References of "Daube, Georges"
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See detailCritical points for Salmonella contamination during slaughter process in Belgian slaughterhouses.
De Saedeleer, L.; Maes, D.; Dewulf, J. et al

in International Pig Veterinary Society Congress (2006, July)

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See detailBegian Surveillance Plans to Assess Changes in Salmonella Prevalence in Meat Production Stages.
Ghafir, Yasmine; China, Bernard; Korsak Koulagenko, Nicolas ULg et al

Article for general public (2006)

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See detailPrevalence of enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli from serotype O157 and other attaching and effacing Escherichia coli on bovine carcasses in Algeria
Chahed, Amina; China, Bernard; Mainil, Jacques ULg et al

in Journal of Applied Microbiology (2006), 101(2), 361-368

AIMS: Bovine meat is the principal source of human contamination of attaching and effacing Escherichia coli, including enterohaemorrhagic E. coli O157. The aim was to study the prevalence of these strains ... [more ▼]

AIMS: Bovine meat is the principal source of human contamination of attaching and effacing Escherichia coli, including enterohaemorrhagic E. coli O157. The aim was to study the prevalence of these strains on bovine carcasses in Algeria. METHODS AND RESULTS: Two-hundred and thirty carcasses were swabbed and analysed by classical microbiological methods for total E. coli counts and for the presence of pathogenic E. coli. The E. coli counts were high, with a 75th percentile of 444.75 CFUs cm(-2). For pathogenic E. coli, more than 7% of the tested carcasses were positive for E. coli O157. Eighteen E. coli O157 strains were isolated and typed by multiplex PCR. The main isolated pathotype (78%) was eae+ stx2+ ehxA+. In addition to E. coli O157, other attaching and effacing E. coli (AEEC) were also detected from carcasses by colony hybridization after pre-enrichment and plating on sorbitol MacConkey agar using eae, stx1 and stx2 probes. Thirty carcasses (13%) on the 230 analysed harboured at least one colony positive for one of the tested probes. These positive carcasses were different from those positive for E. coli O157. Sixty-six colonies (2.9%) positive by colony hybridization were isolated. The majority (60.6%) of the positive strains harboured an enteropathogenic E. coli-like pathotype (eae+ stx-). Only three enterohaemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC)-like (eae+ stx1+) colonies were isolated from the same carcass. These strains did not belong to classical EHEC serotypes. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, the global hygiene of the slaughterhouse was low, as indicated by the high level of E. coli count. The prevalence of both E. coli O157 and other AEEC was also high, representing a real hazard for consumers. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: This is the first study of this type in Algeria, which indicates that the general hygiene of the slaughterhouse must be improved. [less ▲]

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See detailUse of a serological approach for prediction of Salmonella status in an integrated pig production system
Korsak Koulagenko, Nicolas ULg; Degeye, Jean-Noel; Etienne, Grégory et al

in International Journal of Food Microbiology (2006), 108(2), 246-254

Relevance of a Salmonella serological detection technique was studied from complete results obtained from 9 pigs fattening units. Feces and overshoes were sampled at different periods after starting ... [more ▼]

Relevance of a Salmonella serological detection technique was studied from complete results obtained from 9 pigs fattening units. Feces and overshoes were sampled at different periods after starting fattening (2, 3 and 4 months) while caecal contents were taken on the slaughter line. The bacteriological technique used was based on a Diasalm enrichment and a commercial test was used for serology on an average of ten animals per batch. The aim of this work was to establish a correlation between serological results obtained at slaughter (10 samples/batch) and bacteriological results. In this context, two types of logistic regression models were tested by considering alternatively serology and Salmonella detection in caecal contents as the dependent variables. Firstly, beside the fact that all logistic regression models show weak correlations, the first finding was that positive results in overshoes taken at 2 and 3 months are slightly correlated with serological status of herds (odds-ratios of 4.96 and 2.55). Secondly, when batches were characterized as positive on the basis of serological results, the probability of Salmonella recovery in caecal contents was higher than when the batches were considered as negative (odds-ratios comprised between 4.36 and 5.81). A major conclusion is that serology can be used to follow the improvement of an integrated pig production system, but is not the unique solution for assessing risk of Salmonella shedding from specific herds. (c) 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailQuantitative risk assessment of Campylobacter spp. in poultry based meat preparations as one of the factors to support the development of risk-based microbiological criteria in Belgium
Uyttendaele, Mieke; Baert, Katleen; Ghafir, Yasmine et al

in International Journal of Food Microbiology (2006), 111(2), 149-163

The objective of this study was to do an exercise in risk assessment on Campylobaeter spp. for poultry based meat preparations in Belgium. This risk assessment was undertaken on the demand of the ... [more ▼]

The objective of this study was to do an exercise in risk assessment on Campylobaeter spp. for poultry based meat preparations in Belgium. This risk assessment was undertaken on the demand of the competent national authorities as one of the supportive factors to define fisk-based microbiological criteria. The quantitative risk assessment model follows a retail to table approach and is divided in different modules. The contamination of raw chicken meat products (CMPs) was represented by a normal distribution of the natural logarithm of the concentration of Campylobacter spp. (In[Camp]) in raw CMPs based on data from surveillance programs in Belgium. To analyse the relative impact of reducing the risk of campylobacteriosis associated with a decrease in the Campylobacter contamination level in these types of food products, the model was run for different means and standard deviations of the normal distribution of the ln[Camp] in raw CMPs. The limitation in data for the local situation in Belgium and on this particular product and more precisely the semi-quantitative nature of concentration of Campylobacter spp. due to presence/absence testing, was identified as an important information gap. Also the knowledge on the dose-response relationship of Campylobacter spp. was limited, and therefore three different approaches of dose-response modelling were compared. Two approaches (1 and 2), derived from the same study, showed that the reduction of the mean of the distribution representing the ln[Camp] in raw CMPs is the best approach to reduce the risk of Campylobacter spp. in CMPs. However, for the simulated exposure and approach 3 it was observed that the reduction of the standard deviation is the most appropriate technique to lower the risk of campylobacteriosis. Since the dose-response models used in approach I and 2 are based on limited data and the reduction of the mean corresponds with a complete shift of the contamination level of raw CMPs, demanding high efforts from the poultry industry, it is proposed to lower the standard deviation of the concentration of Campylobacter spp. in raw CMPs. This proposal corresponds with the elimination of the products that are highly contaminated. Simulation showed that eating raw chicken meat products can give rise to exposures that are 10(10) times higher than when the product is heated, indicating that campaigns are important to inform consumers about the necessity of an appropriate heat treatment of these type of food products. (c) 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailPréface
Daube, Georges ULg

in Blanc, Didier (Ed.) ISO 22000, HACCP et sécurité des aliments : recommandations, outils, FAQ et retours de terrain (2006)

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See detailRisico's verbonden aan Enterobacter sakazakii in zuigelingenvoeding.
Uyttendaele, M.; Herman, L.; Daube, Georges ULg et al

in Tijdschrift voor Geneeskunde (2006), 62

Enterobacter sakazakii is een zeldzame maar bekende oorzaak van neonatale sepsis en een ernstig verlopende vorm van meningitis met een mortaliteit van 10 tot 80 %. Verschillende infecties zijn in verband ... [more ▼]

Enterobacter sakazakii is een zeldzame maar bekende oorzaak van neonatale sepsis en een ernstig verlopende vorm van meningitis met een mortaliteit van 10 tot 80 %. Verschillende infecties zijn in verband gebracht met de consumptie van zuigelingenvoeding. In opdracht van het FAVV (Federaal Agentschap voor de Veiligheid van de Voedselketen) werd een studie verricht met betrekking tot het contaminatieniveau, de voorwaarden voor groei en overleving en de risico’s op infectie van E. sakazakii in zuigelingenvoeding. Dit met het oog op het formuleren van richtlijnen omtrent de voorwaarden voor bereiding, bewaring en toediening van zuigelingenvoeding . Melkpoeder is niet absoluut steriel is en een mogelijks lage besmetting (productienorm: < 1 kve per 10g) met E. sakazakii kan aanwezig zijn. Bij bereiding moeten de nodige hygiënische maatregelen in acht worden genomen. Er wordt aanbevolen de bereide zuigelingenvoeding binnen maximaal 2h te koelen tot 5°C en een maximum bewaartijd van 24h te respecteren. Opwarmen van het gerehydrateerd melkpoeder tot 37°C, warm houden en toedienen van bereide zuigelingenvoeding is een totaalproces dat maximum 1h in beslag mag nemen opdat er zich een voldoende marge tussen het aantal E. sakazakii cellen en de infectieve dosis zou bevinden. Door opvolgen van deze richtlijnen kan het risico op neonatale E. sakazakiiinfecties sterk gereduceerd worden. [less ▲]

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See detailBelgian surveillance plans to assess changes in Salmonella prevalence in meat at different production stages
Ghafir, Yasmine; China, Bernard; Korsak, Nicolas et al

in Journal of Food Protection (2005), 68(11), 160-168

From 1997 to 1999, the prevalence of Salmonella was assessed at different stages through the pork, poultry, and beef meat production chains. Different dilutions of the initial sample suspension were ... [more ▼]

From 1997 to 1999, the prevalence of Salmonella was assessed at different stages through the pork, poultry, and beef meat production chains. Different dilutions of the initial sample suspension were analyzed to provide a semiquantitative evaluation of Salmonella contamination and to determine the most representative dilution necessary to detect a reduction in prevalence. An average of 300 samples for each type of meat were analyzed. According to Fisher's exact test, the dilution to be used to detect a reduction in prevalence was chosen based on an initial prevalence of 20 to 26%. Based on this introductory study, a new sampling plan representative of the nationwide Belgian meat production process was used from 2000 through to 2003. This study confirmed the consistently high rate and level of contamination of poultry meat: broiler and layer carcasses were the most contaminated samples followed by broiler fillets and poultry meat preparations. A constant and significant decrease in Salmonella prevalence was observed for pork carcasses, trimmings, and minced meat and for beef minced meat. Less than 3% of beef carcasses and trimming samples were positive for Salmonella. The Belgian plan, as utilized from 2000 to 2003, was suitable for monitoring of zoonoses because the sampling plan was representative of nationwide production processes, covered all periods of the year, and was executed by trained samplers and the analyses were carried out by recognized laboratories using an identical analytical method. [less ▲]

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See detailDetection and characterization of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in seafood using real time PCR.
Bradatan G; China B; Daube, Georges ULg

Poster (2005, June)

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See detailVerotoxigenic Escherichia coli from animals, humans and foods: who's who?
Mainil, Jacques ULg; Daube, Georges ULg

in Journal of Applied Microbiology (2005), 98(6), 1332-1344

Verocytotoxigenic (shigatoxigenic) and enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli, VTEC ( STEC) and EHEC, produce a toxin active on Vero cells in vitro. VTEC and EHEC have been isolated from humans and different ... [more ▼]

Verocytotoxigenic (shigatoxigenic) and enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli, VTEC ( STEC) and EHEC, produce a toxin active on Vero cells in vitro. VTEC and EHEC have been isolated from humans and different animal species, mainly ruminants and pigs. The verocytotoxins, also named shiga toxins (Stx), are active in vivo on the endothelial cells of the blood vessels of the gastro-intestinal mucosa, the kidneys, the brain, and other tissues of humans and piglets, leading to fluid leakage or haemorrhages. Conversely, their role in diseases of young ruminants remains unclear. Adult ruminants can also act as asymptomatic carriers of VTEC and EHEC strains similar to those causing diseases in humans. And they are incriminated as an important source of direct or indirect contamination of humans by the most famous EHEC strain belonging to the O157: H7 serotype, through faecal contamination of either foods of animal origin, or other foodstuffs ( fruit, vegetables, etc.), or the environment. But dozens of non-O157 human and ruminant VTEC and EHEC strains with similar general and virulence-associated properties, have been described, whose epidemiology is much less well understood. The purpose of this review manuscript is to describe and compare the properties of human, ruminant and food VTEC and EHEC strains. [less ▲]

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See detailDevelopment of a genetic traceability test in pig based on single nucleotide polymorphism detection
Goffaux, F.; China, B.; Dams, Laureen ULg et al

in Forensic Science International (2005), 151(2-3), 239-247

In order to assure traceability along the meat transformation process, a powerful system is required. The administrative traceability shows limits that the use of genetic markers could overcome. The ... [more ▼]

In order to assure traceability along the meat transformation process, a powerful system is required. The administrative traceability shows limits that the use of genetic markers could overcome. The individual genomes contain sequence differences, basis of the genetic polymorphism of which the genetic markers are the witnesses. Among them, two classes seem to dominate on the traceability field: the microsatellites and the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP). The aim of this work was to develop a genetic traceability test in pig based on SNPs mainly located in 5' and 3' untranslated regions (UTRs). A set of 21 SNP markers including new SNPs identified in this study and SNPs previously described was selected. A genotyping assay was performed on 96 individuals representing the major crossbred of the pig population in Belgium. Results showed that all individuals tested presented a different genotype. This genotyping method might help the administrative system to guarantee the traceability of pork meat along the transformation process. (c) 2005 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailA PCR method for detection of bifidobacteria in raw milk and raw milk cheese: comparison with culture-based methods
Delcenserie, Véronique ULg; Bechoux, Nathalie ULg; China, Bernard et al

in Journal of Microbiological Methods (2005), 61(1), 55-67

Bifidobacteria are well known for their beneficial effects on health and are used as probiotics in food and pharmaceutical products. As they form one of the most important groups in both human and animal ... [more ▼]

Bifidobacteria are well known for their beneficial effects on health and are used as probiotics in food and pharmaceutical products. As they form one of the most important groups in both human and animal feces, their use as fecal indicator organisms in raw milk products has recently been proposed. Bifidobacteria species isolated in humans are different from those isolated in animals. It should therefore be possible to determine contamination origin (human or animal). A method of detecting the Bifidobacterium genus was developed by PCR targeting the hsp60 gene. The genus Bifidobacterium was identified by PCR amplification of a 217-bp hsp60 gene fragment. The degenerated primer pair specific to the Bifidobacterium genus used was tested for it specificity on 127 strains. Sensitivity was measured on artificially contaminated samples. Food can however be a difficult matrix for PCR testing since it contains PCR inhibitors. So an internal PCR control was used. An artificially created DNA fragment of 315 bp was constructed. The PCR detection method was tested on raw milk and cheese samples and compared with three culture-based methods, which comprised enrichment and isolation steps. The enrichment step used Brain Heart Infusion medium with propionic acid, iron citrate, yeast extract, supplemented with mupirocin (BHMup) or not (BH) and the isolation step used Columbia blood agar medium, supplemented with mupirocin (CMup) or not (C). The method using mupirocin at both enrichment and isolation steps and the PCR method performed from the culture in BHMup enrichment medium were shown to be the most efficient. No significant difference was observed in raw milk samples between PCR from BHMup and the culture-based method BHMup/CMup, while a significant difference was noticed between the same methods in raw milk cheese samples, which would favor using PCR. The results suggested that PCR on the hsp60 gene was convenient for a rapid detection of bifidobacteria in raw milk and raw milk cheese samples and that bifidobacteria always present throughout raw milk cheese production could be efficiently used as fecal indicators. [less ▲]

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See detailSurvey of the Contamination of Foodstuffs of Animal Origin by Shiga Toxin Producing Escherichia Coli Serotype O157:H7 in Belgium from 1999 to 2003
Chahed, A.; Ghafir, Y.; China, B. et al

in Euro Surveillance : Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles = European Communicable Disease Bulletin (2005), 10(3), 9-10

A survey of the prevalence of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) of O157 serotype in foodstuffs of animal origin (beef, veal, pork, chicken, fish) from 1999 to 2003 in Belgium was performed ... [more ▼]

A survey of the prevalence of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) of O157 serotype in foodstuffs of animal origin (beef, veal, pork, chicken, fish) from 1999 to 2003 in Belgium was performed. STEC strains were only isolated from beef with a prevalence of 0.73%. This percentage is low in comparison with the prevalence in other countries. Among the 76 isolated STEC O157 strains, 75% belonged to the serotype O157:H7 and 25% to the serotype O157 non H7. Moreover, the most frequent pathotype was eae stx2 ehxA (74%). [less ▲]

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