References of "Degré, Aurore"
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See detailErosion and rainfall erosivity under climate change: rainfall simulation and soil losses measurement at field scale
Kummert, Nora ULg; Beckers, Eléonore ULg; Degre, Aurore ULg

in Geophysical Research Abstracts (2011), 13

Soil and water conservation is a big issue of this century. The soil is a non renewable resource. As we know, the change in climate brings more short erosive rainfall with a high capacity to take away the ... [more ▼]

Soil and water conservation is a big issue of this century. The soil is a non renewable resource. As we know, the change in climate brings more short erosive rainfall with a high capacity to take away the topsoil. Moreover, topsoil contains all the nutrients the plants needs. It is now essential that we found a new balance between productivity and durability. Impacts of new agricultural techniques on soil structure are already studied in different countries (i.e. Beckers et al., 2010; Walh et al., 2004; Malone et al., 2003). But what are the impacts on erosion? That is a question with few answers. And this is where our experiment comes, in order to link erosion and future erosion with management practices. Two ways exist to act against soil losses: enhancing soil structure or increasing vegetation cover. Our study aims at measuring soil losses and runoff under different practices and for a future scenario of climate change. This study explores new practices and measures their effects on erosion and runoff under a future rainfall. We focus on two cultures: sugar beet and maize. Each is tested under three different systems. For sugar beet soil structure impact is monitored: three tillage systems are tested: winter ploughing, fall ploughing and fall topsoiling. For maize vegetation cover impact is monitored: three seeding systems are studied: classical seeding (75 cm interrow), classical seeding with Ray-grass seeding in the interrows, and distributed seeding (obtained with a grains seeder). Rainfall simulation has been chosen for the study so the impacts of climate change can also be tested. A future rainfall was calculated based on a climate change scenario for Belgium (CCI-HYDR project, Willems, 2006-2010). A basic current rainfall of 100 years return period and 30 minutes duration (correspondent intensity: 70 mm/h) entered into the model gives the new rainfall. After the application of the scenario, the new rainfall has an intensity of 80 mm/h. This is our future rainfall used in this experiment. The simulations of this rainfall were carried on during the main crop season (between June and August). Three simulations were performed on sugar beet and two on maize on plots with the dimensions: 3 m length and 90 cm and 120 cm width respectively for sugar beet and maize (corresponding to two rows of the main culture). During each simulation soil losses and runoff quantities were measured. From the first year experiment, some tendencies can be observed. The topsoiling on sugar beet culture seems to produce less soil losses when the winter ploughing gives the lower quantities of runoff. The distributed seeding for the maize culture gives the lower rates for both soil losses and runoff quantities. Our experiment will be repeated at least for the next two years with new future rainfall to be tested. The climatic conditions are an important factor which can modify the behavior of soil response under rainfall event. More research has to be done in order to improve our knowledge of runoff and erosion phenomenon at smaller scale. [less ▲]

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See detailA methodology to assess the exactness of Stream Network modeling process on agricultural watersheds
Ouedraogo, Mohamar ULg; Degre, Aurore ULg; Beckers, Eléonore ULg et al

in Geophysical Research Abstracts (2011)

The goal of our study is to evaluate the exactness of stream network modeling process on agricultural watersheds. Agricultural watersheds topography is always changing, making it difficult to be modeled ... [more ▼]

The goal of our study is to evaluate the exactness of stream network modeling process on agricultural watersheds. Agricultural watersheds topography is always changing, making it difficult to be modeled. According to the standard ISO-7078 (ISO-7078, 1985) of the Inernational Organization of Standardization, the exactness of a measurement process or a modeled process can be defined as the difference between results obtained from the measurement process and a reference accepted as the «true value». A small watershed of a dozen hectares size has been surveyed by terrestrial LiDAR (Light Detecting And Ranging) scanner and photogrammetrical techniques to produce a row data of 30 cm resolution. Three interpolation techniques i.e. natural neighbourg, multiquadratic radial basis function and inverse distance weighted have been applied on the original data to create original digital elevation models (DEM) of 1 m resolution. RTK (Real Time Kinematics) GPS (Global Positionning System) ground control points have been surveyed on the watershed to evaluate DEM errors and fit a variogram that is used by a conditional sequencial gaussian simulation model to generate error maps. However, ground control point’s elevations accuracy is depending on the microtopography of parcels in an agricultural watershed. Depending on the crop that is planned by the farmer, the soil tillage will be different, and soil structure and roughness can considerably influence ground control point’s elevation. Analysis of variance and geostatistical methods have been applied on total station and RTK GPS data to estimate intervals in which, ground control points elevations vary. These intervals have been estimated for two parcels that soils are tilled in different ways. These errors are added to the generated errors maps to create final error maps. The final errors maps are added to the original DEM to create likely DEM realizations for the watershed (Temme and al., 2007). Then, two spurious sinks filtering methods (Colson 2006; Lindsay and Creed, 2005) and one flat area treatment method (Jenson and Domingue, 1988) are applied on each DEM realization for preprocessing. Finally, the three common flow direction extraction methods (D8, D-infity and Multiple Flow Direction) are applied on each preprocessed DEM to extract stream Network. The extracted stream network is overlapped with RTK GPS field positioned stream network i.e. a polyline format data. To estimate the exactness of the stream extraction methods, the polyline format is converted in raster format. That allows to compute for each pixel of the observed stream network, the distance to the extracted stream network. Then, for each pixel the mean distance can be calculated, and can be represented through the stream network. LiDAR technology is becoming useful for environment modeling because of his accuracy. Such quantity of data is not free of errors. This research will allow us to estimate the uncertainty of stream network modeled from agricultural watersheds by considering the main sources of errors that are propagated through computing processes. [less ▲]

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See detailL’hydrologie, une partenaire de la géomorphopédologie pour une gestion transéchelle des grands enjeux environnementaux
Degre, Aurore ULg; Sohier, Catherine ULg; Colard, François ULg et al

Conference (2010, November 24)

La zone insaturée du sol et du sous-sol est souvent qualifiée de zone critique, étant donné son rôle d’interfaçage entre les compartiments aérien et souterrain de notre environnement. Dans les thématiques ... [more ▼]

La zone insaturée du sol et du sous-sol est souvent qualifiée de zone critique, étant donné son rôle d’interfaçage entre les compartiments aérien et souterrain de notre environnement. Dans les thématiques du transfert des solutés ou de la conservation des eaux et des sols, les recherches d’hydrologie et d’hydraulique agricole s’appuient sur les informations pédologiques et ce depuis une échelle extrêmement locale jusqu’à la vision régionale de la gestion environnementale. Le rôle des descriptions pédologiques dans la gestion et la protection des ressources naturelles est donc majeur. La dérivation des paramètres hydrodynamiques depuis les descriptions pédologiques des sols permet à l’hydrologue de quantifier et de représenter spatialement la dynamique des échanges eau-sol-végétation-atmosphère, les déplacements de l’eau dans le sol et la vadose ainsi que les déplacements et les transformations des solutés. L’hydrologue en retire des indicateurs de pression sur les ressources hydriques de surface et souterraine. Il calcule des flux d’eau, de nutriments et de sédiments à un pas de temps très fin et durant de longues périodes (plus de 30 années). Les recherches présentées ici couvrent la modélisation hydrologique physiquement basée à l’échelle régionale qui vise l’analyse prospective (au-delà de 2020) des mesures envisagées pour limiter les pollutions diffuses d’origine agricole, tout comme des modélisations physiques détaillées en sites expérimentaux. L’érosion hydrique des sols est un autre un enjeu majeur de gestion environnementale. Le sol étant une ressource peu renouvelable, les techniques de conservation des sols et l’aménagement hydraulique des bassins versants ruraux nécessitent la plus grande considération. Elles sont un outil supplémentaire de limitation des apports au cours d’eau (tant en termes de sédiments qu’en termes de nutriments). Là encore, les descriptions pédologiques permettent de cibler les sols les plus sensibles. De plus, les cartes des sols qui incluent une interprétation géomorphologique permettent de confronter les modèles d’arrachement, de transport et de dépôt de sédiments aux observations des pédologues faites lors des premiers levés et actuellement en cours. Ces observations de terrain, réalisées à plusieurs dizaines d’années d’intervalle, constituent un gisement de données précieux et quasiment unique pour la validation des modèles hydrologiques de perte en sol et de dépôt et en vue de l’étude morphodynamique des bassins versants. Il reste actuellement des besoins en termes de description pédologique. Ils ont trait à la caractérisation plus fine de certains sigles, où l’introduction d’éléments relatifs à la dynamique des flux pourrait s’avérer pertinente. Toutefois, on peut constater que dans le contexte actuel et crucial de préservation des ressources eau et sol, l’hydrologie et la science du sol sont réaffirmées comme des partenaires forts de gestion des grands enjeux environnementaux. [less ▲]

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See detailMicro-catchments classification: a tool for mud flow mitigation
Degre, Aurore ULg; Mokadem, Abdel Ilah; Cordonnier, Hélène et al

Poster (2010, November)

Hydrologic similarities between catchments can be of use in the context of overland flood and mud flow hazards management. In Wallonia, upstream micro-catchments were mapped for each runoff concentration ... [more ▼]

Hydrologic similarities between catchments can be of use in the context of overland flood and mud flow hazards management. In Wallonia, upstream micro-catchments were mapped for each runoff concentration axis. The outlets of these catchments are considered at the point where water reaches the permanent river stream. No less than 145 547 micro catchments were mapped in Wallonia (16900 km²). Their area varies between 1 and 1233 ha (mean area: 7.8 ha). A data base was built up to synthesize their major characteristics like e.g. area, shape and mean slope. No clear classification appeared. At this stage, it became obvious that the major components of these catchments had to be handled simultaneously from a hydrological point of view in order to produce a clear classification. The main hydrologic significant data are available in Wallonia: the digital soil map at 1/20 000 scale, the DTM (raster file of 10 meters resolution), digital land use at 1/10 000 scale and spatial statistics for rain (IDF curves for each commune). A hydrologic model was developed using the python programming language in the ArcGis 9.3 environment. This model is based on the NRCS – USDA method. Rain abstraction is calculated on the basis of a CN (curve number) which integrates the soil type, the land use and the slope. Water transfer is computed using a convolution based on triangular unit hydrogrammes. This calculation includes the concentration time which integrates the catchment morphology (shape and slope) and the land use (roughness). The MUSLE equation is also computed in order to handle the sediment problem. The results consist in a full project hydrograph, peak flow value, flood water volume and sediment quantification in response to a project rainfall. The CN and MUSLE semi-empirical methods are validated at larger scale in Wallonia but have still to demonstrate their efficiency at the micro-catchment scale. Nevertheless, the aforementioned variables can be considered as integration factors of the whole hydrological context of the micro-catchments. It allows us to build advice on overland flow and mud flow mitigation at watershed scale. This approach can also be of help to compare ungauged micro-catchments between each other and possibly transpose the soil conservation practices from a site to another. [less ▲]

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See detailEvolution des structures de sols sous itinéraires techniques contrastés : relations entre courbes de rétention et analyse par microtomographie à rayons X
Beckers, Eléonore ULg; Roisin, Christian; Léonard, Angélique ULg et al

in Milieux Poreux et Transferts Hydriques (2010, November), 56

Tillage reduction seems to affect porosity distribution, orientation and connectivity. Soil samples were removed from plots under conventional tillage or reduced tillage. Their water retention curves were ... [more ▼]

Tillage reduction seems to affect porosity distribution, orientation and connectivity. Soil samples were removed from plots under conventional tillage or reduced tillage. Their water retention curves were measured, and the characterization of soils porosity was made using x-ray microtomography measurements. Results show differences in the meso as well as in the macroporosity. [less ▲]

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See detailEvolution des structures de sols sous itinéraires techniques contrastés : relation entre courbes de rétention et analyse par microtomographie aux rayons X
Beckers, Eléonore ULg; Roisin, Christian; Léonard, Angélique ULg et al

Poster (2010, November)

Tillage reduction seems to affect porosity distribution, orientation and connectivity. Soil samples were removed from plots under conventional tillage or reduced tillage. Their water retention curves were ... [more ▼]

Tillage reduction seems to affect porosity distribution, orientation and connectivity. Soil samples were removed from plots under conventional tillage or reduced tillage. Their water retention curves were measured, and the characterization of soils porosity was made using x-ray microtomography measurements. Results show differences in the meso as well as in the macroporosity. [less ▲]

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See detailModélisation de la pollution agricole diffuse vers les eaux de surface et souterraines: le projet QualVados
Degre, Aurore ULg; Sohier, Catherine ULg

Scientific conference (2010, October 21)

La pollution diffuse issue de l’agriculture est une donnée majeure de la gestion durable des ressources en eau. Elle doit prendre en compte tant les variables environnementales (Sol, sous-sol, relief ... [more ▼]

La pollution diffuse issue de l’agriculture est une donnée majeure de la gestion durable des ressources en eau. Elle doit prendre en compte tant les variables environnementales (Sol, sous-sol, relief, météo) que les modes de gestion de l’espace (occupation du sol, pratiques agricoles). Le modèle EPICgrid est un modèle hydrologique distribué et physiquement basé qui a été développé à cette fin par l’unité d’Hydrologie et Hydraulique agricole de Gembloux Agro-Bio Tech. Il permet la quantification des pertes d’azote tant vers les eaux de surface que vers les eaux souterraines et couvre toute la Wallonie. Depuis 2006, le projet QualVados (qualité de la zone vadose) a permis d’importants développements visant à prendre en compte notamment les nouvelles réglementations (PGDA et MAE) et les nouvelles données disponibles (COSW et campagnes APL). Des simulations prospectives de la qualité des ressources en eau ont été menées jusqu’aux différentes échéances de la Directive cadre sur l’eau. L’exposé synthétisera les nouveaux développements et les enseignements issus de ces modélisations. [less ▲]

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See detailProjet GISER - Elaboration d'un module de calcul des écoulements par la méthode SCS
Colard, François ULg; Mokadem, Abdel Ilah; Cordonnier, Hélène et al

Poster (2010, October 20)

Le projet GISER (gestion intégrée sol érosion ruissellement) consiste en différents axes de travail. Le poster présente un des outils opérationnels de calcul du ruissellement et des rendements en ... [more ▼]

Le projet GISER (gestion intégrée sol érosion ruissellement) consiste en différents axes de travail. Le poster présente un des outils opérationnels de calcul du ruissellement et des rendements en sédiments qui a été développé sur base des informations cartographiques existantes. Il utilise la carte d'occupation des sols mais également le MNT, la carte des sols, et les produits du projet ERRUISSOL. [less ▲]

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See detailUtilisation de la CNOSW en tant que carte d'occupation du sol dans le modèle EPICgrid
Sohier, Catherine ULg; Degre, Aurore ULg

Poster (2010, October 20)

Le modèle EPICgrid est un modèle hydrologique distribué de résolution 1km² couvrant toute la Wallonie. Il a été développé par Gx-ABT afin d’évaluer les flux d’eau, de nutriments et de sédiments vers les ... [more ▼]

Le modèle EPICgrid est un modèle hydrologique distribué de résolution 1km² couvrant toute la Wallonie. Il a été développé par Gx-ABT afin d’évaluer les flux d’eau, de nutriments et de sédiments vers les eaux de surface et vers les eaux souterraines. Il permet, entre autres, de tester l’impact de scénarios de gestion des nutriments sur la qualité des eaux en Région wallonne ainsi que des rapportages à différentes échelles dont les masses d’eau de surface. Le modèle requiert parmi ses données d’entrée une cartographie de l’occupation du sol. Dans un premier temps, la carte d'occupation des sols utilisée était issue du projet CARHY (Laime et Dautrebande, 1995) et reposait sur l'analyse d'images satellitaires Landsat pour refléter l’occupation du sol des années '90. En 2009, la CNOSW a été implémentée dans le modèle pour affiner spatialement et mettre à jour cette donnée en vue de simulations hydrologiques prospectives. Pour ce faire, les différentes classes de la CNOSW (niveau 5) ont été complétées au niveau des zones non cadastrées afin d’obtenir une couverture continue, hydrologiquement valide, de toute la Wallonie. Les classes ont ensuite été regroupées en classes hydrologiques d’occupation du sol (7 classes). La comparaison des cartes d’occupation du sol CARHY et issue de la CNOSW montre une répartition en classes similaire au niveau régional. Néanmoins, au niveau local, les différences marquées peuvent être constatées. Les zones urbaines sont également mieux représentées par la CNOSW. L’introduction de la CNOSW dans le modèle EPICgrid en apportant une spatialisation plus précise des occupations du sol a permis d’affiner les résultats du modèle et d’ouvrir de nouvelles pistes de développement telles que la représentation dans le modèle hydrologique du fonctionnement des bandes enherbées riveraines et inter-parcellaires. [less ▲]

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See detailNouveaux outils de gestion intégrée sol érosion ruissellement GISER
Degre, Aurore ULg; Colard, François ULg

Conference given outside the academic context (2010)

L'exposé présente une synthèse des développements d'arctoolboxes dédiées à la gestion spatiale de la problématique du ruissellement, de l'érosion et du dépôt des sédiments à l'échelle des bassins versants ... [more ▼]

L'exposé présente une synthèse des développements d'arctoolboxes dédiées à la gestion spatiale de la problématique du ruissellement, de l'érosion et du dépôt des sédiments à l'échelle des bassins versants agricoles. [less ▲]

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See detailHydrologic modelling and dendrochronology as tool of site-species adequation assessment in a changing climate context
Sohier, Catherine ULg; Debruxelles, Jérôme ULg; Brusten, Thomas ULg et al

Poster (2010, September 21)

A hydrologic model is related to dendrochronological measurements performed in a 52 years old Spruce stand. The site is situated on a hillside with shallow and acid brown soil in the ecoregion of Ardenne ... [more ▼]

A hydrologic model is related to dendrochronological measurements performed in a 52 years old Spruce stand. The site is situated on a hillside with shallow and acid brown soil in the ecoregion of Ardenne (Wallonia, Southern Belgium). Hydrologic modelling The hydrologic simulation runs from 1971 to 2005 at daily time step. The model is based on an EPIC code, adapted to the site concerning soil reservoirs depth, characteristic water contents, root profile and water uptake. Weather data come from the Royal Meteorological Institute. Outputs from the model are real evapotranspiration, surface runoff; interflows, deep percolation and soil moisture at daily time step. Dendrochronological study Tree ring thickness is measured on 24 core samples extracted from 12 dominant trees of the stand. Annual increments are standardised by the ARIMA function in order to produce the annual deviation of ring thickness. Means of annual deviation for the 12 trees are then related to annual soil drought intensities. Results Years 1976 and 1996 are emphasised by both the modelling outputs and the dendrochronological measurements as very dry. Model shows a severe drought and tree ring shows a very low growth. Years like 1990, 1992, 1994 and 2004 shows a less severe drought event but a drought that occurs in June-July, which seems to penalize spruce’s growth. On the other hand, years 1981 and 1998 show an important growth and a high value of mean soil moisture during June and July. The poster will show how the time evolution of the ARIMA index is related to some meaningful hydrologic indexes. These considerations will allow us to progress towards forecasting forest trees reaction to climate events and change. With this in mind, we will use a climate scenario build up in the frame of the AMICE interreg project. [less ▲]

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See detailAnalysis of climate change, high-flows and low-flows scenarios on the Meuse basin: WP1 report - Action 3
Drogue, G.; Fournier, M.; Bauwens, Alexandra ULg et al

Report (2010)

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See detailInondations en aval : quelles aides peuvent fournir les zones humides en amont?
Degre, Aurore ULg; Sohier, Catherine ULg

Conference given outside the academic context (2010)

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See detailComparison of agricultural soils' structure depending on tillage system using X-ray microtomography
Beckers, Eléonore ULg; Ly, Sarann ULg; Léonard, Angélique ULg et al

in Geophysical Research Abstracts (2010, May), 12

This study aims at characterizing agricultural soils’ structure depending on the tillage system: conventional tillage or conservational tillage. Tillage reduction is an increasing practice, but the micro ... [more ▼]

This study aims at characterizing agricultural soils’ structure depending on the tillage system: conventional tillage or conservational tillage. Tillage reduction is an increasing practice, but the micro-structural effects on soils and on their hydrodynamic parameters are still not well described. Recent research shows non-converging results. Our point is to highlight fundamental differences in structure through characterization of soils porosity’s parameters using X-ray microtomography measurements coupled to image analysis. This attempt is in line with a more integrated experiment of which the aim is to quantify the effects of tillage intensity on lateral flow production, and finally on global water balance. Parameters’ measurements consist in a combined approach, based on two different space-time scales of exploration: fundamental scale, with soil sampling campaign for microtomography analysis, and field scale, with continuous flow measurements (plots’ dimensions: 18*28 m). For their part, parameters for water balance determination (precipitation, evapotranspiration…) are monitored on the field. All of these measurements have the main objective of hydrological modeling enhancement by taking into account a better lateral flow description. Discussion in this paper will focus on the first results obtained by X-ray microtomography measurements. Our experiment takes place in Gentinnes (Walloon Brabant, Belgium), on a field organized in a split-plot scheme. Since 2004, plots have been cultivated in conventional tillage or in reduced tillage. The latter consists in sowing after stubble ploughing of about 10cm. The crop rotation is sugar beet followed by winter wheat. The soil is mainly composed of silt loam. Soils samples, with a 3 cm diameter and a 5 cm height, were removed from the upper layer (Ap horizon) for both management practices. Samples are scanned by X-ray microtomography using a Skyscan-1172 high-resolution desk-top micro-CT system (Skyscan, Kontich, Belgium). The cone beam source operated at 100 kV, using an aluminium filter. The detector configuration, i.e. 1048×2000 pixels 16-bit X-ray camera, and the distance source-object-camera were adjusted to produce images with a pixel size of 17 µm. This resolution allows us to visualize both meso- and macro- porosity. In this study, half the samples were placed under a 15000 kPa pressure (corresponding pressure for the wilting point) in Richards’ apparatus in order to empty the meso- and macro-porosity. To determine a priori the class of porosity for the samples, relations between water retention and pressure head can be plotted using this apparatus. Scanning results consist in 2D images. The 2D images are recombined to form 3D structure. Then the pore network can be analyzed through useful factors like size distribution, shape, connectivity, orientation, tortuosity etc. [less ▲]

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See detailSpatial interpolation of daily rainfall in Ourthe and Ambleve Basins, Belgium
Ly, Sarann ULg; Sohier, Catherine ULg; Charles, Catherine ULg et al

in Geophysical Research Abstracts (2010, May)

Spatial interpolation of precipitation data is of great importance for hydrological modelling. The methods of geostatistics (krigings) become more popular to make spatial interpolation from point ... [more ▼]

Spatial interpolation of precipitation data is of great importance for hydrological modelling. The methods of geostatistics (krigings) become more popular to make spatial interpolation from point measurement to distributed hydrological models. However, most of existing geostatistic algorithms are available only for single-moment data. The first step of Kriging computation is the semi-variogramme modelling which usually uses only one variogramme model for all-day data. The objective of this paper is to review the implementation of an algorithm of spatial interpolation methods for daily rainfall and to compare the results of geostatistic and deterministic approaches. In this study, we will use daily rainfall data from 70 rain gauges in the hilly landscape of Ourthe and Ambleve Basins in Belgium (2751 km2). This area lies between 35 and 690 m in elevation and consists of river networks which are the tributaries of the Meuse River. The proposed algorithm will use the method of Cressie’s Approximate Weighted Least Squares to fit among sevens semi-variogramme models (logarithmic, power, exponential, Gaussian, rational quadratic, spherical and penta-spherical) to daily sample semi-variogrammes. These seven models are computed on a daily basis. Firstly, one model is chosen by considering the minimum of least squares coefficient. Secondly, if the chosen model gives negative interpolated values, other models will be chosen again until the result become positive. Cross validation will be used to compare the interpolation performance of geostatistic to deterministic methods usually known as Thiessen polygon and Inverse DistanceWeighting (IDW). [less ▲]

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See detailIntegrated Methodology of Instream Flow Assessment : Study of a Belgian River, the Crupet
Hirtt, Laura; Degre, Aurore ULg

in AgroEnviron2010: VII international symposium Environmental sustainability of Agricultural management systems in an ever changing world (2010, May)

Pumping stations and dams generate modifications of rivers’ state flow. In this work, we propose to implement and compare the results of three instream flow assessments. We are studying a Belgian river ... [more ▼]

Pumping stations and dams generate modifications of rivers’ state flow. In this work, we propose to implement and compare the results of three instream flow assessments. We are studying a Belgian river called Crupet, which has some pumping stations on its catchment. The Crupet medial flow is 0.56 m3/s at the point of discharge of the catchment. The three methods are : the Range of Variability Approach, the Instream Flow Incremental Methodology and the Wetted Perimeter Method. The aim of the first method is to find an instream flow so that the river conserves as much as possible its natural behaviour after pumping. This method is usually based on twenty years of flow data, before and after the construction of the pumping stations. In our case, the data were not available, especially because there are no stage gauging stations. So we had to generate hydrologic data based on some approximations and hypotheses (estimation of the quantity of water pumped on the catchment, method of regionalisation). Next, we used the IHA software to analyse the alteration of thirty-three hydrologic parameters, and we formulated an equation that calculates how much water could be pumped to minimize the alteration of the parameters. The second method is based on hydrological, morphological, and biological (fish habitat) data to assess the minimum flow in a river at low water. The third method, the Wetted Perimeter Method, is used to find the minimum flow knowing the morphology of the transect (relation between wetted perimeter and flow). For the last two methods, we found the minimum flow for the studied section being equal to 1.5 m3/s. The RVA methodology recommends, however, a higher minimum flow and imposes to reduce the pumping, at least if all our hypotheses are correct. [less ▲]

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