References of "Daube, Georges"
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See detailProgress in the etiological diagnosis of bovine abortions: the contribution of 16S rRNA metagenetic analysis
Delooz, L.; Evrard, J.; Grégoire, F. et al

Poster (2015, October 16)

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See detailIdentification and traceability of animal and human faecal contamination in bathing sites in Wallonia
Taminiau, Bernard ULg; Hanon, M.; Nezer, Carine et al

Poster (2015, October 16)

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See detailStudy of the microbial diversity of microbial ring trials by metagenomic analysis : Quantification of alive bacteria by exclusion of dead bacteria
Fall, Papa Abdoulaye; Burteau, Sophie; Detry, Émilie et al

Poster (2015, October 16)

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See detailEvaluation of the sensory quality of beef patties inoculated with Carnobacterium maltaromaticum strains with biopreservative potential
Didimo Imazaki, Pedro Henrique ULg; Jacques-Houssa, Charlotte ULg; Kergourlay, Gilles ULg et al

Conference (2015, October 16)

Biopreservation is the use of naturally occurring microorganisms and/or their inherent antimicrobial compounds to extend shelf life and to enhance the safety of foods. The aim of the present study was to ... [more ▼]

Biopreservation is the use of naturally occurring microorganisms and/or their inherent antimicrobial compounds to extend shelf life and to enhance the safety of foods. The aim of the present study was to perform a sensory evaluation of beef patties inoculated with potentially biopreservative strains of Carnobacterium maltaromaticum. Three different strains of C. maltaromaticum (lab. ref.: CM_824, CM_827 and CM_829) isolated from vacuum packaged beef with long shelf life were selected for this study. An untrained panel was requested to make a sensory evaluation of raw and cooked beef patties 8 and 10 days after inoculation with the selected strains at 104 and 106 UFC/g and storage in high-O2 atmosphere. After 8 days of storage, non inoculated samples (blank) were perceived as having the best studied sensory descriptors. The samples inoculated with strain CM_827 had a sensory quality very close to the blank. After 10 days of storage, samples inoculated with the strain CM_827 at 104 UFC/g received the highest scores for appearance and color. This study permitted to evaluate the effect of three C. maltaromaticum strains on the sensory quality of beef patties. Strain CM_827 did practically not change the sensory attributes of beef patties. Samples inoculated with strain CM_824 and CM_829 received the worst scores for several of the tested descriptors. Therefore, further research on the biopreservative capacity of C. maltaromaticum should be conducted with strain CM_827. [less ▲]

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See detailNew horizons in the etiological diagnosis of bovine abortions, the contribution of 16S rDNA sequencing
Delooz, L.; Houtain, J.-Y.; Grégoire, F. et al

Poster (2015, October 14)

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See detailMicrobiological risks of the consumption of raw milk and raw milk dairy products
Verraes, C.; Claeys, W.; Cardoen, S. et al

Poster (2015, October)

The Scientific Committee of the Belgian FASFC has published several opinions where the objective was to assess the risks and benefits of the consumption of raw milk and raw dairy products (from multiple ... [more ▼]

The Scientific Committee of the Belgian FASFC has published several opinions where the objective was to assess the risks and benefits of the consumption of raw milk and raw dairy products (from multiple species), based on an elaborate literature study and expert opinion. Raw milk In Belgium, the most relevant microbiological hazards related to the consumption of raw cow, sheep and goat milk are Campylobacter, Salmonella and human pathogenic verocytotoxin producing E. coli (VTEC). Raw donkey and horse milk generally has a high microbial quality. A risk assessment at an European level identified the same hazards and included also Brucella spp. in sheep milk, Mycobacterium bovis in cow milk and tick-borne encephalitis virus in milk from several species. As potential emerging hazards, Coxiella burnetii and Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) were identified. Raw dairy products In Belgium, the risks of raw dairy products (especially (semi-)soft cheeses) are mainly linked to Listeria monocytogenes, VTEC, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella and Campylobacter. Dairy products from cows with subclinical mastitis may contain high numbers of L. monocytogenes and S. aureus. L. monocytogenes, VTEC and S. aureus have been identified as microbiological hazards in raw milk butter and cream albeit to a lesser extent because of a reduced growth potential of these pathogens compared to cheese. In endemic areas in Belgium or abroad, raw dairy products may also be contaminated with Brucella spp., Mycobacterium bovis, the tick-borne encephalitis virus, C. burnetii and MAP. Based on the health threat due to the possible presence of human pathogens, it is stated that heat treatment of milk before consumption and dairy production is important to insure the safety of such products. Concerning so-called beneficial (nutritional and health) effects attributed to raw milk consumption, it was concluded that there is no scientific evidence that, with the exception of an altered organoleptic profile, heating raw milk would substantially change its nutritional value or other hypothesized benefits. The benefits of probiotic and lactic acid bacteria are not relevant due to low numbers encountered in raw milk. [less ▲]

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See detailOptmization of culture media for Bifidobacterium bifidum and Bifidobacterium crudilactis and study of the antimicrobial effect of culture supernatants
Bondue, Pauline ULg; Delcenserie, Véronique ULg; Crevecoeur, Sébastien ULg et al

Poster (2015, October)

Complex oligosaccharides from human milk (HMO) contribute to infant health. Bifidobacteriumbifidum mainly found in breast-fed infant microbiota has all the enzymatic machinery for degradation of HMO. On ... [more ▼]

Complex oligosaccharides from human milk (HMO) contribute to infant health. Bifidobacteriumbifidum mainly found in breast-fed infant microbiota has all the enzymatic machinery for degradation of HMO. On the other hand, whey is rich in complex bovin milk oligosaccharides (BMO) very similar to HMO, including 3’-sialyllactose (3’SL). They are very likely to be metabolised by B. bifidum too, but also by B. crudilactis, a bovine origin strain. Fermentation of HMO or BMO by bifidobacteria can result in production of metabolites modulating virulence expression of several pathogenic bacteria. Two strains of bifidobacteria were used in this study: B. bifidum, isolated from breastfed infant feces and B. crudilactis, isolated from bovine raw milk. The ability of those strains to metabolise culture media enriched in glucose, whey and 3’SL has been assessed. Then, the obtained culture supernatant has been tested against virulence genes expression of E. coli O157:H7.  Both strains were able to grow in presence of BMO and 3’SL. B. crudilactis presented the best growth on all media. All culture supernatants obtained after supplementation with 3’SL resulted in significant under-expression of genes ler and qseA. The trend of genes stxB2 and luxS was also toward a down-regulation. BMO combined to some bovine or human origin bifidobacteria strains could be interesting synbiotics to maintain or restore the intestinal health of young children. These effects observed in vitro require further investigations to ensure repeatability in humans and to identify the exact nature of molecules obtained from fermentation media by B. bifidum and B. crudilactis. [less ▲]

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See detailFaecal microbiota characterisation of horses using 16 rdna barcoded pyrosequencing, and carriage rate of clostridium difficile at hospital admission
Rodriguez Diaz, Cristina ULg; Taminiau, Bernard ULg; Brévers, Bastien et al

in BMC Microbiology (2015), 15

Background The equine faecal microbiota is very complex and remains largely unknown, while interspecies interactions have an important contribution to animal health. Clostridium difficile has been ... [more ▼]

Background The equine faecal microbiota is very complex and remains largely unknown, while interspecies interactions have an important contribution to animal health. Clostridium difficile has been identified as an important cause of diarrhoea in horses. This study provides further information on the nature of the bacterial communities present in horses developing an episode of diarrhoea. The prevalence of C. difficile in hospitalised horses at the time of admission is also reported. Results Bacterial diversity of the gut microbiota in diarrhoea is lower than that in non-diarrhoeic horses in terms of species richness (p-value <0.002) and in population evenness (p-value: 0.02). Statistical differences for Actinobacillus, Porphyromonas, RC9 group, Roseburia and Ruminococcaceae were revealed. Fusobacteria was found in horses with diarrhoea but not in any of the horses with non-diarrheic faeces. In contrast, Akkermansia was among the three predominant taxa in all of the horses studied. The overall prevalence of C. difficile in the total samples of hospitalised horses at admission was 3.7 % (5/134), with five different PCR-ribotypes identified, including PCR-ribotype 014. Two colonised horses displayed a decreased bacterial species richness compared to the remaining subjects studied, which shared the same Bacteroides genus. However, none of the positive animals had diarrhoea at the moment of sampling. Conclusions The abundance of some taxa in the faecal microbiota of diarrhoeic horses can be a result of microbiome dysbiosis, and therefore a cause of intestinal disease, or some of these taxa may act as equine enteric pathogens. Clostridium difficile colonisation seems to be transient in all of the horses studied, without overgrowth to trigger infection. A large proportion of the sequences were unclassified, showing the complexity of horses’ faecal microbiota. [less ▲]

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See detailSensory quality of beef patties inoculated with strains of Carnobacterium maltaromaticum with potential as biopreservatives
Didimo Imazaki, Pedro Henrique ULg; Jacques-Houssa, Charlotte ULg; Kergourlay, Gilles ULg et al

Poster (2015, August)

Biopreservation is the use of naturally occurring microorganisms and/or their inherent antimicrobial compounds to extend shelf life and to enhance the safety of foods. The aim of the present study was to ... [more ▼]

Biopreservation is the use of naturally occurring microorganisms and/or their inherent antimicrobial compounds to extend shelf life and to enhance the safety of foods. The aim of the present study was to perform a sensory evaluation of beef patties inoculated with strains of C. maltaromaticum with potential as biopreservatives. Three different strains of C. maltaromaticum (CM_824, CM_827 and CM_829) isolated from vacuum packaged beef with long shelf life were selected for this study. An untrained panel was requested to make a sensory evaluation of raw and cooked beef patties 8 and 10 days after inoculation with the selected strains at 104 and 106 UFC/g and storage in high O2 atmosphere. This preliminary study permitted to evaluate the effect of three C. maltaromaticum strains on the sensory quality of beef patties. Strain CM_827 did practically not change the sensory attributes of beef patties. Samples inoculated with strain CM_824 and CM_829 received the worst scores for several of the tested descriptors. Therefore, further research on the biopreservative capacity of C. maltaromaticum should be conducted with strain CM_827. [less ▲]

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See detailMetagenomic analysis of samples
Daube, Georges ULg; Taminiau, Bernard ULg; Nezer, Carine et al

Patent (2015)

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See detailMethod of testing for animal-derived ingredients in foods
Daube, Georges ULg; Burteau, Sophie; Nezer, Carine et al

Patent (2015)

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See detailÉtude de la diversité microbienne de poudre de lait dopée par analyse métagénomique: Quantification des bactéries vivantes par exclusion de bactéries mortes
Fall, Papa Abdoulaye; Burteau, Sophie; Detry, Émilie et al

Poster (2015, June 17)

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See detailMorphological and functional characterization of Carnobacterium maltaromaticum isolated from vacuum-packed beef with long shelf life
Didimo Imazaki, Pedro Henrique ULg; Tahiri, Assia ULg; Ndedi Ekolo, François ULg et al

Poster (2015, June 17)

Temperatures near the freezing point of meat (−1.5 °C), associated with vacuum packaging, allows the preservation of this product up to several months, which makes possible the meat trade across the ... [more ▼]

Temperatures near the freezing point of meat (−1.5 °C), associated with vacuum packaging, allows the preservation of this product up to several months, which makes possible the meat trade across the planet without resorting to freezing. Other the type of packaging and the storage temperature, the shelf-life of meat is directly related to its initial microbiological ecosystem and its evolution. Carnobacterium maltaromaticum is a lactic acid bacterium, and many lactic acid bacteria associated with meat are known for their bactericidal or bacteriostatic activity against other strains, species or genera of bacteria. In this way, the presence of certain lactic acid bacteria adapted to a low temperature in fresh meat could extend the shelf life and improve the microbial stability and safety of this product. The aim of this study was to perform a morphological and functional characterization of a C. maltaromaticum strain (lab. ref. CFAUS2/DLC/4/E1) with potential bioprotective effect isolated from commercial vacuum packaged long shelf life beef. The morphological, biochemical and enzymatic profiles, the influence of different temperatures and atmospheres, and the microbial stability of fresh beef inoculated with the C. maltaromaticum strain were evaluated. Morphological, biochemical and enzymatic profiles of the isolated C. maltaromaticum strain were similar to those of two reference strains (LMG 11393 and LMG 22902). The evaluation of the influence of different atmospheres showed that the growth of C. maltaromaticum was the slowest in an atmosphere containing 70 % O2 and 30 % CO2. Vacuum packaging is therefore more suitable for the growth of this bacterium. An antimicrobial effect against Enterobacteriaceae was highlighted on inoculated fresh meat. The functional characterization of this strain will be further pursued by genotypic characterization and its potential bioprotective effect will also be studied. [less ▲]

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See detailUse of 16S rDNA Metagenetics and classical Microbiology to Assess the bacterial superficial Contamination Patterns in Bovines Classically Slaughtered or following the Halal Ritual
Korsak Koulagenko, Nicolas ULg; Taminiau, Bernard ULg; Hupperts, Caroline et al

Poster (2015, June 17)

In Belgium and in several European countries, two cattle slaughtering protocols exist: the classical method, that encompasses a stunning step before the sticking procedure, and the halal method, combining ... [more ▼]

In Belgium and in several European countries, two cattle slaughtering protocols exist: the classical method, that encompasses a stunning step before the sticking procedure, and the halal method, combining the stunning and the sticking in one single step. The main difference lies in the fact that, in the halal protocol, a single cut with a sharp knife is practiced directly on live cattle, instead of two cutting steps with two different knives for the sticking in the classical slaughtering technique. The unique section in the halal technique results generally in the cross section of trachea and esophagus of cattle. The aim of this study was to seek if the two slaughtering techniques were similar regarding the superficial contamination of carcasses, swabbed between 2 and 4 hours after the killing step. For this purpose, classical microbiological tests (TVC and Enterobacteriaceae) and 16S rDNA metagenetic analysis were carried out from 20 cattle carcasses (swabbing of “legal” zone – 1.600 cm2 – and in the neck area – 200 cm2). The classical microbiological results revealed no significant differences between the two slaughtering practices. Statistical analysis of pyrosequencing data showed that differences in bacterial population abundance between slaughtering methods were mainly found in the “legal” swabbing zone compared to the neck area. Bacterial genera belonging to Actinobacteria (Brevibacterium, Corynebacterium) were more aundant in “Halal” samples whereas populations from the Proteobacteria (Caulobacteraceae, Comamonadaceae, Bradyrhizobiaceae) and Firmicutes (Lactobacillus) were more abundand in the “classical” group. The analysis of OTU abundance of bacteria from the digestive or respiratory tract revealed no differences beteween groups. In conclusion, the slaughtering method does not influence the superficial microbiological pattern in terms of specific microbiological markers of the digestive or respiratory tract. However, precise analysis to the genus level underlines differences between methods, the legal swabbing zone being still the best sampling zone compared to the neckline. The next step will be the identification of precise contamination origin of the differences found between slaughtering methods. [less ▲]

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See detailLes écosystèmes microbiens redécouverts
Taminiau, Bernard ULg; Delhalle, Laurent; Daube, Georges ULg

Conference (2015, June)

La notion d'écosystème englobe la communauté d'organismes vivants, les facteurs abiotiques ainsi que le réseau d'interactions qui en découle. De par leur nombre et leur diversité, les micro-organismes ... [more ▼]

La notion d'écosystème englobe la communauté d'organismes vivants, les facteurs abiotiques ainsi que le réseau d'interactions qui en découle. De par leur nombre et leur diversité, les micro-organismes dominent la majorité des procédés biochimiques sur terre. L'écologie microbienne, née des travaux de Winogradsky et Hungate, se consacre à la compréhension de ces cycles métaboliques et ces mécanismes d’interaction. L’importance de cette compréhension est à la mesure des grands défis actuels comme la préservation des habitats naturels ou bien la réduction du réchauffement climatique. L’homme s’étant imposé comme un autre acteur d’influence majeur sur l’environnement, d'autres écosystèmes, plus proches de nos préoccupations comme l'agro-alimentaire, la microbiologie industrielle, le domaine de la santé ont pris de l'importance et sont autant de domaines d’application de la démarche écologique. L’ère de l’étude des communautés bactériennes sur une échelle plus large a débuté avec le développement de la biologie moléculaire dans les années 90. D’abord avec des méthodes comme le T-RFLP, le clonage et ensuite la DGGE, les chercheurs ont pu identifier des populations microbiennes sans passer par les milieux de culture. Depuis 2005 et la première application du pyroséquençage à la métagénétique, un coup d’accélérateur a été donné, aboutissant à un florilège de nouvelles technologies comme la métagénomique, la métaprotéomique ou la métabolomique permettant de caractériser les écosystèmes microbiens. Cette dynamique résulte notamment de la prise de conscience de l’importante du microbiote dans la vie de l’homme et de sa santé. Plusieurs exemples de ses nouvelles technologies « omiques » permettront d’illustrer leur apport dans la description et la compréhension des communautés microbiennes, ainsi que l’impact de l’écologie microbienne dans le management de ces écosystèmes par l’homme. L’exposé terminera sur les grandes questions d’actualité de cette science, telles l'intégration des données multiples dans les analyses, l'amélioration et standardisation des protocoles d'étude et la prise en compte de la théorie écologique dans la démarche de recherche. [less ▲]

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See detailOptimisation de milieux de culture pour Bifidobacterium bifidum et Bifidobacterium crudilactis et étude de l’effet antimicrobien des surnageants de culture
Bondue, Pauline ULg; Delcenserie, Véronique ULg; Crevecoeur, Sébastien ULg et al

Poster (2015, June)

Modulé entre autre par notre alimentation, le microbiote intestinal influence notre santé. Un enfant allaité sera en meilleure santé qu’un enfant nourri avec des formulations commerciales. Ceci est ... [more ▼]

Modulé entre autre par notre alimentation, le microbiote intestinal influence notre santé. Un enfant allaité sera en meilleure santé qu’un enfant nourri avec des formulations commerciales. Ceci est notamment dû à la présence d’oligosaccharides complexes dans le lait maternel (HMO). Les oligosaccharides ajoutés au lait maternisé sont d’origine végétale et leur structure est très éloignée de celle des HMO. Parce que les HMO ressemblent aux glycans de la paroi épithéliale, les pathogènes intestinaux infantiles s’y fixent et sont expulsés naturellement. Le lait de vache possède des oligosaccharides complexes (BMO), dont la structure est très similaire à celle des HMO. Les bifidobactéries rencontrées majoritairement dans les matières fécales d’un nourrisson devraient pouvoir métaboliser les BMO, tout comme celles isolées dans le lait de vache. Les objectifs de cette étude étaient d’étudier le potentiel de croissance de bifidobactéries d’origine bovine ou humaine sur des milieux de culture enrichis en lactosérum et BMO. Le deuxième objectif était de vérifier si le catabolisme de ces sucres complexes induisaient une synthèse de métabolites influençant l’expression de virulence de certains pathogènes tels qu’Escherichia coli O157 :H7. Une souche de Bifidobacterium bifidum, isolée à partir des matières fécales d’un nourrisson exclusivement allaité et une souche de Bifidobacterium crudilactis, isolée à partir de fromage au lait cru, ont été mises en culture dans des milieux contenant différentes sources d’hydrates de carbone (glucose, lactosérum naturellement riche en lactose et BMO, et 3’-syalillactose (3’SL)). Le 3’SL est un oligosaccharide complexe majoritaire parmi les BMO. Les surnageants des différents milieux de culture ont été prélevés et concentrés par lyophilisation puis mis en contact avec E. coli O157 :H7. L’expression relative de différents gènes de virulence d’E. coli O157:H7, fliC, ler, stx2b et luxS a été étudiée. Dans le futur, les BMO et certaines souches d’origine bovine ou humaine pourraient s’avérer être des compléments alimentaires intéressants pour maintenir ou rétablir la santé intestinale des jeunes enfants. [less ▲]

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