced algal growth and balanced bacterial growth. In order to adequately reproduce the observations, the model includes an explicit description of phosphorus cycling, calcification, TEP production and an enhanced mortality due to viral lysis. The model represented carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus fluxes observed in the mesocosms. Modelled profiles of algal biomass and final concentrations of DIC and nutrients are in agreement with the experimental observations. [less ▲]

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See detailIron study during a time series in the western Weddell pack ice
Lannuzel, Delphine; Schoemann, Veronique; de Jong, Jeroen et al

in Marine Chemistry (2008), 108(1-2), 85-95

Samples of sea ice, snow, brine and underlying seawater were collected in the western Weddell pack ice at the ISPOL drifting station (Ice Station POLarstern, 68 degrees S/55 degrees W) in spring-summer ... [more ▼]

Samples of sea ice, snow, brine and underlying seawater were collected in the western Weddell pack ice at the ISPOL drifting station (Ice Station POLarstern, 68 degrees S/55 degrees W) in spring-summer period (November 2004-January 2005). Total-dissolvable, dissolved and particulate Fe concentrations in the sea ice environment were determined every 5 days during the time series, together with relevant physical, chemical and biological parameters. From 29 November to 30 December, a decrease in all forms of Fe measured was observed, likely to be the result of enhanced ice permeability as summer proceeds. At the beginning of the time series, melting of the upper ice layer took place together with brine drainage process. This would enable the seeding of Fe from the ice matrix towards the upper water column below. 70% of this Fe was supplied during the first 10 days of the survey, while the ice cover is still present. Flux estimates from the sampled area furthermore highlight the relevant role of the pack ice in the biogeochemical cycle of Fe in the western Weddell Sea. (C) 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailInter-annual variability of the carbon dioxide oceanic sink south of Tasmania
Borges, Alberto ULg; Tilbrook, B.; Metzl, N. et al

in Biogeosciences (2008), 5(1), 141-155

We compiled a large data-set from 22 cruises spanning from 1991 to 2003, of the partial pressure of CO2 (pCO(2)) in surface waters over the continental shelf (CS) and adjacent open ocean (43 degrees to 46 ... [more ▼]

We compiled a large data-set from 22 cruises spanning from 1991 to 2003, of the partial pressure of CO2 (pCO(2)) in surface waters over the continental shelf (CS) and adjacent open ocean (43 degrees to 46 degrees S; 145 degrees to 150 degrees E), south of Tasmania. Climatological seasonal cycles of pCO(2) in the CS, the subtropical zone (STZ) and the subAntarctic zone (SAZ) are described and used to determine monthly pCO(2) anomalies. These are used in combination with monthly anomalies of sea surface temperature (SST) to investigate inter-annual variations of SST and pCO(2). Monthly anomalies of SST (as intense as 2 degrees C) are apparent in the CS, STZ and SAZ, and are indicative of strong inter-annual variability that seems to be related to large-scale coupled atmosphere-ocean oscillations. Anomalies of pCO(2) normalized to a constant temperature are negatively related to SST anomalies. A reduced winter-time vertical input of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) during phases of positive SST anomalies, related to a poleward shift of westerly winds, and a concomitant local decrease in wind stress is the likely cause of the negative relationship between pCO(2) and SST anomalies. The observed pattern is an increase of the sink for atmospheric CO2 associated with positive SST anomalies, although strongly modulated by inter-annual variability of wind speed. Assuming that phases of positive SST anomalies are indicative of the future evolution of regional ocean biogeochemistry under global warming, we show using a purely observational based approach that some provinces of the Southern Ocean could provide a potential negative feedback on increasing atmospheric CO2. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of CO2 on particle size distribution and phytoplankton abundance during a mesocosm bloom experiment (PeECE II)
Engel, Anja; Schulz, K. G.; Riebesell, U. et al

in Biogeosciences (2008), 5(2), 509-521

The influence of seawater carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration on the size distribution of suspended particles (2-60 mu m) and on phytoplankton abundance was investigated during a mesocosm experiment at the ... [more ▼]

The influence of seawater carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration on the size distribution of suspended particles (2-60 mu m) and on phytoplankton abundance was investigated during a mesocosm experiment at the large scale facility (LFS) in Bergen, Norway, in the frame of the Pelagic Ecosystem CO2 Enrichment study (PeECE II). In nine outdoor enclosures the partial pressure of CO2 in seawater was modified by an aeration system to simulate past (similar to 190 mu atm CO2), present (similar to 370 mu atm CO2) and future (similar to 700 mu atm CO2) CO2 conditions in triplicates. Due to the initial addition of inorganic nutrients, phytoplankton blooms developed in all mesocosms and were monitored over a period of 19 days. Seawater samples were collected daily for analysing the abundance of suspended particles and phytoplankton with the Coulter Counter and with Flow Cytometry, respectively. During the bloom period, the abundance of small particles (< 4 mu m) significantly increased at past, and decreased at future CO2 levels. At that time, a direct relationship between the total-surface-to-total-volume ratio of suspended particles and DIC concentration was determined for all mesocosms. Significant changes with respect to the CO2 treatment were also observed in the phytoplankton community structure. While some populations such as diatoms seemed to be insensitive to the CO2 treatment, others like Micromonas spp. increased with CO2, or showed maximum abundance at present day CO2 (i.e. Emiliania huxleyi). The strongest response to CO2 was observed in the abundance of small autotrophic nano-plankton that strongly increased during the bloom in the past CO2 mesocosms. Together, changes in particle size distribution and phytoplankton community indicate a complex interplay between the ability of the cells to physiologically respond to changes in CO2 and size selection. Size of cells is of general importance for a variety of processes in marine systems such as diffusion-limited uptake of substrates, resource allocation, predator-prey interaction, and gravitational settling. The observed changes in particle size distribution are therefore discussed with respect to biogeochemical cycling and ecosystem functioning. [less ▲]

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