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See detailAssociation of Targeted metagenomic analysis and classical microbiology for Clostridium difficile detection and microbial ecosystem mapping of surfaces hands and foodstuffs in a meat processing plant
Rodriguez Diaz, Cristina ULiege; Oukbir, Meriem; Taminiau, Bernard ULiege et al

Poster (2016, May 11)

INTRODUCTION Zoonoses are infectious that can be transmitted between animals and humans through direct contact, close proximity or the environment. Since domestic and food animals frequently test positive ... [more ▼]

INTRODUCTION Zoonoses are infectious that can be transmitted between animals and humans through direct contact, close proximity or the environment. Since domestic and food animals frequently test positive for the bacterium, it seems plausible that C. difficile could be zoonotic. PURPOSE This study aimed to determine the prevalence and the epidemiology of C. difficile in cattle farms and the possible spread of the bacterium among animals and farmers. METHODS A total of 176 faecal samples of cattle were collected from 5 different Belgian farms. A stool sample of each farmer was also requested. Detection of C. difficile was performed by classical culture on C. difficile selective medium (cycloserine cefoxitin fructose cholate). Isolates were characterised by PCR-ribotyping and Genotype Cdiff test (Hain Lifescience), which allows the detection of all toxin genes, mutations in gyrA gene and the deletion in the regulator gene tcdC. RESULTS C. difficile was detected in 14/178 (7.9%) animal samples. Isolates were grouped into five different types, including PCR-ribotype 015. All of them were identified as toxigenic. In contrast, none of the 5 farmers studied were positive for the bacterium. SIGNIFICANCE Results obtained indicate that PCR-ribotypes commonly isolated from hospitalised patients are also present in cattle, indicating an animal reservoir. However, a zoonotic transmission could be not demonstrated in the farms studied. [less ▲]

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See detailDaily intake and bacteriological quality of meat consumed in the households of Kigali, Rwanda
Niyonzima, Eugene ULiege; Ongol, Martin Patrick; Brostaux, Yves ULiege et al

in Food Control (2016), 69

Meat is consumed worldwide as a source of animal proteins, but it is recognized as one of the most important vehicles for food borne infections in humans. This study was conducted to determine the daily ... [more ▼]

Meat is consumed worldwide as a source of animal proteins, but it is recognized as one of the most important vehicles for food borne infections in humans. This study was conducted to determine the daily intake; the levels of hygiene indicator bacteria, namely the total mesophilic bacteria (TMC) and Escherichia coli counts (ECC); and the prevalence of Salmonella in meat consumed within the households of Kigali (Rwanda). The survey on meat consumption was carried out in 400 households by using a questionnaire, whereas the bacteriological analyses of meat samples were performed by using conventional culture methods. The results from the survey indicated that beef was the type of meat mostly consumed in Kigali city households, and the daily meat intake significantly varied with the social category of the household. No significant difference was observed between daily meat intakes in different age classes of household members. In the samples where microorganisms were detected, the average levels of TMCs and ECCs in raw meat were found to be 5.4 and 1.6 log cfu/g, respectively, whereas in cooked meat they were significantly reduced to 3.1 and 1.1 log cfu/g, respectively. The prevalence of Salmonella was reduced from 21.4% in raw meat to 3.4% in ready-to-eat cooked meat. Salmonella was not detected in cooked meat consumed in high-income households. The results from this study highlight the need for hygiene improvements in meat shops as well as in the households of Kigali, particularly those with low and medium incomes. [less ▲]

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See detailOral administration of a Spirulina extract protects old mice against hepatic “ammaging”
Neyrinck, A.; Taminiau, Bernard ULiege; Daube, Georges ULiege et al

in Nutrition Clinique et Metabolisme (2016), 30(1), 64

Background & aims: Ageing predisposes to hepatic dysfunction and inflammation that can evolve to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Spirulina, a cyanobacterium used as a food additive or food supplement ... [more ▼]

Background & aims: Ageing predisposes to hepatic dysfunction and inflammation that can evolve to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Spirulina, a cyanobacterium used as a food additive or food supplement, has been shown to impact immune functions and to improve non-alcoholic steatohepatitis in obese mice. The aim of the present study was to test the potential hepatoprotective effects of Spirulina extract supplementation in aged mice and to determine whether these effects can be related to a modulation of the gut microbiota. Methods: Old mice of 24 months were fed a control diet supplemented with or without 5% Spirulina extract (Biores, Liège, Belgium) and were compared to young mice of 3 months during 6 weeks. Results: Combination of pyrosequencing and qPCR analyses of the 16S rRNA gene revealed a decrease in total bacteria and -among specific changes of gut microbiota composition,- an increase in Allobaculum, Blautia, Roseburia, and Lactobacillus populations by Spirulina treatment. Interestingly, parameters related to the innate immunity, especially T Regulatory cells (FoxP3), CD11b-dendritic cells, cytokines (IL6, IFN MCP-1) and antimicrobial peptides (Pla2g2, Reg3) were upregulated in the small intestine of Spirulina-treated mice. Aged mice exhibited inflammation and oxidative stress in the liver tissue as compared to young mice. The supplementation with Spirulina extract reduced several hepatic inflammatory and oxidative stress markers in old mice. Conclusions: Our study shows for the first time that the oral administration of a Spirulina is able to modulate the gut microbiota, to activate immune system in the gut, thereby improving hepatic inflammation in aged mice. Those data allow to envisagesuggest a new therapeutic tools in the management of immune and metabolic alterations in ageing, based on gut microbes-host interactions. [less ▲]

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See detailOral administration of a spirulina extract protects old mice against hepatic "inflammaging"
Neyrinck, A.; Taminiau, Bernard ULiege; Daube, Georges ULiege et al

Poster (2016, February 18)

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See detailNo favorable effect of reduced tillage on microbial community diversity in a silty loam soil (Belgium)
Degrune, Florine ULiege; Theodorakopoulos, Nicolas ULiege; Dufrêne, Marc ULiege et al

in Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment (2016), 224

Among the soil management practices used to promote sustainable agriculture, reduced tillage and retention of residues from the previous crop are reported to enhance significantly both soil fertility and ... [more ▼]

Among the soil management practices used to promote sustainable agriculture, reduced tillage and retention of residues from the previous crop are reported to enhance significantly both soil fertility and crop productivity. Here, high-throughput sequencing (454 technology) was used to see how the tillage regime (conventional vs. reduced tillage) and the fate of crop residues (retention or removal) affect microbial communities at two sampling depths (top soil: 0–5 cm and deeper soil: 15–20 cm) in a fertile silty loam soil in Belgium. All combinations of these three factors were studied. After 6 years of conversion from conventional to reduced tillage, depth emerged as the main factor responsible for variation in microbial diversity, tillage regime ranked second, and finally, crop residue fate had no influence on microbial diversity. For both bacteria and fungi, the diversity appeared higher in the top soil than in the deeper soil, and surprisingly, higher under conventional than under reduced tillage. These differences are explained by changes in community composition due to taxon loss rather than taxon replacement. The specific local set of environmental conditions (a loess-derived soil and an oceanic temperate climate) may explain these results. These observations raise the question: does impoverishment in indicator taxa influence soil processes, and thus crop production? To answer this question, we discuss how the presence of certain indicator taxa liable to play an ecological role might relate to crop productivity. [less ▲]

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See detailClostridium difficile in foods and animals: A comprehensive review
Rodriguez Diaz, Cristina ULiege; Taminiau, Bernard ULiege; Van Broeck, Johan et al

in Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology (2016), 27

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See detailFlow cytometry community fingerprinting and amplicon sequencing for the assessment of landfill leachate cellulolytic bioaugmentation
Kinet, Romain ULiege; Dzaomuho, Phidias; Baert, Jonathan ULiege et al

in Bioresource Technology (2016)

Flow cytometry (FCM) is a high throughput single cell technology that is actually becoming widely used for studying phenotypic and genotypic diversity among microbial communities. This technology is ... [more ▼]

Flow cytometry (FCM) is a high throughput single cell technology that is actually becoming widely used for studying phenotypic and genotypic diversity among microbial communities. This technology is considered in this work for the assessment of a bioaugmentation treatment in order to enhance cellulolytic potential of landfill leachate. The experimental results reveal the relevant increase of leachate cellulolytic potential due to bioaugmentation. Cytometric monitoring of microbial dynamics along these assays is then realized. The Flow FP package is used to establish microbial samples fingerprint from initial 2D cytometry histograms. This procedure allows highlighting microbial communities' variation along the assays. Cytometric and 16S rRNA gene sequencing fingerprinting methods are then compared. The two approaches give same evidence about microbial dynamics throughout digestion assay. There are however a lack of significant correlation between cytometric and amplicon sequencing fingerprint at genus or species level. Same phenotypical profiles of microbiota during assays matched to several 16S rRNA gene sequencing ones. Flow cytometry fingerprinting can thus be considered as a promising routine on-site method suitable for the detection of stability/variation/disturbance of complex microbial communities involved in bioprocesses. [less ▲]

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See detailThe use of 16S rRNA gene metagenetic monitoring of refrigerated food products for understanding the kinetics of microbial subpopulations at different storage temperatures: the example of white pudding
Cauchie, Emilie ULiege; Gand, Mathieu; Kergourlay, Gilles ULiege et al

in International Journal of Food Microbiology (2016)

In order to control food losses and wastage,monitoring the microbial diversity of food products, during processing and storage is important, as studies have highlighted the metabolic activities of ... [more ▼]

In order to control food losses and wastage,monitoring the microbial diversity of food products, during processing and storage is important, as studies have highlighted the metabolic activities of somemicroorganismswhich can lead to spoilage. Knowledge of this diversity can be greatly improved by using a metagenetic approach based on high throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing, which enables a much higher resolution than culture-based methods. Moreover, the Jameson effect, a phenomenon described by Jameson in 1962, is often used to classify bacterial strains within an ecosystem. According to this, we have studied the bacterial microbiota of Belgian white pudding during storage at different temperatures using culture-dependent and independent methods. The product was inoculated with a mix of dominant strains previously isolated from this foodstuff at the end of its shelf life (Carnobacterium maltaromaticum, Lactobacillus fuchuensis, Lactobacillus graminis, Lactobacillus oligofermentans, Lactococcus lactis, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Raoultella terrigena and Serratia sp.). Daily during 16 days, the absolute abundance of inoculated strain was monitored by combining total count on plate agar and metagenetic analysis. The resultswere confirmed by qPCR analysis. The growth of each specieswasmodelled for each temperature conditions, representative of good or bad storage practices. These data allowed the bacterial strains subdivision into three classes based on criteria of growth parameters for the studied temperature: the “dominant”, the “subdominant” and the “inhibited” bacterial species, according to their maximal concentration (Nmax, log CFU/g), growth rate (μmax, 1/h) and time to reach the stationary phase (TRSP, days). Thereby, depending on the storage conditions, these data have permitted to follow intrinsically the evolution of each strain on the bacterial ecosystemof Belgianwhite pudding. Interestingly, it has shown that the reliability of the Jameson effect can be discussed. For example, at 4 °C when Lactococcus lactis and Serratia sp. stopped growth at day 12, at the same time Carnobacterium maltaromaticum reached its maximal concentration and entered its stationary phase. In opposition to this, it can be noticed that in the same condition, the “sub-dominant” organisms continued their growth independently of the “dominant” species behaviour. In this case, the Jameson effect was not illustrated. This pattern is described for all storage conditions with the same strain classifications. These results highlighted the importance of combining metagenetic analysis and classical methods, with modelling, to offer a new tool for studying the evolution ofmicroorganisms present in perishable foodwithin different environmental conditions. [less ▲]

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See detailClostridium difficile in Food and Animals: A Comprehensive Review.
Rodriguez Diaz, Cristina ULiege; Taminiau, Bernard ULiege; Van Broeck, J. et al

in Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology (2016)

Zoonoses are infections or diseases that can be transmitted between animals and humans through direct contact, close proximity or the environment. Clostridium difficile is ubiquitous in the environment ... [more ▼]

Zoonoses are infections or diseases that can be transmitted between animals and humans through direct contact, close proximity or the environment. Clostridium difficile is ubiquitous in the environment, and the bacterium is able to colonise the intestinal tract of both animals and humans. Since domestic and food animals frequently test positive for toxigenic C. difficile, even without showing any signs of disease, it seems plausible that C. difficile could be zoonotic. Therefore, animals could play an essential role as carriers of the bacterium. In addition, the presence of the spores in different meats, fish, fruits and vegetables suggests a risk of foodborne transmission. This review summarises the current available data on C. difficile in animals and foods, from when the bacterium was first described up to the present. [less ▲]

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See detailIn vitro screening of mare's milk antimicrobial effect and antiproliverative activity.
Guri, Anilda; Paligot, Michèle; Crevecoeur, Sébastien ULiege et al

in FEMS Microbiology Letters (2016), 363(2), 1-7

The aims of this study were to examine the effect of mare's milk on virulence gene expression of Salmonella Typhimurium and observe its potential activity on proliferation of adenocarcinoma Caco-2 cells ... [more ▼]

The aims of this study were to examine the effect of mare's milk on virulence gene expression of Salmonella Typhimurium and observe its potential activity on proliferation of adenocarcinoma Caco-2 cells. Different supernatants of mare's milk, raw or heat-treated at 65°C for 15 s or 30 min, were studied. The changes in hilA gene expression of Salmonella Typhimurium in presence of mare's milk supernatants were assessed using a reporter luminescent strain. A significant decrease in hilA gene expression was observed with all tested supernatants. Virulence gene expression was then assessed using qPCR on a wild-type strain of Salmonella Typhimurium. A significant decrease of hilA and ssrB2 gene expression was observed with raw milk supernatants but not with heat-treated supernatants. The same supernatants were administered to Caco-2 cells to measure their proliferation rate. A significant reduction of proliferative effect was observed only with raw milk supernatants. This study reports that raw mare's milk was able to modulate virulence gene expression of Salmonella Typhimurium and exerts antiproliferative effects on Caco-2 cells. These results may offer new approaches for promoting gastrointestinal health. [less ▲]

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See detailRecommandations relatives à l’usage de lait maternel cru pour les prématurés hospitalisés en Néonatologie - Administration du lait de la mère à son propre enfant - Avis 8734
Brasseur, Daniel; Rigo, Jacques ULiege; Melin, Pierrette ULiege et al

Book published by Conseil Supérieur de la Santé (2016)

De nombreuses études ont démontré l’intérêt pour les prématurés de faible poids à la naissance d’une alimentation exclusive au LM qui diminue significativement la mortalité et la morbidité néonatale. Elle ... [more ▼]

De nombreuses études ont démontré l’intérêt pour les prématurés de faible poids à la naissance d’une alimentation exclusive au LM qui diminue significativement la mortalité et la morbidité néonatale. Elle offre également des avantages à moyen et à long terme tant sur le plan de la santé physique que du développement psychomoteur et cognitif de ces enfants. Dans ce sens, le lait de la mère pour son propre enfant constitue le lait de référence pour l’alimentation du prématuré, qu’il soit frais, congelé voire pasteurisé (AAP, 2012). L’utilisation de lait de don, nécessairement pasteurisé, n’a de sens qu’en cas d’indisponibilité complète ou partielle du lait de la propre mère et s’utilise principalement pendant les premières semaines de vie. Les risques éventuels (bactériologique, virologique et nutritionnel) qui imposent d’émettre des recommandations pour l'utilisation du lait de la propre mère dans les unités néonatales sont décrits dans les paragraphes suivants du présent document. [less ▲]

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See detailExploring the bacterial diversity of Belgian steak tartare using metagenetics and qPCR analysis
Delhalle, Laurent ULiege; Korsak Koulagenko, Nicolas ULiege; Taminiau, Bernard ULiege et al

in Journal of Food Protection (2016), 79(2), 220-229

Steak tartare is a popular meat dish in Belgium. It is prepared with raw ground minced beef and eaten with sauce, vegetables, and spiced. Since it contains raw meat, steak tartare is highly prone to ... [more ▼]

Steak tartare is a popular meat dish in Belgium. It is prepared with raw ground minced beef and eaten with sauce, vegetables, and spiced. Since it contains raw meat, steak tartare is highly prone to bacterial spoilage. The objective of this study was to explore the bacterial flora diversity in steak tartare in Belgium according to the source and to determine which bacteria are able to grow during the shelf life. A total of 58 samples from butchers’ shops, restaurants, sandwich shops and supermarkets were collected. These samples were analyzed using 16S rDNA metagenetics, a classical microbiological technique, and quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) targeting the Lactobacillus genus. Samples were analyzed at the beginning and at the end of their shelf life, except for those from restaurants and sandwich shops analyzed only at the purchase date. Metagenetic analysis identified up to 180 bacterial species and 90 genera in some samples. But only seven bacterial species were predominant in the samples, depending on the source: Brochothrix thermosphacta, Lactobacillus algidus, Lactococcus piscium, Leuconostoc gelidum, Photobacterium kishitani, Pseudomonas spp. and Xanthomonas oryzae. With this work, an alternative method is proposed to evaluate the total flora in food samples based on the number of reads from metagenetic analysis and the results of qPCR. The degree of underestimation of aerobic plate counts (APCs) at 30°C estimated with the classical microbiology method was demonstrated in comparison with the proposed culture independent method. Compared to culture-based methods, metagenetic analysis combined with qPCR targeting Lactobacillus provides valuable information for characterizing the bacterial flora of raw meat. [less ▲]

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See detailClostridium difficile presence in Spanish and Belgian hospitals
Rodriguez Diaz, Cristina ULiege; Fernadez, Jonathan; Van Broeck, Johan et al

in Microbial Pathogenesis (2016), 100

Clostridium difficile is recognised worldwide as the main cause of infectious bacterial antibiotic-associated diarrhoea in hospitals and other healthcare settings. The aim of this study was to first ... [more ▼]

Clostridium difficile is recognised worldwide as the main cause of infectious bacterial antibiotic-associated diarrhoea in hospitals and other healthcare settings. The aim of this study was to first survey C. difficile prevalence during the summer of 2014 at the Central University Hospital of Asturias (Spain). By typing the isolates obtained, it was then possible to compare the ribotype distribution at the Spanish hospital with results from the St Luc University Hospital in Belgium over the same period. The prevalence of positive cases reported in Spain and Belgium was 12.3% and 9.3% respectively. The main PCR-ribotypes previously described in Europe were found in both hospitals, including 078, 014, 012, 020 and 002. In the Spanish hospital, most of the C. difficile-positive samples were referred from oncology, acute care and general medicine services. In the Belgian hospital the majority of positive samples were referred from the paediatric service. However, a high percentage of isolates from this service were non-toxigenic. This study finds that the presence and detection of C. difficile in paediatric and oncology services requires further investigation. [less ▲]

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See detailLongitudinal survey of Clostridium difficile presence and gut microbiota composition in a Belgian nursing home
Rodriguez Diaz, Cristina ULiege; Taminiau, Bernard ULiege; Korsak Koulagenko, Nicolas ULiege et al

in BMC Microbiology (2016), 16(229),

ackground Increasing age, several co-morbidities, environmental contamination, antibiotic exposure and other intestinal perturbations appear to be the greatest risk factors for C. difficile infection (CDI ... [more ▼]

ackground Increasing age, several co-morbidities, environmental contamination, antibiotic exposure and other intestinal perturbations appear to be the greatest risk factors for C. difficile infection (CDI). Therefore, elderly care home residents are considered particularly vulnerable to the infection. The main objective of this study was to evaluate and follow the prevalence of C. difficile in 23 elderly care home residents weekly during a 4-month period. A C. difficile microbiological detection scheme was performed along with an overall microbial biodiversity study of the faeces content by 16S rRNA gene analysis. Results Seven out of 23 (30.4 %) residents were (at least one week) positive for C. difficile. C. difficile was detected in 14 out of 30 diarrhoeal samples (43.7 %). The most common PCR-ribotype identified was 027. MLVA showed that there was a clonal dissemination of C. difficile strains within the nursing home residents. 16S-profiling analyses revealed that each resident has his own bacterial imprint, which was stable during the entire study. Significant changes were observed in C. difficile positive individuals in the relative abundance of a few bacterial populations, including Lachnospiraceae and Verrucomicrobiaceae. A decrease of Akkermansia in positive subjects to the bacterium was repeatedly found. Conclusions A high C. difficile colonisation in nursing home residents was found, with a predominance of the hypervirulent PCR-ribotype 027. Positive C. difficile status is not associated with microbiota richness or biodiversity reduction in this study. The link between Akkermansia, gut inflammation and C. difficile colonisation merits further investigations. [less ▲]

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See detailGrowth and Freeze-Drying Optimization of Bifidobacterium crudilactis
Tanimomo, Jean; Delcenserie, Véronique ULiege; Taminiau, Bernard ULiege et al

in Food and Nutrition Sciences (2016), 7

Bifidobacterium crudilactis FR62/b/3 belongs to a new population of bifidobacteria isolated from raw milk and raw milk cheese. The objective of this work was to study the large scale culture of the stain ... [more ▼]

Bifidobacterium crudilactis FR62/b/3 belongs to a new population of bifidobacteria isolated from raw milk and raw milk cheese. The objective of this work was to study the large scale culture of the stain and its stability in a dry formulation. Growth rate of Bifidobacterium crudilactis FR62/b/3 was optimal at a pH of 5.0 and a temperature of 37˚C. At a temperature growth of 33˚C and a pH of 5.0, the stationary phase was reached after 22 h, the viable cell number and the mean dry biomass concentration were respectively of 8.3 × 109 CFU/mL and of 2.1 g/L. Resistance of Bifidobacterium crudilactis FR62/b/3 to freeze-drying and effect of a variety of cryoprotectants to maintain the viability were also evaluated. Sorbitol was the most suitable cryoprotectant for freeze-drying as well as storage whereas sucrose and monosodium glutamate were only efficient during storage. [less ▲]

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See detailIntestinal Sucrase as a Novel Target Contributing to the Regulation of Glycemia by Prebiotics.
Neyrinck, Audrey M.; Pachikian, Barbara; Taminiau, Bernard ULiege et al

in PLoS ONE (2016), 11(8),

Inulin-type fructans (ITF) are known for their capacity to modulate gut microbiota, energy metabolism and to improve glycemia in several animal models of obesity, and in humans. The potential contribution ... [more ▼]

Inulin-type fructans (ITF) are known for their capacity to modulate gut microbiota, energy metabolism and to improve glycemia in several animal models of obesity, and in humans. The potential contribution of ITF as modulators of sugar digestion by host enzymes has not been evaluated yet. A sucrose challenge has been performed on naive mice fed a standard diet supplemented with or without native chicory inulin (Fibruline 5%) for 3 weeks. The area under the curve of glycemia as well as sucrase activity in the small intestine were lowered after inulin treatment. Pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene confirmed important changes in gut microbiota (mostly in favor of Blautia genus) due to inulin extract supplementation. Interestingly, the suppressive effect of inulin extract on postprandial glycemia also occurred when inulin was directly added to the sucrose solution, suggesting that the effect on sucrose digestion did not require chronic inulin administration. In vitro tests confirmed a direct inhibition of sucrase enzyme by the inulin extract, thereby suggesting that native chicory inulin, in addition to its well-known prebiotic effect, is also able to decrease the digestibility of carbohydrates, a phenomenon that can contribute in the control of post prandial glycemia. We may not exclude that the sucrose escaping the digestion could also contribute to the changes in the gut microbiota after a chronic treatment with inulin. [less ▲]

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See detailClostridium difficile infection: Early history, diagnosis and molecular strain typing methods.
Rodriguez Diaz, Cristina ULiege; Van Broeck, Johan; Taminiau, Bernard ULiege et al

in Microbial Pathogenesis (2016), 97

Recognised as the leading cause of nosocomial antibiotic-associated diarrhoea, the incidence of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) remains high despite efforts to improve prevention and reduce the ... [more ▼]

Recognised as the leading cause of nosocomial antibiotic-associated diarrhoea, the incidence of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) remains high despite efforts to improve prevention and reduce the spread of the bacterium in healthcare settings. In the last decade, many studies have focused on the epidemiology and rapid diagnosis of CDI. In addition, different typing methods have been developed for epidemiological studies. This review explores the history of C. difficile and the current scope of the infection. The variety of available laboratory tests for CDI diagnosis and strain typing methods are also examined. [less ▲]

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See detailStudy of the Potential Zoonotic Transmission of Clostridium difficile in Belgian Cattle Farms.
Rodriguez Diaz, Cristina ULiege; Hakimi, Djalal-Eddine; Daube, Georges ULiege et al

in Journal of Food Protection (2016), 79(supplement A),

Introduction: Zoonoses are infectious that can be transmitted between animals and humans through direct contact, close proximity or the environment. Since domestic and food animals frequently test ... [more ▼]

Introduction: Zoonoses are infectious that can be transmitted between animals and humans through direct contact, close proximity or the environment. Since domestic and food animals frequently test positive for the bacterium, it seems plausible that C. difficile could be zoonotic. A former study showed that the prevalence in veal calf aged less than 6 months was 22% while in adult cattle population, it was 6,9 %. Purpose: This study aimed to determine the prevalence and the epidemiology of C. difficile in cattle farms and the possible spread of the bacterium among animals and farmers. Methods: A total of 176 faecal samples of cattle were collected from 5 different Belgian farms (south East Belgium), from November 2015 to February 2016. A stool sample of each farmer was also requested. Detection of C. difficile was performed by classical culture on C. difficile selective medium (cycloserine cefoxitin fructose cholate). Isolates were characterised by PCR-ribotyping and Genotype Cdiff test (Hain Lifescience), which allows the detection of all toxin genes, mutations in gyrA gene and the deletion in the regulator gene tcdC. Toxic activity was confirmed by a cytotoxic assay on MRC-5 cells. Results: C. difficile was detected in 14/178 (7.9%) animal samples. Isolates were grouped into five different types, including PCR-ribotype 015 (this ribotype is one the most encountered in hospitals in Belgium). The other types were UCL46A, UCL24*, UCL24, UCL33. All of them were identified as toxigenic by cytotoxicity assay and toxin genes profile. In contrast, none of the 5 farmers studied were positive for the bacterium. Significance: Results obtained indicate that PCR-ribotypes commonly isolated from hospitalised patients are also present in cattle, indicating an animal reservoir. However, a zoonotic transmission could be not demonstrated in this preliminary study. [less ▲]

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See detailAdding mucins to an in vitro batch fermentation model of the large intestine induces changes in microbial population isolated from porcine feces depending on the substrate
Tran, Thi Hanh Tham ULiege; Boudry, Christelle ULiege; Everaert, Nadia ULiege et al

in FEMS Microbiology Ecology (2016), 92(2), 13

Adding mucus to in vitro fermentation models of the large intestine showed that some genera, namely lactobacilli, are dependent on host-microbiota interactions and that they rely on mucosa layers to ... [more ▼]

Adding mucus to in vitro fermentation models of the large intestine showed that some genera, namely lactobacilli, are dependent on host-microbiota interactions and that they rely on mucosa layers to increase their activity. This study investigates whether this dependence on mucus is substrate-dependent and to which extend other genera are impacted by the presence of mucus. Inulin and cellulose were fermented in vitro by a fecal inoculum from pig in the presence or not of mucin-beads in order to compare fermentation patterns and bacterial communities. Mucins increased final gas production with inulin and shifted short-chain fatty acids molar ratios (P<0.001). QPCR analyses revealed that Lactobacillus spp. and Bifidobacterium spp. decreased with mucins, but Bacteroides spp. increased when inulin was fermented. A more in-depth community analysis indicated that the mucins increased Proteobacteria (0.55 vs. 0.25 %, P=0.013), Verrucomicrobia (5.25 vs. 0.03 %, P=0.032), Ruminococcaceae, Bacteroidaceae, and Akkermansia spp.. Proteobacteria (5.67 vs. 0.55 %, P<0.001) and Lachnospiraceae (33 vs. 10.4 %) were promoted in the mucuscompared to the broth, while Ruminococcaceae decreased. The introduction of mucins affected many microbial genera and fermentation patterns, but from PCA results, the impact of mucus was independent from the fermentation substrate. [less ▲]

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See detailSensory quality of beef patties inoculated with strains of Carnobacterium maltaromaticum with potential as biopreservatives
Didimo Imazaki, Pedro Henrique ULiege; Jacques-Houssa, Charlotte ULiege; Kergourlay, Gilles ULiege et al

Conference (2015, December 02)

Biopreservation is the use of naturally occurring microorganisms and/or their inherent antimicrobial compounds to extend shelf life and to enhance the safety of foods. The aim of the present study was to ... [more ▼]

Biopreservation is the use of naturally occurring microorganisms and/or their inherent antimicrobial compounds to extend shelf life and to enhance the safety of foods. The aim of the present study was to perform a sensory evaluation of beef patties inoculated with potentially biopreservative strains of Carnobacterium maltaromaticum. Three different strains of C. maltaromaticum (lab. ref.: CM_824, CM_827 and CM_829) isolated from vacuum packaged beef with long shelf life were selected for this study. An untrained panel was requested to make a sensory evaluation of raw and cooked beef patties 8 and 10 days after inoculation with the selected strains at 104 and 106 UFC/g and storage in high-O2 atmosphere. After 8 days of storage, non inoculated samples (blank) were perceived as having the best studied sensory descriptors. The samples inoculated with strain CM_827 had a sensory quality very close to the blank. After 10 days of storage, samples inoculated with the strain CM_827 at 104 UFC/g received the highest scores for appearance and color. This study permitted to evaluate the effect of three C. maltaromaticum strains on the sensory quality of beef patties. Strain CM_827 did practically not change the sensory attributes of beef patties. Samples inoculated with strain CM_824 and CM_829 received the worst scores for several of the tested descriptors. Therefore, further research on the biopreservative capacity of C. maltaromaticum should be conducted with strain CM_827. [less ▲]

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