References of "Degueldre, Christian"
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See detailNeural correlates of "hot" and "cold" emotional processing : a multilevel approach to the functional anatomy of emotion
Schaefer, Alexandre; Collette, Fabienne ULg; Philippot, Pierre et al

in Neuroimage (2003), 18(4), 938-949

The neural correlates of two hypothesized emotional processing modes, i.e., schematic and propositional modes, were investigated with positron emission tomography. Nineteen subjects performed an emotional ... [more ▼]

The neural correlates of two hypothesized emotional processing modes, i.e., schematic and propositional modes, were investigated with positron emission tomography. Nineteen subjects performed an emotional mental imagery task while mentally repeating sentences linked to the meaning of the imagery script. In the schematic conditions, participants repeated metaphoric sentences, whereas in the propositional conditions, the sentences were explicit questions about specific emotional appraisals of the imagery scenario. Five types of emotional scripts were proposed to the subjects (happiness, anger, affection, sadness, and a neutral scenario). The results supported the hypothesized distinction between schematic and propositional emotional processing modes. Specifically, schematic mode was associated with increased activity in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex whereas propositional mode was associated with activation of the anterolateral prefrontal cortex. In addition, interaction analyses showed that schematic versus propositional processing of happiness (compared with the neutral scenario) was associated with increased activity in the ventral striatum whereas "schematic anger" was tentatively associated with activation of the ventral pallidum. (C) 2003 Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of Alzheimer's disease on the recognition of novel versus familiar words : Neuropsychological and clinico-metabolic data
Lekeu, Françoise ULg; Van der Linden, Martial ULg; Degueldre, Christian ULg et al

in Neuropsychology (2003), 17(1), 143-154

This study explored recognition memory performance for novel versus familiar words in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients and normal controls (NCs), using an adaptation of E. Tulving and N. Kroll's (1995 ... [more ▼]

This study explored recognition memory performance for novel versus familiar words in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients and normal controls (NCs), using an adaptation of E. Tulving and N. Kroll's (1995) procedure. Results showed that both groups exhibited more hits and more false alarms for familiar than for novel words. The groups did not differ in the recognition of familiar words, reflecting preserved familiarity processes in AD. However, AD patients made more false alarms than NCs in the recognition of novel words, reflecting impairment of recollection processes in AD. A positron emission tomography analysis of clinico-metabolic correlations in AD patients showed a correlation between recognition of novel words and right hippocampal activity, whereas recognition of familiar words was more related to metabolic activity in the left posterior orbitofrontal cortex. [less ▲]

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See detailBrain correlates of performance in a free/cued recall task with semantic encoding in Alzheimer disease
Lekeu, Françoise ULg; Van der Linden, Martial ULg; Chicherio, C. et al

in Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders (2003), 17(1), 35-45

The goal of this study was to explore in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) the brain correlates of free and cued recall performance using an adaptation of the procedure developed by Grober and ... [more ▼]

The goal of this study was to explore in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) the brain correlates of free and cued recall performance using an adaptation of the procedure developed by Grober and Buschke (1987). This procedure, which ensures semantic processing and coordinates encoding and retrieval, has been shown to be very sensitive to an early diagnosis of AD. Statistical parametric mapping (SPM 99) was used to establish clinicometabolic correlations between performance at free and cued verbal recall and resting brain metabolism in 31 patients with AD. Results showed that patient's score on free recall correlated with metabolic activity in right frontal regions (BA 10 and BA 45), suggesting that performance reflected a strategic retrieval attempt. Poor retrieval performance was tentatively attributed to a loss of functional correlation between frontal and medial temporal regions in patients with AD compared with elderly controls. Performance on cued recall was correlated to residual metabolic activity in bilateral parahippocampal regions (BA 36), suggesting that performance reflected retrieval of semantic associations, without recollection in AD. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that the diagnostic sensitivity for Alzheimer's disease of the cued recall performance in the Grober and Buschke procedure (1987) depends on the activity of parahippocampal regions, one of the earliest targets of the disease. Moreover, the results suggest that the poor performance of patients with AD during free and cued recall is related to a decreased connectivity between parahippocampal regions and frontal areas. [less ▲]

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See detailThe neural substrates of the central executive: Exploration of the updating and shifting processes
Collette, Fabienne ULg; Van der Linden, Martial ULg; Delchambre, Marie et al

Conference (2002, December)

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See detailBrain function in the vegetative state
Laureys, Steven ULg; Antoine, S.; Boly, Mélanie ULg et al

in Acta Neurologica Belgica (2002), 102(4), 177-185

Positron emission tomography (PET) techniques represent a useful tool to better understand the residual brain function in vegetative state patients. It has been shown that overall cerebral metabolic rates ... [more ▼]

Positron emission tomography (PET) techniques represent a useful tool to better understand the residual brain function in vegetative state patients. It has been shown that overall cerebral metabolic rates for glucose are massively reduced in this condition. However, the recovery of consciousness from vegetative state is not always associated with substantial changes in global metabolism. This finding led us to hypothesize that some vegetative patients are unconscious not just because of a global loss of neuronal function, but rather due to an altered activity in some critical brain regions and to the abolished functional connections between them. We used voxel-based Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM) approaches to characterize the functional neuroanatomy of the vegetative state. The most dysfunctional brain regions were bilateral frontal and parieto-temporal associative cortices. Despite the metabolic impairment, external stimulation still induced a significant neuronal activation (i.e., change in blood flow) in vegetative patients as shown by both auditory click stimuli and noxious somatosensory stimuli. However this activation was limited to primary cortices and dissociated from higher-order associative cortices, thought to be necessary for conscious perception. Finally, we demonstrated that vegetative patients have impaired functional connections between distant cortical areas and between the thalami and the cortex and, more importantly, that recovery of consciousness is paralleled by a restoration of this cortico-thalamo-cortical interaction. [less ▲]

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See detailCortical processing of noxious somatosensory stimuli in the persistent vegetative state
Laureys, Steven ULg; Faymonville, Marie-Elisabeth ULg; Peigneux, Philippe ULg et al

in NeuroImage (2002), 17(2), 732-741

The persistent vegetative state (PVS) is a devastating medical condition characterized by preserved wakefulness contrasting with absent voluntary interaction with the environment. We used positron ... [more ▼]

The persistent vegetative state (PVS) is a devastating medical condition characterized by preserved wakefulness contrasting with absent voluntary interaction with the environment. We used positron emission tomography to assess the central processing of noxious somatosensory stimuli in the PVS. Changes in regional cerebral blood flow were measured during high-intensity electrical stimulation of the median nerve compared with rest in 15 nonsedated patients and in 15 healthy controls. Evoked potentials were recorded simultaneously. The stimuli were experienced as highly unpleasant to painful in controls. Brain glucose metabolism was also studied with [F-18]fluorodeoxyglucose in resting conditions. In PVS patients, overall cerebral metabolism was 40% of normal values. Nevertheless, noxious somatosensory stimulation-activated midbrain, contralateral thalamus, and primary somatosensory cortex in each and every PVS patient, even in the absence of detectable cortical evoked potentials. Secondary somatosensory, bilateral insular, posterior parietal, and anterior cingulate cortices did not show activation in any patient. Moreover, in PVS patients, the activated primary somatosensory cortex was functionally disconnected from secondary somatosensory, bilateral posterior parietal, premotor, polysensory superior temporal, and prefrontal cortices. In conclusion, somatosensory stimulation of PVS patients, at intensities that elicited pain in controls, resulted in increased neuronal activity in primary somatosensory cortex, even if resting brain metabolism was severely impaired. However, this activation of primary cortex seems to be isolated and dissociated from higher-order associative cortices. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science (USA). [less ▲]

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See detailThe neural substrates of the central executive: Exploration of the updating and shifting processes
Collette, Fabienne ULg; Van der Linden, Martial ULg; Delchambre, Marie et al

Conference (2002, September)

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See detailBlood flow variation in human muscle during electrically stimulated exercise bouts
Vanderthommen, Marc ULg; Depresseux, J. C.; Dauchat, L. et al

in Archives of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation (2002), 83(7), 936-941

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate, with a high spatial resolution, the blood flow variations in human skeletal muscle during neuromuscular electric stimulation (NMES) and hence to gain better understanding of the ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate, with a high spatial resolution, the blood flow variations in human skeletal muscle during neuromuscular electric stimulation (NMES) and hence to gain better understanding of the mechanisms of muscle spatial recruitment during NMES. DESIGN: One thigh was submitted to 3 stimulation bouts of different durations (S1=4min, S2=8min, S3=12min) with a workload corresponding to 10% of quadriceps maximal isometric voluntary torque. SETTING: A cyclotron research center at a Belgian university. PARTICIPANTS: Ten healthy male volunteers. INTERVENTIONS: Not applicable. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Participants were studied with positron emission tomography and H(2)(15)O. Tissue blood flow was evaluated during the last 4 minutes of each stimulation bout in multiple regions of interest (ROIs) selected in the transverse section of the stimulated thigh. RESULTS: Mean tissue blood flow was significantly lower during S1 (5.9+/-1.3mL. min(-1). 100g(-1)) than during S2 (10.6+/-3.4mL. min(-1). 100g(-1)) and S3 (11.6+/-3.7mL. min(-1). 100g(-1)) (P<.05). For each ROI, an arbitrary tissue blood flow activation level of 5mLmin(-1)100g(-1) was fixed. The mean percentage of activated ROIs reached 42.4%, 62.7%, and 63.6% during S1, S2, and S3, respectively. Between S1 and S3, the newly recruited ROIs were preferentially located far from the electrode. CONCLUSION: During NMES, new muscular regions situated far from the stimulation site are recruited. These recruitment mechanisms are particular and contrast with the recruitment of motor units seen during voluntary contraction. [less ▲]

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See detailA PET investigation of lexicality and phonotactic frequency in oral language processing
Majerus, Steve ULg; Collette, Fabienne ULg; Van der Linden, Martial ULg et al

in Cognitive Neuropsychology (2002), 19(4), 343-360

Lexicality and phonotactic frequency effects are observed in many cognitive studies on language processing, but little is known about their underlying neural substrates, especially with regard to ... [more ▼]

Lexicality and phonotactic frequency effects are observed in many cognitive studies on language processing, but little is known about their underlying neural substrates, especially with regard to phonotactic frequency effects. Here, we conducted a positron emission tomography (PET) study in which 11 right-handed volunteers had either to repeat or to listen to lists of words, high phonotactic frequency nonwords, and low phonotactic frequency nonwords. The comparison of word versus nonword processing consistently confirmed previous findings of left temporal and prefrontal activations classically ascribed to lexicosemantic processing. Higher activation was found in the right posterior superior temporal gyrus when comparing high phonotactic frequency nonwords to words, but not when comparing low phonotactic frequency nonwords to words. We propose that this region is implicated in the formation of temporary phonological representations for high-probability phonological events, which may support processing of high phonotactic frequency nonwords [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of incidental and intentional feature binding on recognition: a behavioural and PET activation study
Lekeu, Françoise ULg; Van der Linden, Martial ULg; Collette, Fabienne ULg et al

in Neuropsychologia (2002), 40(2), 131-144

Using Positron Emission Tomography (PET), we investigated cerebral regions associated with the episodic recognition of words alone and words bound to contextual colours. Two modes of colour encoding were ... [more ▼]

Using Positron Emission Tomography (PET), we investigated cerebral regions associated with the episodic recognition of words alone and words bound to contextual colours. Two modes of colour encoding were tested: incidental and intentional word-to-colour binding. Word-only recognition was associated with brain activation in a lexico-semantic left middle temporal region and in the cerebellum following an incidental colour encoding, and with brain activation in the left posterior middle frontal gyrus, right anterior cingulate and right inferior frontal gyrus following an intentional encoding. Recognition of bound features was associated with activation in left prefrontal and superior parietal regions following an incidental colour encoding, and with preferential right prefrontal cortex activation following an intentional colour encoding. Our results are in line with the hypothesis of a parietal involvement in context processing, and prefrontal areas in monitoring retrieval processes. Our results also support the hypothesis of a 'cortical asymmetry for reflective activity' (CARA). [less ▲]

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See detailIdentification of viable myocardium early after acute myocardial infarction using closed-loop arbutamine echocardiography: comparison with positron emission tomography
PIERARD, Luc ULg; MELON, Pierre ULg; LANCELLOTTI, Patrizio ULg et al

in Acta Cardiologica (2001), 56(6), 387-394

Objective -This study sought to evaluate the safety and efficacy of arbutamine echocardiography in identifying contractile reserve and predicting functional improvement early after acute myocardial ... [more ▼]

Objective -This study sought to evaluate the safety and efficacy of arbutamine echocardiography in identifying contractile reserve and predicting functional improvement early after acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Methods and results - Seventeen patients with first AMI underwent arbutamine echocardiography 48 to 96 hours after AMI. Arbutamine was infused by a closed-loop delivery device. The heart rate slope was 4 beats/min and the heart rate target was 20 beats/min above baseline heart rate. A follow-up echocardiogram was obtained one month later. N- 13 ammonia and F- 18 FDG positron emission tomographic (PET) imaging were performed 6 2 days after AMI, before coronary angiography. Mean duration of arbutamine infusion was 6 2 min. There was no complication and there were no major side effects. Myocardial viability was identified with PET in 15 of the 17 patients. Contractile reserve was observed in 10 patients during arbutamine infusion. Functional recovery was identified in 12 patients. Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of PET and arbutamine echocardiography for predicting functional recovery were 100%, 40%, 76% and 67%, 80%, 84%, respectively. Conclusions - Low-dose arbutamine stress testing is safe early after AMI. Contractile reserve can be rapidly identified by echo cardiography and is specific, but moderately sensitive for predicting reversible dysfunction. [less ▲]

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See detailNeural and cognitive bases of upper limb apraxia in corticobasal degeneration
Peigneux, Philippe ULg; Salmon, Eric ULg; Garraux, Gaëtan ULg et al

in Neurology (2001), 57(7), 1259-1268

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the neural and cognitive bases of upper limb apraxia in corticobasal degeneration (CBD). METHODS: Eighteen patients with CBD underwent a cognitive neuropsychological assessment ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the neural and cognitive bases of upper limb apraxia in corticobasal degeneration (CBD). METHODS: Eighteen patients with CBD underwent a cognitive neuropsychological assessment of apraxia and resting [(18)F]-fluorodeoxyglucose PET scanning. Two complementary measures of apraxia were computed for each modality of gesture production. First, a performance score measured error frequency during gesture execution. Second, as a more stringent test of the integrity of the praxis system, the correction score measured the patient's ability to correct his or her errors on a second attempt. For each measure type, a cut-off score for the presence of apraxia was defined with regard to healthy controls. Using each cut-off score, the regional cerebral glucose metabolism of patients with CBD with apraxia (i.e., performing below cut-off score) was compared with that of patients with CBD without apraxia. RESULTS: Mean performance scores were below normal values in all modalities. Anterior cingulate hypometabolism predominated in patients with CBD who performed below the cut-off performance score. At variance, mean correction scores were below normal values for gesture imitation only. Hypometabolism in superior parietal lobule and supplementary motor area characterized patients with CBD who were unable to correct their errors at the same rate as control subjects did. CONCLUSIONS: Distinct neural networks underlie distinct aspects of the upper limb apraxic deficits in CBD. Extending previous findings of gesture production deficits in CBD, the use of complementary measures of apraxic behavior discloses a visuoimitative upper limb apraxia in CBD, underlain by a metabolic decrease in a parietofrontal neural network. [less ▲]

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See detailGeneration of rapid eye movements during paradoxical sleep in humans
Peigneux, Philippe ULg; Laureys, Steven ULg; Fuchs, Sonia et al

in NeuroImage (2001), 14(3), 701-708

Although rapid eye movements (REMs) are a prominent feature of paradoxical sleep (PS), their origin and functional significance remain poorly understood in humans. In animals, including nonhuman primates ... [more ▼]

Although rapid eye movements (REMs) are a prominent feature of paradoxical sleep (PS), their origin and functional significance remain poorly understood in humans. In animals, including nonhuman primates, REMs during PS are closely related to the occurrence of the so-called PGO waves, i.e., prominent phasic activities recorded throughout the brain but predominantly and most easily in the pons (P), the lateral geniculate bodies (G), and the occipital cortex (O). Therefore, and because the evolution of species is parsimonious, a plausible hypothesis would be that during PS in humans, REMs are generated by mechanisms similar to PGO waves. Using positron emission tomography and iterative cerebral blood flow measurements by H(2)(15)O infusions, we predicted that the brain regions where the PGO waves are the most easily recorded in animals would be differentially more active in PS than in wakefulness, in relation with the density of the REM production [i.e., we looked for the condition (PS versus wakefulness) by performance (REM density) interaction]. Accordingly, we found a significant interaction effect in the right geniculate body and in the primary occipital cortex. The result supports the hypothesis of the existence of processes similar to PGO waves in humans, responsible for REM generation. The interest in the presence of PGO waves in humans is outstanding because the cellular processes involved in, or triggered by, PGO waves might favor brain plasticity during PS. [less ▲]

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See detailThe functional anatomy of inhibition processes investigated with the Hayling task
Collette, Fabienne ULg; Van der Linden, Martial ULg; Delfiore, Guy et al

in Neuroimage (2001), 14(2), 258-267

The cortical areas involved in inhibition processes were examined with positron emission tomography (PET). The tasks administered to subjects were an adaptation of the Hayling test. In the first condition ... [more ▼]

The cortical areas involved in inhibition processes were examined with positron emission tomography (PET). The tasks administered to subjects were an adaptation of the Hayling test. In the first condition (response initiation), subjects had to complete sentences with a word clearly suggested by the context, whereas in the second condition (response inhibition), subjects had to produce a word that made no sense in the context of the sentence. Results indicated that the response initiation processes were associated to increases of activity in the left inferior frontal gyrus (BA 45/47), whereas response inhibition processes led to increases in a network of left prefrontal areas, including the middle (BA 9 and BA 10) and inferior (BA 45) frontal areas. [less ▲]

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See detailContribution of Lexico-Semantic Processes to Verbal Short-Term Memory Tasks: A Pet Activation Study
Collette, Fabienne ULg; Majerus, Steve ULg; Van der Linden, Martial ULg et al

in Memory (2001), 9(4-6), 249-259

Recent studies have demonstrated the intervention of long-term memory processes in verbal STM tasks and several cognitive models have been proposed to explain these effects. A PET study was performed in ... [more ▼]

Recent studies have demonstrated the intervention of long-term memory processes in verbal STM tasks and several cognitive models have been proposed to explain these effects. A PET study was performed in order to determine whether supplementary cerebral areas are involved when subjects have to execute short-term memory tasks for items having representations in long-term memory (in comparison to items without such representations: words vs non-words). Results indicate that verbal STM for words specifically involves the left middle temporal gyrus (BA 21) and temporo-parietal junction (BA 39). These areas can be associated with lexical and semantic processes. These results are in agreement with cognitive models that postulate the simultaneous influence of lexical and semantic long-term representations on verbal STM processes and/or a lexico-semantic buffer. [less ▲]

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See detailExperience-dependent changes in cerebral functional connectivity during human rapid eye movement sleep
Laureys, Steven ULg; Peigneux, Philippe ULg; Phillips, Christophe ULg et al

in Neuroscience (2001), 105(3), 521-525

One function of sleep is hypothesized to be the reprocessing and consolidation of memory traces (Smith, 1995; Gais et al., 2000; McGaugh, 2000; Stickgold et al., 2000). At the cellular level, neuronal ... [more ▼]

One function of sleep is hypothesized to be the reprocessing and consolidation of memory traces (Smith, 1995; Gais et al., 2000; McGaugh, 2000; Stickgold et al., 2000). At the cellular level, neuronal reactivations during post-training sleep in animals have been observed in hippocampal (Wilson and McNaughton, 1994) and cortical (Amzica et al., 1997) neuronal populations. At the systems level, using positron emission tomography, we have recently shown that some brain areas reactivated during rapid-eye-movement sleep in human subjects previously trained on an implicit learning task (a serial reaction time task) (Maquet et al., 2000). These cortical reactivations, located in the left premotor area and bilateral cuneus, were thought to reflect the reprocessing - possibly the consolidation - of memory traces during post-training rapid-eye-movement sleep. Here, the experience-dependent functional connectivity of these brain regions is examined. It is shown that the left premotor cortex is functionally more correlated with the left posterior parietal cortex and bilateral pre-supplementary motor area during rapid-eye-movement sleep of subjects previously trained to the reaction time task compared to rapid-eye-movement sleep of untrained subjects. The increase in functional connectivity during post-training rapid-eye-movement sleep suggests that the brain areas reactivated during post-training rapid-eye-movement sleep participate in the optimization of the network that subtends subject's visuo-motor response. The optimization of this visuo-motor network during sleep could explain the gain in performance observed during the following day. [less ▲]

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See detailEtudes par tomographie à émission de positons chez des patients en coma, en état végétatif ou de conscience minimale, en «locked-in syndrome» et en mort cérébrale
Laureys, Steven ULg; Faymonville, Marie-Elisabeth ULg; Berre, Jacques et al

in L'évaluation neurophysiologique des comas, de la mort encéphalique et des états végétatifs (2001)

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See detailVoxel-based distribution of metabolic impairment in corticobasal degeneration
Garraux, Gaëtan ULg; Salmon, Eric ULg; Peigneux, Philippe ULg et al

in Movement Disorders (2000), 15(5), 894-904

This report emphasizes the precise topographic distribution of cerebral metabolic impairment in corticobasal degeneration (CBD) and the pathophysiological differences between CBD and progressive ... [more ▼]

This report emphasizes the precise topographic distribution of cerebral metabolic impairment in corticobasal degeneration (CBD) and the pathophysiological differences between CBD and progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP). Statistical parametric mapping (SPM96) analysis of 18FDG positron emission tomography (PET) data was performed in 22 patients with CBD compared with 46 healthy subjects (HS) and 21 patients with PSP who were studied at rest. A statistical threshold of p <0.001 was fixed, further corrected for multiple or independent comparisons (p <0.05). In comparison with HS, the metabolic impairment in CBD was asymmetrically distributed in the putamen, thalamus, precentral (Brodmann's area, BA 4), lateral premotor (BA 6/44) and supplementary motor areas (SMA, BA 6), dorsolateral prefrontal (8/9/46) cortex, and the anterior part of the inferior parietal lobe (BA 40) including the intraparietal sulcus (BA 7/40). A similar hypometabolic pattern was observed for most individual analyses. When PSP was compared with CBD, metabolic impairment predominated in the midbrain, anterior cingulate (BA 24/32), and orbitofrontal regions (BA 10). The reverse contrast showed more posterior involvement in CBD (BA 6 and 5/7/40) including SMA. Our data suggest that multiple components of neural networks related to both movement execution and production of skilled movements are functionally disturbed in CBD compared with both HS and PSP. [less ▲]

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