References of "Daube, Georges"
     in
Bookmark and Share    
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailLongitudinal survey of Clostridium difficile presence and gut microbiota composition in a Belgian nursing home
Rodriguez Diaz, Cristina ULg; Taminiau, Bernard ULg; Korsak Koulagenko, Nicolas ULg et al

in BMC Microbiology (2016), 16(229),

ackground Increasing age, several co-morbidities, environmental contamination, antibiotic exposure and other intestinal perturbations appear to be the greatest risk factors for C. difficile infection (CDI ... [more ▼]

ackground Increasing age, several co-morbidities, environmental contamination, antibiotic exposure and other intestinal perturbations appear to be the greatest risk factors for C. difficile infection (CDI). Therefore, elderly care home residents are considered particularly vulnerable to the infection. The main objective of this study was to evaluate and follow the prevalence of C. difficile in 23 elderly care home residents weekly during a 4-month period. A C. difficile microbiological detection scheme was performed along with an overall microbial biodiversity study of the faeces content by 16S rRNA gene analysis. Results Seven out of 23 (30.4 %) residents were (at least one week) positive for C. difficile. C. difficile was detected in 14 out of 30 diarrhoeal samples (43.7 %). The most common PCR-ribotype identified was 027. MLVA showed that there was a clonal dissemination of C. difficile strains within the nursing home residents. 16S-profiling analyses revealed that each resident has his own bacterial imprint, which was stable during the entire study. Significant changes were observed in C. difficile positive individuals in the relative abundance of a few bacterial populations, including Lachnospiraceae and Verrucomicrobiaceae. A decrease of Akkermansia in positive subjects to the bacterium was repeatedly found. Conclusions A high C. difficile colonisation in nursing home residents was found, with a predominance of the hypervirulent PCR-ribotype 027. Positive C. difficile status is not associated with microbiota richness or biodiversity reduction in this study. The link between Akkermansia, gut inflammation and C. difficile colonisation merits further investigations. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 23 (3 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailGrowth and Freeze-Drying Optimization of Bifidobacterium crudilactis
Tanimomo, Jean; Delcenserie, Véronique ULg; Taminiau, Bernard ULg et al

in Food and Nutrition Sciences (2016), 7

Bifidobacterium crudilactis FR62/b/3 belongs to a new population of bifidobacteria isolated from raw milk and raw milk cheese. The objective of this work was to study the large scale culture of the stain ... [more ▼]

Bifidobacterium crudilactis FR62/b/3 belongs to a new population of bifidobacteria isolated from raw milk and raw milk cheese. The objective of this work was to study the large scale culture of the stain and its stability in a dry formulation. Growth rate of Bifidobacterium crudilactis FR62/b/3 was optimal at a pH of 5.0 and a temperature of 37˚C. At a temperature growth of 33˚C and a pH of 5.0, the stationary phase was reached after 22 h, the viable cell number and the mean dry biomass concentration were respectively of 8.3 × 109 CFU/mL and of 2.1 g/L. Resistance of Bifidobacterium crudilactis FR62/b/3 to freeze-drying and effect of a variety of cryoprotectants to maintain the viability were also evaluated. Sorbitol was the most suitable cryoprotectant for freeze-drying as well as storage whereas sucrose and monosodium glutamate were only efficient during storage. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 33 (8 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailIntestinal Sucrase as a Novel Target Contributing to the Regulation of Glycemia by Prebiotics.
Neyrinck, Audrey M.; Pachikian, Barbara; Taminiau, Bernard ULg et al

in PLoS ONE (2016), 11(8),

Inulin-type fructans (ITF) are known for their capacity to modulate gut microbiota, energy metabolism and to improve glycemia in several animal models of obesity, and in humans. The potential contribution ... [more ▼]

Inulin-type fructans (ITF) are known for their capacity to modulate gut microbiota, energy metabolism and to improve glycemia in several animal models of obesity, and in humans. The potential contribution of ITF as modulators of sugar digestion by host enzymes has not been evaluated yet. A sucrose challenge has been performed on naive mice fed a standard diet supplemented with or without native chicory inulin (Fibruline 5%) for 3 weeks. The area under the curve of glycemia as well as sucrase activity in the small intestine were lowered after inulin treatment. Pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene confirmed important changes in gut microbiota (mostly in favor of Blautia genus) due to inulin extract supplementation. Interestingly, the suppressive effect of inulin extract on postprandial glycemia also occurred when inulin was directly added to the sucrose solution, suggesting that the effect on sucrose digestion did not require chronic inulin administration. In vitro tests confirmed a direct inhibition of sucrase enzyme by the inulin extract, thereby suggesting that native chicory inulin, in addition to its well-known prebiotic effect, is also able to decrease the digestibility of carbohydrates, a phenomenon that can contribute in the control of post prandial glycemia. We may not exclude that the sucrose escaping the digestion could also contribute to the changes in the gut microbiota after a chronic treatment with inulin. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 21 (9 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailClostridium difficile infection: Early history, diagnosis and molecular strain typing methods.
Rodriguez Diaz, Cristina ULg; Van Broeck, Johan; Taminiau, Bernard ULg et al

in Microbial Pathogenesis (2016), 97

Recognised as the leading cause of nosocomial antibiotic-associated diarrhoea, the incidence of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) remains high despite efforts to improve prevention and reduce the ... [more ▼]

Recognised as the leading cause of nosocomial antibiotic-associated diarrhoea, the incidence of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) remains high despite efforts to improve prevention and reduce the spread of the bacterium in healthcare settings. In the last decade, many studies have focused on the epidemiology and rapid diagnosis of CDI. In addition, different typing methods have been developed for epidemiological studies. This review explores the history of C. difficile and the current scope of the infection. The variety of available laboratory tests for CDI diagnosis and strain typing methods are also examined. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 16 (3 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailStudy of the Potential Zoonotic Transmission of Clostridium difficile in Belgian Cattle Farms.
Rodriguez Diaz, Cristina ULg; Hakimi, Djalal-Eddine; Daube, Georges ULg et al

in Journal of Food Protection (2016), 79(supplement A),

Introduction: Zoonoses are infectious that can be transmitted between animals and humans through direct contact, close proximity or the environment. Since domestic and food animals frequently test ... [more ▼]

Introduction: Zoonoses are infectious that can be transmitted between animals and humans through direct contact, close proximity or the environment. Since domestic and food animals frequently test positive for the bacterium, it seems plausible that C. difficile could be zoonotic. A former study showed that the prevalence in veal calf aged less than 6 months was 22% while in adult cattle population, it was 6,9 %. Purpose: This study aimed to determine the prevalence and the epidemiology of C. difficile in cattle farms and the possible spread of the bacterium among animals and farmers. Methods: A total of 176 faecal samples of cattle were collected from 5 different Belgian farms (south East Belgium), from November 2015 to February 2016. A stool sample of each farmer was also requested. Detection of C. difficile was performed by classical culture on C. difficile selective medium (cycloserine cefoxitin fructose cholate). Isolates were characterised by PCR-ribotyping and Genotype Cdiff test (Hain Lifescience), which allows the detection of all toxin genes, mutations in gyrA gene and the deletion in the regulator gene tcdC. Toxic activity was confirmed by a cytotoxic assay on MRC-5 cells. Results: C. difficile was detected in 14/178 (7.9%) animal samples. Isolates were grouped into five different types, including PCR-ribotype 015 (this ribotype is one the most encountered in hospitals in Belgium). The other types were UCL46A, UCL24*, UCL24, UCL33. All of them were identified as toxigenic by cytotoxicity assay and toxin genes profile. In contrast, none of the 5 farmers studied were positive for the bacterium. Significance: Results obtained indicate that PCR-ribotypes commonly isolated from hospitalised patients are also present in cattle, indicating an animal reservoir. However, a zoonotic transmission could be not demonstrated in this preliminary study. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 23 (4 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailRhubarb extract prevents hepatic inflammation induced by acute alcohol intake, an effect related to the modulation of the gut microbiota.
Neyrinck, Audrey M.; Etxeberria, Usune; Taminiau, Bernard ULg et al

in Molecular Nutrition & Food Research (2016)

SCOPE: Binge consumption of alcohol is an alarming global health problem. Acute ethanol intoxication is characterized by inflammation and oxidative stress, which could be promoted by gut barrier function ... [more ▼]

SCOPE: Binge consumption of alcohol is an alarming global health problem. Acute ethanol intoxication is characterized by inflammation and oxidative stress, which could be promoted by gut barrier function alterations. In this study, we have tested the hypothesis of the hepatoprotective effect of rhubarb extract in a mouse model of binge drinking and we explored the contribution of the gut microbiota in the related- metabolic effects. METHODS AND RESULTS: Mice were fed a control diet supplemented with or without 0.3% rhubarb extract for 17 days and were necropsied 6 hours after an alcohol challenge. Supplementation with rhubarb extract changed the microbial ecosystem (assessed by 16S rDNA pyrosequencing) in favor of Akkermansia muciniphila and Parabacteroides goldsteinii. Furthermore, it improved alcohol-induced hepatic injury, down-regulated key markers of both inflammatory and oxidative stresses in the liver tissue, without affecting significantly steatosis. In the gut, rhubarb supplementation increased crypt depth, tissue weight, the expression of antimicrobial peptides. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that some bacterial genders involved in gut barrier function, are promoted by phytochemicals present in rhubarb extract, and could therefore be involved in the modulation of the susceptibility to hepatic diseases linked to acute alcohol consumption. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 25 (4 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailAdding mucins to an in vitro batch fermentation model of the large intestine induces changes in microbial population isolated from porcine feces depending on the substrate
Tran, Thi Hanh Tham ULg; Boudry, Christelle ULg; Everaert, Nadia ULg et al

in FEMS Microbiology Ecology (2016), 92(2), 13

Adding mucus to in vitro fermentation models of the large intestine showed that some genera, namely lactobacilli, are dependent on host-microbiota interactions and that they rely on mucosa layers to ... [more ▼]

Adding mucus to in vitro fermentation models of the large intestine showed that some genera, namely lactobacilli, are dependent on host-microbiota interactions and that they rely on mucosa layers to increase their activity. This study investigates whether this dependence on mucus is substrate-dependent and to which extend other genera are impacted by the presence of mucus. Inulin and cellulose were fermented in vitro by a fecal inoculum from pig in the presence or not of mucin-beads in order to compare fermentation patterns and bacterial communities. Mucins increased final gas production with inulin and shifted short-chain fatty acids molar ratios (P<0.001). QPCR analyses revealed that Lactobacillus spp. and Bifidobacterium spp. decreased with mucins, but Bacteroides spp. increased when inulin was fermented. A more in-depth community analysis indicated that the mucins increased Proteobacteria (0.55 vs. 0.25 %, P=0.013), Verrucomicrobia (5.25 vs. 0.03 %, P=0.032), Ruminococcaceae, Bacteroidaceae, and Akkermansia spp.. Proteobacteria (5.67 vs. 0.55 %, P<0.001) and Lachnospiraceae (33 vs. 10.4 %) were promoted in the mucuscompared to the broth, while Ruminococcaceae decreased. The introduction of mucins affected many microbial genera and fermentation patterns, but from PCA results, the impact of mucus was independent from the fermentation substrate. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 167 (33 ULg)
Full Text
See detailSensory quality of beef patties inoculated with strains of Carnobacterium maltaromaticum with potential as biopreservatives
Didimo Imazaki, Pedro Henrique ULg; Jacques-Houssa, Charlotte ULg; Kergourlay, Gilles ULg et al

Conference (2015, December 02)

Biopreservation is the use of naturally occurring microorganisms and/or their inherent antimicrobial compounds to extend shelf life and to enhance the safety of foods. The aim of the present study was to ... [more ▼]

Biopreservation is the use of naturally occurring microorganisms and/or their inherent antimicrobial compounds to extend shelf life and to enhance the safety of foods. The aim of the present study was to perform a sensory evaluation of beef patties inoculated with potentially biopreservative strains of Carnobacterium maltaromaticum. Three different strains of C. maltaromaticum (lab. ref.: CM_824, CM_827 and CM_829) isolated from vacuum packaged beef with long shelf life were selected for this study. An untrained panel was requested to make a sensory evaluation of raw and cooked beef patties 8 and 10 days after inoculation with the selected strains at 104 and 106 UFC/g and storage in high-O2 atmosphere. After 8 days of storage, non inoculated samples (blank) were perceived as having the best studied sensory descriptors. The samples inoculated with strain CM_827 had a sensory quality very close to the blank. After 10 days of storage, samples inoculated with the strain CM_827 at 104 UFC/g received the highest scores for appearance and color. This study permitted to evaluate the effect of three C. maltaromaticum strains on the sensory quality of beef patties. Strain CM_827 did practically not change the sensory attributes of beef patties. Samples inoculated with strain CM_824 and CM_829 received the worst scores for several of the tested descriptors. Therefore, further research on the biopreservative capacity of C. maltaromaticum should be conducted with strain CM_827. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 24 (4 ULg)
Full Text
See detailNo favorable effect of reduced tillage on microbial communities in a silty loam soil (Belgium)
Degrune, Florine ULg; Theodorakopoulos, Nicolas ULg; Dufrêne, Marc ULg et al

Poster (2015, December 01)

To date, only a few studies have applied metagenomics to investigate the influence of different tillage regimes and types of crop residue management on soil microbial communities. These studies were ... [more ▼]

To date, only a few studies have applied metagenomics to investigate the influence of different tillage regimes and types of crop residue management on soil microbial communities. These studies were conducted under specific climates on soils characterized by particular land-use histories. A very different ecological context is to be found in certain areas of Western Europe, such as central Belgium, whose loess-derived soils are among the most fertile in the world and have long been used for intensive agriculture. Specific objectives were to determine diversity levels and changes in microbial community composition under different combinations of tillage regime (conventional vs. reduced) and crop residue fate (residue removal R- vs. residues left R+ on the field). As reduced tillage results in two contrasting zones (the first centimeters of soil are mixed each year, while the soil below remains unperturbed), we chose to perform the analysis at two depths: 0 to 5 cm and 15 to 20 cm. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 78 (18 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailMetagenomic insights into the dynamics of microbial communities in food
Kergourlay, Gilles ULg; Taminiau, Bernard ULg; Daube, Georges ULg et al

in International Journal of Food Microbiology (2015), 213

Metagenomics has proven to be a powerful tool in exploring a large diversity of natural environments such as air, soil, water, and plants, as well as various human microbiota (e.g. digestive tract, lungs ... [more ▼]

Metagenomics has proven to be a powerful tool in exploring a large diversity of natural environments such as air, soil, water, and plants, as well as various human microbiota (e.g. digestive tract, lungs, skin). DNA sequencing techniques are becoming increasingly popular and less and less expensive. Given that high-throughput DNA sequencing approaches have only recently started to be used to decipher food microbial ecosystems, there is a significant growth potential for such technologies in the field of food microbiology. The aim of this review is to present a survey of recent food investigations via metagenomics and to illustrate how this approach can be a valuable tool in the better characterization of foods and their transformation, storage and safety. Traditional food in particular has been thoroughly explored by global approaches in order to provide information on multi-species and multi-organism communities. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 21 (5 ULg)
See detailOral administration of a spirulina extract protects old mice against hepatic "inflammaging"
Neyrinck, A.; Taminiau, Bernard ULg; Daube, Georges ULg et al

Poster (2015, October 20)

Detailed reference viewed: 13 (1 ULg)
See detailPhylogenomic comparison of 16 O5 Shigatoxigenic Escherichia coli (STEC) isolated from young calves and humans with diarrhoea
Fakih, I.; Thiry, D.; Ogura, Y. et al

Poster (2015, October 16)

Detailed reference viewed: 6 (1 ULg)
See detailProgress in the etiological diagnosis of bovine abortions: the contribution of 16S rRNA metagenetic analysis
Delooz, L.; Evrard, J.; Grégoire, F. et al

Poster (2015, October 16)

Detailed reference viewed: 15 (1 ULg)
See detailIdentification and traceability of animal and human faecal contamination in bathing sites in Wallonia
Taminiau, Bernard ULg; Hanon, M.; Nezer, Carine et al

Poster (2015, October 16)

Detailed reference viewed: 15 (1 ULg)
Full Text
See detailStudy of the microbial diversity of microbial ring trials by metagenomic analysis : Quantification of alive bacteria by exclusion of dead bacteria
Fall, Papa Abdoulaye; Burteau, Sophie; Detry, Émilie et al

Poster (2015, October 16)

Detailed reference viewed: 9 (0 ULg)
Full Text
See detailEvaluation of the sensory quality of beef patties inoculated with Carnobacterium maltaromaticum strains with biopreservative potential
Didimo Imazaki, Pedro Henrique ULg; Jacques-Houssa, Charlotte ULg; Kergourlay, Gilles ULg et al

Conference (2015, October 16)

Biopreservation is the use of naturally occurring microorganisms and/or their inherent antimicrobial compounds to extend shelf life and to enhance the safety of foods. The aim of the present study was to ... [more ▼]

Biopreservation is the use of naturally occurring microorganisms and/or their inherent antimicrobial compounds to extend shelf life and to enhance the safety of foods. The aim of the present study was to perform a sensory evaluation of beef patties inoculated with potentially biopreservative strains of Carnobacterium maltaromaticum. Three different strains of C. maltaromaticum (lab. ref.: CM_824, CM_827 and CM_829) isolated from vacuum packaged beef with long shelf life were selected for this study. An untrained panel was requested to make a sensory evaluation of raw and cooked beef patties 8 and 10 days after inoculation with the selected strains at 104 and 106 UFC/g and storage in high-O2 atmosphere. After 8 days of storage, non inoculated samples (blank) were perceived as having the best studied sensory descriptors. The samples inoculated with strain CM_827 had a sensory quality very close to the blank. After 10 days of storage, samples inoculated with the strain CM_827 at 104 UFC/g received the highest scores for appearance and color. This study permitted to evaluate the effect of three C. maltaromaticum strains on the sensory quality of beef patties. Strain CM_827 did practically not change the sensory attributes of beef patties. Samples inoculated with strain CM_824 and CM_829 received the worst scores for several of the tested descriptors. Therefore, further research on the biopreservative capacity of C. maltaromaticum should be conducted with strain CM_827. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 17 (3 ULg)