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See detailCartographie numérique des zones à risque de ruissellement et d'érosion des sols en Région wallonne
Demarcin, Pierre ULg; Degre, Aurore ULg; Smoos, Augustin et al

Report (2009)

Les exemples de dégâts liés aux inondations par ruissellement et aux coulées de boue ne manquent pas dans l’actualité récente. Les causes sont souvent des conjonctions de facteurs tels que le type de sol ... [more ▼]

Les exemples de dégâts liés aux inondations par ruissellement et aux coulées de boue ne manquent pas dans l’actualité récente. Les causes sont souvent des conjonctions de facteurs tels que le type de sol, l’occupation du sol, la topographie mais aussi bien sur l’événement pluvieux. Sur ce dernier point, il est impossible d’agir. Mais pour les autres, le projet ERRUISSOL fournit les données spatiales nécessaires à une bonne gestion des bassins versants et ce dès l’amont. C’est en effet dès aujourd’hui que des politiques d’adaptation aux changements climatiques annoncés doivent se mettre en place et c’est dès la production du ruissellement et de l’érosion sur les versants agricoles qu’il est possible et nécessaire d’agir pour limiter les conséquences des pluies très intenses. La connaissance spatialisée de notre territoire est dès lors indispensable et les données présentées dans le présent rapport en sont des outils précieux de gestion. Trois types de risques sont cartographiés : le risque de ruissellement diffus, le risque de ruissellement concentré et le risque d’érosion diffuse. Les données couvrent l’ensemble de la Région, avec une résolution au sol de 10 mètres. La méthode de cartographie qui a été utilisée est pragmatique. Elle s’appuie sur les meilleures données disponibles aujourd’hui : la carte numérique des sols et la carte numérique d’occupation des sols, toutes deux mises en œuvre par la DGARNE et la FUSAGx ainsi que les données topographiques les plus récentes, notamment les données du PICC produites par la Région wallonne. Les méthodologies appliquées dans ce projet ont fait l’objet d’une importante réflexion pour la mise au point et la validation des cartes lors d’études pilotes antérieures et lors de nombreuses validations de terrain. Le projet ERRUISSOL s’appuie également sur des modèles les plus pertinents aujourd’hui à l’échelle de la Région wallonne. Ces données cartographiques sont destinées à un large panel d’utilisateurs, pour les aider dans leurs tâches de recherche, d’étude et de gestion. Elles sont utiles pour la réalisation d’études d’incidences préalables à une modification d’affectation du sol ou à l’analyse de problèmes hydrologiques existants en vue d’y remédier. Les exemples ne manquent pas. Enfin, il est important de signaler que la Région wallonne met gratuitement à disposition ces données pour toute étude ou projet d’utilité publique, sur simple demande, moyennant la signature d’une licence d’utilisation. [less ▲]

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See detailFrom Root Zone Modelling To Regional Forecasting Of Nitrate Concentration In Recharge Flows - The Case Of The Walloon Region (Belgium)
Sohier, Catherine ULg; Degre, Aurore ULg; Dautrebande, Sylvia

in Journal of Hydrology (2009), 369(3-4), 350-359

In order to model the nitrate concentration of the recharge water in a spatially distributed way for the agricultural areas of the Walloon Region of Belgium, the EPIC model was first adapted to the ... [more ▼]

In order to model the nitrate concentration of the recharge water in a spatially distributed way for the agricultural areas of the Walloon Region of Belgium, the EPIC model was first adapted to the specific soil description by modifying the reservoir sizes. It was also adapted to the regional crop production by modifying classcrop files in relation with observed data (both aerial and underground crop growth, yield) in wheat, sugar beet, and potato fields. As the vadose zone presents a depth between 1.5 and 104 m in this region, new reservoirs were added according to the geological descriptions available. Deep nitrate transfer was validated in a specific site where cropping history was known. Nitrate nitrogen after harvest in the root zone was validated for wheat within different crop rotations using the first results of a nitrate-monitoring program planned by the authorities to test the effectiveness of the mitigation measures in agriculture. This extended model was also linked to a GIS (geographical information system) using 1 km2-cells. All the required data were rasterised to allow HRU (hydrological response unit) identification within the cells. The cell’s daily water flows are weighted flows of each HRU depending on their relative area within the cell. Water balances at catchment scale allow us to validate the calculation. Taking into account the evolution of distributed land use and observed climatic data, we have built maps of fast indicators and long-term indicators. The first map represents nitrate concentration in the water leaving the root zone and the second one represents the time transfer for nitrate from 1.5 m depth to the groundwater table and nitrate concentration in recharge water. These maps constitute major tools for nitrogen management at a regional level. [less ▲]

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See detailApproche de la régionalisation des débits d'étiage en Région wallonne
Gailliez, Sebastien; Degre, Aurore ULg

in Etiages, sécheresses, canicules rares et leurs impacts sur les usagers de l'eau (2009)

The operational management of rivers during low flows periods needs a best knowledge of the hydrological processes involved. Therefore a study aiming at the regionalization of low flows discharges in the ... [more ▼]

The operational management of rivers during low flows periods needs a best knowledge of the hydrological processes involved. Therefore a study aiming at the regionalization of low flows discharges in the Walloon Region has been started. Its first objective is to characterise the lowest flows throught existing monitoring network. Homogeneous regions will be defined on the basis of the results obtained. For each one, regression equations will be build in order to permit the computation of low flow discharge at any point of an ungauged river. [less ▲]

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See detailERRUISSOL
Degre, Aurore ULg

Learning material (2009)

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See detailProjet ERRUISSOL ou la cartographie des zones à risque de ruissellement et d’érosion en Région wallonne (Belgique)
Demarcin, Pierre ULg; Smoos, Augustin; Dautrebande, Sylvia et al

in Schwartz, Dominique (Ed.) Actes des 10èmes Journées d'étude des sols (2009)

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See detailRoof storage systems: Modelling and performance’s comparison
Beckers, Eléonore ULg; Degre, Aurore ULg

Poster (2008, September)

Rainwater runoff problems have become critical in large cities because of the increasing imperviousness of surfaces. Best practices to manage urban runoff improve water infiltration and evaporation ... [more ▼]

Rainwater runoff problems have become critical in large cities because of the increasing imperviousness of surfaces. Best practices to manage urban runoff improve water infiltration and evaporation through green areas establishment and, therefore, natural hydrological cycle restoration. The aim is to evaluate rainwater runoff from different types of roof storage systems and to conclude about their own interests to manage urban runoff production. [less ▲]

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See detailSoil physical fertility: thesis project for water-soil-plant model improvement
Beckers, Eléonore ULg; Degre, Aurore ULg

Poster (2008, January)

Quantities of nutrients like N, P and K in the soil are generally assumed to be the more important parameters of its fertility. The physical fertility of the soil such as water holding capacity, hydraulic ... [more ▼]

Quantities of nutrients like N, P and K in the soil are generally assumed to be the more important parameters of its fertility. The physical fertility of the soil such as water holding capacity, hydraulic conductivity…is often ignored. The present thesis project purposes the development of a physically-based model linking agricultural practices and changes on soil physical properties. [less ▲]

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See detailHydrologie générale
Degre, Aurore ULg

Learning material (2008)

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See detailHydraulic behaviour of greened porous pavements: a physical study
Straet, Frederic; Beckers, Eléonore ULg; Degre, Aurore ULg

(2008)

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See detailProjet QualVados : Evaluation des mesures prises pour réduire les incidences de la pollution diffuse d’origine agricole et domestique sur la qualité des masses d’eau de surface et souterraines de la Région wallonne à l’aide du modèle EPICgrid
Sohier, Catherine ULg; Dautrebande, Sylvia; Degre, Aurore ULg

Report (2008)

Wallonia (Southern Region of Belgium) implemented the Nitrates Directive through a first actions plan in 2002 followed by a second action plan in 2007. It designated vulnerable zones and introduced ... [more ▼]

Wallonia (Southern Region of Belgium) implemented the Nitrates Directive through a first actions plan in 2002 followed by a second action plan in 2007. It designated vulnerable zones and introduced various mandatory practices in order to reduce the nitrate contamination risk. . In Wallonia, nitrate-related problems are obvious in several groundwater bodies and their trends over the past 30 years are worrying. The main part of the contamination level is due to agricultural diffuse pollution. Nevertheless, some pollution peaks are observed mainly coming from domestic sewage. In order to assess the global effectiveness of all the mitigation practices, we have been developing a hydrological model spatially distributed using a 1km² grid cell on the whole Region (16 900 km²). The EPICgrid model represents the root zone and the vadose zone. In Wallonia, groundwater tables are more than 30 m deep in 8% of the territory. It is therefore of major importance to fill the gap between the root zone and the groundwater bodies. It allows us to assess the nitrate transfer time and forecast the mitigation measures’ effect in time, space and amplitude. On the ground, runoff and sediment yield are modelled at the small watershed scale. This report presents an complete analysis of the mitigation measures implemented in Wallonia and their effects forecasted until 2015. [less ▲]

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See detailBilan et évolution de la qualité des eaux et des pratiques agricoles en Région wallonne - Chapitre 6 : prévision de l'évolution future
Sohier, Catherine ULg; Dautrebande, Sylvia; Degre, Aurore ULg

Report (2008)

Les premières mesures mises en place en Région wallonne à la suite de la parution de la Directive Nitrate datent de 1994. En 2002, une première version du Plan de gestion durable de l’azote en agriculture ... [more ▼]

Les premières mesures mises en place en Région wallonne à la suite de la parution de la Directive Nitrate datent de 1994. En 2002, une première version du Plan de gestion durable de l’azote en agriculture a été publiée et progressivement mise en place en Région wallonne. Ces mesures visent à limiter la concentration en nitrate de l’eau quittant la zone racinaire, ce nitrate sortant de la zone de prélèvement par les végétaux est un facteur de pression sur la qualité de l’eau. Une fois transféré hors de la zone racinaire, le nitrate peut, selon les caractéristiques pédologiques, géologiques et hydrodynamiques locales rejoindre les eaux de surface ou les eaux souterraines avec un temps de retard extrêmement variable. Dans ce travail, la prévision de la qualité des eaux en Région wallonne sera abordée d’une part en termes de qualité de l’eau quittant la zone racinaire et d’autre part en terme de temps de transfert jusqu’aux eaux souterraines (masses d’eau souterraine supérieures). Pour modéliser l’ensemble des processus décrit ci-dessus, l’unité d’Hydrologie et d’Hydraulique agricole de la Faculté universitaire des Sciences agronomiques de Gembloux avec l’aide de la Région wallonne développe depuis plusieurs années un modèle de simulation hydrologique EPICgrid. [less ▲]

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See detailStatistique des extremes dans les bassins faiblement jauges: application d'un modele global pluie-debit a cinq bassins versants en region wallonne (Belgique).
Degre, Aurore ULg; Dautrebande, Sylvia; Sohier, Catherine ULg et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2008), 12(4), 379-391

The RS-PDM© model generates flows in time series on the basis of observed rainfall after self-calibration which is based on short period of observed rainfall and flow. This is done with daily or hourly ... [more ▼]

The RS-PDM© model generates flows in time series on the basis of observed rainfall after self-calibration which is based on short period of observed rainfall and flow. This is done with daily or hourly data. The study highlights the capacity of the RS-PDM© model to simulate extreme flows in poorly gauged basins in Walloon region on the basis of observed rains and of a short period of observed flows. Concerning the time series, it was highlighted an important dispersion of the flows simulated for a given observed flow even for daily or hourly data. The Nash criteria varied between 0.59 and 0.92. However, the flows simulated via RS-PDM© make it possible to adjust a statistical distribution of extremes flows (Gumbel law) close to the statistic obtained with a long period of gauging. So, if the simulations realized by mean of this model present poor to acceptable performances concerning the time series simulations, they permit to obtain rapidly quite good statistics of extremes flows on the basis of a short gauging period. [less ▲]

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See detailNitrogen leaching forecasting: modelling and measurements
Sohier, Catherine ULg; Vandenberghe, Christophe ULg; Dautrebande, Sylvia et al

in Bruthans, Jiri; Kovar, Karel; Hrkal, Zbynek (Eds.) International Interdisciplinary Conference on Predictions for Hydrology, Ecology and water Resources Management Using Data And Models To Benefit Society (2008)

European nitrate directive (CEE/91/676) imposes wide monitoring of Nitrogen in farmlands. The Walloon Region (South of Belgium – 750 000 ha of arable land) develops an original combination of methods to ... [more ▼]

European nitrate directive (CEE/91/676) imposes wide monitoring of Nitrogen in farmlands. The Walloon Region (South of Belgium – 750 000 ha of arable land) develops an original combination of methods to reach European objectives in this topic. On the one hand, water and nitrogen flows and balances are modelled, on the other hand, an Agricultural Surface Survey is put into practice to monitor nitrate nitrogen in the soil at the beginning of the leaching period. The Agricultural Surface Survey is constituted by a 30 reference farms network within more than 200 plots are monitored each in order to fix annual standards for nitrate profiles. Each year, about 1% of the Walloon farms are assessed about their good nitrogen management. Thanks to the existence of a useful database of nitrate profiles measured through six years in the whole Walloon Region, validation of the simulations in the vadose zone can be realised. The comparison of the measured data and the simulation shows a good accuracy of the EPICgrid model. [less ▲]

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See detailLa jonction thalweg-cours d'eau : pour une gestion dès l'amont
Dautrebande, Sylvia; Degre, Aurore ULg; Dagnelies, Joelle

Poster (2007)

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See detailConventional Versus Alternative Pig Production Assessed By Multicriteria Decision Analysis
Degre, Aurore ULg; Debouche, Charles ULg; Verheve, Didier

in Agronomy for Sustainable Development (2007), 27(3),

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