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See detailSurvey of the Contamination of Foodstuffs of Animal Origin by Shiga Toxin Producing Escherichia Coli Serotype O157:H7 in Belgium from 1999 to 2003
Chahed, A.; Ghafir, Y.; China, B. et al

in Euro Surveillance : Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles = European Communicable Disease Bulletin (2005), 10(3), 9-10

A survey of the prevalence of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) of O157 serotype in foodstuffs of animal origin (beef, veal, pork, chicken, fish) from 1999 to 2003 in Belgium was performed ... [more ▼]

A survey of the prevalence of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) of O157 serotype in foodstuffs of animal origin (beef, veal, pork, chicken, fish) from 1999 to 2003 in Belgium was performed. STEC strains were only isolated from beef with a prevalence of 0.73%. This percentage is low in comparison with the prevalence in other countries. Among the 76 isolated STEC O157 strains, 75% belonged to the serotype O157:H7 and 25% to the serotype O157 non H7. Moreover, the most frequent pathotype was eae stx2 ehxA (74%). [less ▲]

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See detailOccurrence of the genotype of the receptor gene for ryanodine (Ryr1) associated with sensitivity to stress in 5 Belgian porcine production systems
China, Bernard; Leroy, Bernadette ULg; Dams, Lorène ULg et al

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2005), 149(3), 161-165

Porcine stress syndrome is related to a point mutation in Ryr1 gene encoding the ryanodin receptor. This syndrome involves mortality after stress conditions or poor quality meat. Five hundred and five ... [more ▼]

Porcine stress syndrome is related to a point mutation in Ryr1 gene encoding the ryanodin receptor. This syndrome involves mortality after stress conditions or poor quality meat. Five hundred and five individuals among 5 Belgian production systems were genotyped. This genotyping was performed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymophism (PCR-RFLP) or real time PCR. The results indicated that 22,4 % of the pigs were stress sensitive (TT genotype) and 77,6 % stress resistant (63,4 % CT heterozygotes and 14,2 % CC genotype). Statistical analysis allowed to split the production systems into two groups: the production system 1 and 2 presenting a high level of TT individuals (44 % and 52 % respectively) although production systems 3, 4 and 5 presented a high level of heterozygotes individuals (74 %, 92 % and 78 % respectively). At the technical level, real time PCR appeared to be a faster and an easier technique than PCR-RFLP. [less ▲]

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See detailComparison of four different methods for Salmonella detection in fecal samples of porcine origin
Korsak Koulagenko, Nicolas ULg; Degeye, Jean-Noel; Etienne, Grégory et al

in Journal of Food Protection (2004), 67(10), 2158-2164

Performances of four detection methods were evaluated for recovery of Salmonella spp. in naturally contaminated fecal specimens of porcine origin. The NMKL 71 method consisted of enrichment in Rappaport ... [more ▼]

Performances of four detection methods were evaluated for recovery of Salmonella spp. in naturally contaminated fecal specimens of porcine origin. The NMKL 71 method consisted of enrichment in Rappaport-Vassiliadis broth and plating on xylose-lysine-desoxycholate medium, whereas the SP-VG-M002 method relied on a Diasalm enrichment followed by streaking on xylose-lysine-tergitol 4 agar (XLT-4). The VIDAS SLM method was composed of double enrichment in Muller-Kauffmann tetrathionate broth and in M broths before processing in a VIDAS device. lf the results were positive, the VIDAS ICS immunoenrichment was performed and the result transferred onto three different selective media. The VIDAS ICS protocol is an immunoconcentration step followed by plating on XLT-4. Seventy-eight samples were tested with all four methods simultaneously, leading to 34 positive samples with at least one method. For this assay, VIDAS SLM revealed 31 positive samples (91.2%), whereas the average positive percentage of the three other methods was 37.3% (P < 0.001). Two-paired comparisons with the VIDAS SLM method were also performed. McNemar values were systematically highly significant (P < 0.001). The proportion of agreement was significantly inferior (P < 0.05) for the comparison of VIDAS ICS and VIDAS SLM (68.7%) compared with the two other paired comparisons (average percentage, 81.5%). The conclusion reached by this trial is that VIDAS SLM significantly improves the recovery of Salmonella in naturally contaminated fecal specimens. For the paired-comparisons, NMKL 71 and SP-VG-M002 were comparable in terms of efficiency, whereas the VIDAS ICS protocol, as established by the manufacturer for food samples only, seemed less efficient than the other two. [less ▲]

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See detailPork quality as related to halothane genotype and slaughter conditions in a belgian study
Leroy, Bernadette ULg; Beduin, Jean-Marie; Etienne, Grégory et al

in Proceedings of the 50th International Congress of Meat Science and Technology (2004, August)

The objectives of this study were to evaluate technological and organoleptic properties of pork meat representative of different Belgian production systems and to determine the contribution of significant ... [more ▼]

The objectives of this study were to evaluate technological and organoleptic properties of pork meat representative of different Belgian production systems and to determine the contribution of significant factors to meat quality variability, in particular the halothane genotype, fasting time, lairage time and slaughtering plant. A total of 521 pigs were used in five Belgian commercial slaughtering plants over a 1 ½ year period. 79% of pigs belonged to four different quality production systems. The remaining 21% were randomly sampled in standard production. The lairage time (LT) was measured at slaughter. In the slaughterline, the entire intestinal tractus (OW) and the carcass (HCW) were weighed, the pH1 and electrical conductivity (PQM1) were measured 45 min post mortem in the longissimus dorsi muscle. One 2.5 cm thick cut of this muscle was removed 24h post mortem for further measurements in the lab : ultimate pH (pHu), ultimate electrical conductivity (PQMu), color (CIE L*a*b*), drip loss (DL), cooking loss (CL) and tenderness (WBPSF). The halothane genotype (CC, CT and TT for homozygote negative, heterozygote negative and homozygote positive for the RYR1 gene mutation respectively). The data were analyzed using SAS and the General Linear Model (GLM) SAS procedure was used in order to estimate the influence of halothane genotype, LT and slaughterhouse on the variability of pH1, PQM1, pHu, PQMu, drip loss, cooking loss, CIE Lab and WBPSF. The relative weight of OW on HCW was included in the models as covariate and used as inverse indicator of the fasting time. Least Squares Means (LSM) were computed for significant effect in the models and compared pairwise by the Student’s t-test. A large variation was observed for the meat quality parameters, in particular for pH1 (from 5.30 to 6.85), DL (from 1.2 to 11.4%) and CIE L* (from 41.6 to 66.4%). The lowest values for pH1 and highest values for DL or CIE L* indicated the presence of pale, soft, exudative meat. For all parameters –except for the pHu, CL and WBPSF– a moderate to great part of variation was explained by the GLM models (R² = 0.22-0.56). The halothane genotype effect was highly significant (p<0.001) on most meat quality traits : pH1, PQM1, PQMu and color parameters (CIE Lab) but not significant on pHu and CL. The LT had a highly significant influence only on PQMu, CIE b and DL. There was a highly significant effect (p<0.01) of the slaughtering plant on pH1, PQM1, PQMu and color parameters (CIE Lab) and a significant influence (p<0.01) on the variability of DL and CL. By contrast, the fasting time had no effect on most meat quality parameters except on DL (p<0.01) and CL (p<0.001). As indicated by the regression coefficient, an increase of OW/hot HCW seems to be related to an increase of DL (p<0.01) or CL (p<0.001). From the halothane genotype Least Squares Means and their standard errors, it appeared that meat quality was negatively affected by the presence of the RYR1 mutation. DL differed significantly (p<0.05) between genotypes with the TT pigs having the highest DL (6.8%) while that of the CC (5.5%) was the lowest and that of CT intermediate (6.1%). CL was also significantly higher (p<0.05) in TT pigs indicating lower water holding capacity. Significant differences between CC and TT genotypes (p< 0.05) were observed in terms of pH1 (6.12 vs 5.69), PQM1 (4.9 vs 6.4) and PQMu (9.7 vs 12.7). The CIE L and b values (56.9% and 16.6) were significantly higher (p<0.05) in the TT group comparatively to CC (55.0% and 15.8%) or CT pigs (54.6% and 15.4). The higher L value of the TT genotypes indicated paler meat. The WBPSF was the lowest for CT pigs with no significant difference observed between the CC and TT genotypes. A significant effect (p<0.05) of the abattoir was observed for all meat quality parameters. Although it would be necessary to determine the reasons for abattoirs differences, the small and old structure of one of the abattoirs and the lack of training of the staff could partially explain the results. Further research is needed to evaluate the interaction terms and to identify slaughtering factors which could explain slaughterhouse differences in terms of meat quality. [less ▲]

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See detailEtude de l'entérotoxémie bovine en Belgique. III. Comparaison de différents protocoles d'immunisation contre la toxine alpha de Clostridium perfringens
Manteca, Christophe; Ginter, Annita; Limbourg, Bernard et al

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2004), 148(3), 147-152

Previous surveys demonstrated the association between the bovine enterotoxaemia syndrome and proliferation of Clostridium perfringens toxintype A. The purpose of this study was to establish rules for ... [more ▼]

Previous surveys demonstrated the association between the bovine enterotoxaemia syndrome and proliferation of Clostridium perfringens toxintype A. The purpose of this study was to establish rules for vaccination of calves against the a toxin. Bovines were Belgian Blue (BBB) or BBB x Charolais originating from 6 farms with no history of clostridial vaccination. One hundred and thirty-three calves were injected with Tasvax (R) and 70 with Miloxan (R) at one and two months of age, while 94 calves received no vaccine. To study sero-conversion in calves born from vaccinated dams, 67 cows were vaccinated with Tasvax at 7 and 8 months pregnancy. Twenty-nine calves born from these cows were vaccinated at one and two months of age with the same vaccine while 38 calves were not vaccinated. The results of these 67 calves were also compared to the results obtained from the calves born from non-vaccinated cows and vaccinated with Tasvax. Anti-alpha toxin antibodies were measured using an indirect ELISA assay. Anti-alpha toxin antibodies are naturally present in the serums of non vaccinated animals and are transferred to the newborn calf by the colostrum. The two vaccinal injections cause sero-conversions in proportion of the total amount of immunogen received. The best protocol for calf vaccination is a first injection at one month of age, followed by a booster injection four weeks later. Boosters every six months are necessary to maintain a high level of antibody. In case of early problems (< 2 months of age) of enterotoxaemia in a farm, high antibody titres are obtained only following the vaccination of the pregnant cow and colostral transfer. Unfortunately this protocol is not compatible with vaccination of the calf itself. [less ▲]

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See detailDiscrimination between Bifidobacterium species from human and animal origin by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism
Delcenserie, Véronique ULg; Bechoux, Nathalie ULg; Leonard, Tamara et al

in Journal of Food Protection (2004), 67(6), 1284-1288

Bifidobacteria are normal intestinal flora in humans and animals. The genus Bifidobacterium includes 31 species of significant host specificity. Taking into account their properties, we proposed to use ... [more ▼]

Bifidobacteria are normal intestinal flora in humans and animals. The genus Bifidobacterium includes 31 species of significant host specificity. Taking into account their properties, we proposed to use bifidobacteria as fecal contamination indicators. PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism on the 16S rDNA gene was used to distinguish the different Bifidobacterium species. Sixty-four strains belonging to 13 different species were differentiated from animal or human origin using one or two restriction enzymes. Moreover, the primers used were specifics of the Bifidobacterium genus. Therefore, this method made it possible to determine both the presence of bifidobacteria in a sample and its origin of contamination. [less ▲]

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See detailHospital outbreak of gastroenteritis due to norovirus in Belgium
Verbelen, V.; Bodeus, Monique; Garrino, M. G. et al

in Acta Clinica Belgica (2004), 59(1, JAN-FEB),

We report an outbreak of gastroenteritis due to Norovirus in a care unit in a Belgian hospital involving thirty-three people. The origin of the outbreak was traced to one nursing assistant. The virus ... [more ▼]

We report an outbreak of gastroenteritis due to Norovirus in a care unit in a Belgian hospital involving thirty-three people. The origin of the outbreak was traced to one nursing assistant. The virus strain identified by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and electron microscopy belonged to the genogroup II. [less ▲]

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See detailSalmonella spp. in food of animal origin: a continuous threat for public health?
Korsak Koulagenko, Nicolas ULg; Clinquart, Antoine ULg; Daube, Georges ULg

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2004), 148(4), 174-193

Salmonella is a mesophilic bacterium that share common characteristics with Enterobacteriaceae. Two species are described: Salmonella enterica and Salmonella bongori. Beside the fact that the infection in ... [more ▼]

Salmonella is a mesophilic bacterium that share common characteristics with Enterobacteriaceae. Two species are described: Salmonella enterica and Salmonella bongori. Beside the fact that the infection in host cells requires type III secretion-systems, little is known, at present, about virulence mechanisms. Among the cultural detection methods, the use of semi-solid media seems more efficient than the others for Salmonella recovery. The techniques based on genetic amplification may be useful in order to further characterize the isolated strains. Salmonella can be isolated from the intestine of numerous animal species and its survival in the surroundings may be quite long. Several serotypes may cause clinical salmonellosis while others may be responsible for animal species of a carrier state. In this abstract, the influence of swine production system will be developed. The sustainable and ongoing surveillance are justified by the fact that Salmonella leads to numerous foodborne cases and outbreaks and is responsible of important economic and social costs. This surveillance aims to improve the sanitary quality of food from "farm to fork". The preventive methods available for the pre-harvest production step and for the slaughterhouse will be also evoked. [less ▲]

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See detailComparaison des analyses sérologiques et bactériologiques de détection des salmonelles dans le suivi sanitaire d'exploitations porcines
Korsak Koulagenko, Nicolas ULg; Leroy, Bernadette ULg; Etienne, Grégory et al

in 36èmes Journées de la Recherche Porcine (2004)

The significance of a Salmonella serological technique has been evaluated in 91 batches from 9 pigs fattening herds. Samples for bacteriology (method based on motility of Salmonella in semi-solid medium ... [more ▼]

The significance of a Salmonella serological technique has been evaluated in 91 batches from 9 pigs fattening herds. Samples for bacteriology (method based on motility of Salmonella in semi-solid medium) were taken at different steps during fattening: 2, 3 and 4 months after the beginning of the fattening period. The serological test (Salmotype Pig-LPSElisa) has been applied on meat juice obtained after thawing of diaphragm meat cuts taken on the slaughter line. The performances of the serological method were evaluated by choosing microbiological method as reference. Correlations were practiced by comparing results of optical densities of samples with cut-off values corresponding to 4 different antibody concentrations. Forty-eight different possibilities have thus been created depending on the percentage of positive samples above the cut-off value and in function of arithmetic and geometric means. The results have shown that negative predictive values ranged from 52.8 and 100 % and that the relative sensitivity varied between 4.5 and 100 %. One classification model appeared better than the others due to maximization of Kappa, negative predictive and relative sensitivity values: batch considered positive when at least 50 % of samples were characterized by an optical density higher than OD20% (optical density corresponding to an antibody concentration of 20 %). The present experiment showed the importance of good classification of individual serological results in order to strengthen the on-farm bacteriological surveillance of herds. [less ▲]

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See detailEtude de la variabilité de la qualité de la viande de porc par analyse en composantes principales
Leroy, Bernadette ULg; Etienne, Grégory; China, bernard et al

in Viandes & Produits Carnés - Hors Série 10èmes Journées Sciences du Muscle et Technologie des Viandes (2004)

L’objectif de ce travail est d’étudier, dans les conditions réelles de production, la variabilité de la qualité technologique, organoleptique et microbiologique de la viande de porc et d’objectiver les ... [more ▼]

L’objectif de ce travail est d’étudier, dans les conditions réelles de production, la variabilité de la qualité technologique, organoleptique et microbiologique de la viande de porc et d’objectiver les relations qui peuvent exister entre les variables évaluées. L’analyse en composantes principales a permis de mettre en évidence des groupes de variables et de visualiser les relations qui peuvent exister entre ces variables. La première composante principale est corrélée aux variables relatives à la qualité technologique et organoleptique de la viande. Elle met en opposition le pH45 d’une part et les paramètres L*, b* et Cond45 d’autre part. La deuxième composante principale peut être considérée comme un axe de qualité microbiologique. L’analyse en composantes principales a également permis de mettre en évidence des groupes d’individus. A titre d’exemple, les génotypes halothane ont pu être différenciés sur ce type de représentation de la variabilité de la qualité de la viande. [less ▲]

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See detailDéveloppement d'un système de traçabilité génétique chez le porc basé sur le séquençage de régions riches en SNP
China, Bernard; Clinquart, Antoine ULg; Daube, Georges ULg

in 36èmes Journées de la Recherche Porcine (2004)

Traceability is a major concern in food industry. Genetic markers such as single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) can be used in the genetic traceability context. Two loci rich in SNPs were sequenced in 96 ... [more ▼]

Traceability is a major concern in food industry. Genetic markers such as single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) can be used in the genetic traceability context. Two loci rich in SNPs were sequenced in 96 different individuals. Thirty-two significant SNPs were observed. All tested individuals presented a different genotype. In order to simplify the procedure, a hybrid amplicon joining the two regions of interest was generated. A traceability experiment based on this strategy was successfully performed allowing to identify the right couple « ear-meat ». [less ▲]

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See detailStratégies de prévention et de surveillance de Salmonella dans la filière porcine : 1. guide destiné aux laboratoires et aux personnes en charge des prélèvements.
Degeye, J.-N.; Korsak Koulagenko, Nicolas ULg; Etienne, G. et al

Book published by Les éditions de l'Université de Liège (2003)

Ce guide s’inscrit dans le cadre d’un projet de recherche co-financé par le Ministère de l’Agriculture de la Région Wallonne et le Ministère fédéral des Classes Moyennes et de l’Agriculture et intitulé « ... [more ▼]

Ce guide s’inscrit dans le cadre d’un projet de recherche co-financé par le Ministère de l’Agriculture de la Région Wallonne et le Ministère fédéral des Classes Moyennes et de l’Agriculture et intitulé « Recherche d’une méthodologie pour la mise en place et la surveillance d’une filière intégrée de production de viande porcine Salmonella-free ». Ce projet, d’une durée de quatre ans, a débuté en février 1999. Il est destiné à sensibiliser les différents acteurs de la filière porcine sur les risques liés aux salmonelles aussi bien pour les animaux que pour les humains. Il met l’accent sur l’importance d’une bonne hygiène d’abattage et de transformation de la viande, mais aussi et surtout sur le respect des règles d’hygiène élémentaires relatives à l’élevage et à l’engraissement. L’objectif est, avant tout, de donner, aux différents maillons de la chaîne de production, des recommandations à suivre pour tendre vers une production de viande porcine indemne de salmonelles. Il s’agit donc de mesures propres à la lutte contre Salmonella dans la filière porcine, complétant les réglementations en vigueur. D’autre part, un second guide a été élaboré. Il traite des plans d’échantillonnage, des techniques de prélèvement des échantillons en exploitation et à l’abattoir, des méthodes de détection ainsi que des méthodes de caractérisation des souches de salmonelles. Il s’adresse donc davantage aux responsables des contrôles et aux laboratoires de surveillance. De ce fait, le présent guide se contente de citer les méthodes de surveillance propres à chaque étude en renvoyant au guide technique. [less ▲]

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See detailStratégies de prévention et de surveillance de Salmonella dans la filière porcine : 1. guide de bonnes pratiques destiné aux fabricants d'aliments, aux éleveurs, engraisseurs, transporteurs, abattoirs et professionnels de la viande.
Degeye, J.-N.; Korsak Koulagenko, Nicolas ULg; Etienne, G. et al

Book published by Les éditions de l'Université de Liège (2003)

Ce guide s’inscrit dans le cadre d’un projet de recherche co-financé par le Ministère de l’Agriculture de la Région Wallonne et le Ministère fédéral des Classes Moyennes et de l’Agriculture et intitulé « ... [more ▼]

Ce guide s’inscrit dans le cadre d’un projet de recherche co-financé par le Ministère de l’Agriculture de la Région Wallonne et le Ministère fédéral des Classes Moyennes et de l’Agriculture et intitulé « Recherche d’une méthodologie pour la mise en place et la surveillance d’une filière intégrée de production de viande porcine Salmonella-free ». Ce projet, d’une durée de quatre ans, a débuté en février 1999. Il est destiné à sensibiliser les différents acteurs de la filière porcine sur les risques liés aux salmonelles aussi bien pour les animaux que pour les humains. Il met l’accent sur l’importance d’une bonne hygiène d’abattage et de transformation de la viande, mais aussi et surtout sur le respect des règles d’hygiène élémentaires relatives à l’élevage et à l’engraissement. L’objectif est, avant tout, de donner, aux différents maillons de la chaîne de production, des recommandations à suivre pour tendre vers une production de viande porcine indemne de salmonelles. Il s’agit donc de mesures propres à la lutte contre Salmonella dans la filière porcine, complétant les réglementations en vigueur. D’autre part, un second guide a été élaboré. Il traite des plans d’échantillonnage, des techniques de prélèvement des échantillons en exploitation et à l’abattoir, des méthodes de détection ainsi que des méthodes de caractérisation des souches de salmonelles. Il s’adresse donc davantage aux responsables des contrôles et aux laboratoires de surveillance. De ce fait, le présent guide se contente de citer les méthodes de surveillance propres à chaque étude en renvoyant au guide technique. [less ▲]

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See detailSalmonella contamination of pigs and pork in an integrated pig production system
Korsak Koulagenko, Nicolas ULg; Jacob, Benoit; Groven, Bénédicte et al

in Journal of Food Protection (2003), 66(7), 1126-1133

This paper describes the monitoring of Salmonella in a closed pig production system in Belgium over a 2-year period. A sampling scheme including animal feeds and carcasses was designed to cover the entire ... [more ▼]

This paper describes the monitoring of Salmonella in a closed pig production system in Belgium over a 2-year period. A sampling scheme including animal feeds and carcasses was designed to cover the entire chain of production from farrow to finishing pigs. Salmonella was detected by a method based on the use of semisolid Rappaport-Vassiliadis as a selective medium. The serotypes of the isolated strains were determined, and the antibiotic resistance of these strains to six antibiotics was also investigated. Feeds were found to be more contaminated than expected (10.2%, 34 of 332 samples). The percentage of positive fecal samples for pregnant sows (8.1%, 11 of 135 samples) was significantly higher than that for young and lactating sows (2.9%, 11 of 378 samples) (P<0.05). The percentage of positive samples for colon contents collected at the slaughterhouse (47.3%, 88 of 186 samples) was significantly higher than that for feces collected during the fattening stage (5.6%, 18 of 320 samples) (P<0.001). For carcass swab samples, the observed prevalence was 11.2% (17 of 152 samples). On farms, Salmonella recovery levels were higher for overshoe samples than for fecal samples, except for pregnant sows. Salmonella Typhimurium was the most frequently isolated serotype (32.2%, 55 of 171 samples), while Salmonella Brandenburg was predominant in the colon contents collected at the abattoir (21.4%, 18 of 84 samples). Feeds harbored a wide diversity of serotypes of minor epidemiological significance. Of 55 isolated strains of Salmonella Typhimurium, 11 (20%) were resistant to tetracycline, ampicillin, choramphenicol, streptomycin, trimethoprim, and nalidixic acid (R Type TeAmCSNa), while 12 (21.8%) were resistant to all of these antibiotics except nalidixic acid (R Type TeAmCS). The majority of Salmonella Typhimurium strains that exhibited resistance to more than four antimicrobial agents were characterized as Salmonella Typhimurium DT104 or as being closely related to Salmonella Typhimurium DT104 (7 of 12 isolates). In conclusion, our system of surveillance is effective in identifying most points of contamination in the production chain and will be useful in ongoing efforts to develop a Salmonella-free production system. [less ▲]

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See detailAssessment of microbiological criteria for regular checks of faecal contamination and general hygiene in Belgian establishments producing meat
Ghafir, Yasmine; Daube, Georges ULg; Dierick, Katleen et al

in Sciences des Aliments (2003), 23(1), 104-106

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See detailShellfish, a dangerous food?
China, Bernard; de Schaetzen, Marie-Athénaïs ULg; Daube, Georges ULg

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2003), 147(6, DEC-JAN), 413-422

Sea products are consumed worldwide. Seafood, especially shellfish, is consumed crude or not well cooked therefore they are risky for the development of foodborne diseases. Moreover, these animals filter ... [more ▼]

Sea products are consumed worldwide. Seafood, especially shellfish, is consumed crude or not well cooked therefore they are risky for the development of foodborne diseases. Moreover, these animals filter water and concentrate the microorganisms and the toxins. Risks are multiple : bacteria (Clostridium, Vibrio), viruses (norovirus, hepatitis A) and the biotoxins (paralytic, neurotoxic, diarrhoeic and amnesic) produced by phytoplankton. The European regulation 91/492/EC indicates the microbiological and toxicological criteria for the sale of the shellfish. Nevertheless, in the absence of good diagnosis methods, the viruses were omitted in this regulation. But it is a major cause of toxi-infection due to shellfish consumption. The large number of outbreaks worldwide due to the ingestion of seafood indicates that these ones must be carefully controlled. Therefore, we need powerful diagnosis tools. The aim of this review is to describe the major biological risks (bacteria, viruses, biotoxins) for the human health linked to the consumption of sea food. [less ▲]

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See detailMicrobiologische risico's in verbans met voeding
Daube, Georges ULg

in Institut Danone (Ed.) Boesdselveliligheid : een wetenschapelijke benadering (2003)

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See detailLe risque microbiologique lié à l'ailimentation
Daube, Georges ULg

in Institut Danone (Ed.) La sécurité alimentaire : une approche scientifique (2003)

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See detailInfluence of a water purification unit on the contamination level of salmonella in outcoming water and sludge
Jacob, Benoit; Korsak Koulagenko, Nicolas ULg; Grooven, Bénédicte et al

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2002), 146(5), 303-310

Foodborne pathogens occasionally harboured in the gastro-intestinal tract of some domestic animals may be retrieved in slaughterhouses waste water and in sludge of water purification units. Salmonella ... [more ▼]

Foodborne pathogens occasionally harboured in the gastro-intestinal tract of some domestic animals may be retrieved in slaughterhouses waste water and in sludge of water purification units. Salmonella, athogen common to man and Animals, is often used as a biological risk indicator. The aim of the present study was to assess effectiveness of a recent water purification unit by rapid and semi-quantitative detection of this micro-organism. The water purification unit collects waste water of seven food-processing industries, including a pig slaughterhouse. This latest was the main source of Salmonella contamination with a level of more 103 colony forming unit (CFU) per ml, that was very close to the average level of contamination of total incoming waste water. The unit, whose principle of action is based on biological purification, has permitted a 4 log10 reduction of Salmonella contamination, with a final contamination level of less than 1 CFU/ml. It was observed only a little decrease of contamination levels during the biological treatment steps, in contrast with the one observed during the clarification step. This was due to adsorption of bacteria by material in suspension. Fresh sludge were harboured an average of 102 CFU of Salmonella per gram. In the beginning of December 1999, two sludge piles were let on the ground along a field and sampled microbiologically every month. Seven month later, no Salmonella were recovered from the piles. 309 [less ▲]

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See detailEcology of Salmonella in slaughter pigs digestive tract and study of the contamination of carcasses
Boudry, Christelle ULg; Korsak Koulagenko, Nicolas ULg; Jacob, Benoit et al

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2002), 146(6, DEC-JAN), 353-360

This article presents a study on the Salmonella asymptomatic carriage of finishing pigs and its consequences on the contamination of carcasses. Twenty finishing pigs were followed to determine the faecal ... [more ▼]

This article presents a study on the Salmonella asymptomatic carriage of finishing pigs and its consequences on the contamination of carcasses. Twenty finishing pigs were followed to determine the faecal shedding of Salmonella. No sample was positive but at the slaughterhouse, the analysis of tonsils and certain parts of the digestive tract (mesenterial lymph nodes, ileum and large intestine content) revealed that 70% of the pigs were positive. The strains isolated from the faecal samples of the large intestine and from tonsils were identical, which might indicate that there has been an oral contamination from pig to pig due to the shedding of Salmonella or a carriage of different strains in different organs. The mesenterial lymph nodes (40 % positive) were contaminated by strains which were different from those from the faecal samples and tonsils. Salmonella strains were only found on the swabs of one carcass. A complementary assay has shown the negative role played by the scalding step. This latter may contaminate the oral and rectal cavities of slaughtered animals. This entire study reveals the difficulty to predict the contamination risk at the slaughterhouse from the analysis of finishing pigs faecal samples. Therefore, a better knowledge of the carriage and the shedding of Salmonella during the finishing period and during the slaughter is necessary to minimise meat contamination. [less ▲]

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