References of "Daly, Adrian"
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See detailLes microprolactinomes : diagnostic clinique, biologique et radiologique
Burlacu, M. C.; Daly, Adrian ULg; Beckers, Albert ULg

in Young, Jacques (Ed.) Hyperprolactinémies (2008)

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See detailEpidemiology and Genetics of Pituitary Tumours
Daly, Adrian ULg

Doctoral thesis (2008)

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See detailCharacterization of a family harboring a novel LHBéta subunit mutation associated with hypogonadism
Burlacu, M. C.; Daly, Adrian ULg; Salvi, R. et al

in 17th Meeting of the Belgian Endocrine Society : Bruxelles, 25 novembre 2007 (2007, November)

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See detailTherapeutic and clinical outcome of cabergoline-resistant prolactinomas
Vroonen, Laurent ULg; Livadariu, E.; Tamagno, G. et al

in 17th Meeting of the Belgian Endocrine Society : Bruxelles, 25 novembre 2007 (2007, November)

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See detailVitex agnus castus might enrich the pharmacological armamentarium for medical treatment of prolactinoma
Tamagno, G.; Burlacu, M. C.; Daly, Adrian ULg et al

in European Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology & Reproductive Biology (2007), 135(1), 139-140

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See detailThe clinical, pathological, and genetic features of familial isolated pituitary adenomas
Beckers, Albert ULg; Daly, Adrian ULg

in European Journal of Endocrinology (2007), 157(4), 371-382

Pituitary adenomas occur in a familial setting in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) and Carney's complex (CNC), which occur due to mutations in the genes MEN1 and PRKAR1A respectively. Isolated ... [more ▼]

Pituitary adenomas occur in a familial setting in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) and Carney's complex (CNC), which occur due to mutations in the genes MEN1 and PRKAR1A respectively. Isolated familial somatotropinoma (IFS) is also a well-described clinical syndrome retated only to patients with acrogigantism. Pituitary adenomas of all types - not limited to IFS - can occur in a familial setting in the absence of MEN1 and CNC; this phenotype is tcrmed familial isolated pituitary adenomas (FIPA). Over the past 7 years, we have described over 90 FIPA kindreds. In FIPA, both homogeneous and heterogeneous pituitary adenoma phenotypes can occur within families; virtually all FIPA kindreds contain at least one prolactinoma or somatotropinoma. FIPA differs from MEN1 in terms of a lower proportion of prolactinomas and more frequent somatotropinomas in the FIPA cohort. Patients with FIPA are significantly younger at diagnosis and have significantly larger pituitary adenomas than matched sporadic pituitary adenoma counterparts. A minority of FIPA families overall (15%) exhibit mutations in the aryl hydrocarbon receptor-interacting protein (AIP) gene; AIP mutations are present in only half of IFS kindreds occurring as part of the FIPA cohort. In families with AIP mutations, pituitary adenomas have a penetrance of over 50%. AIP mutations are extremely rare in patients with sporadic pituitary adenomas. This review deals with pituitary adenomas that occur in a familial setting, describes in detail the clinical, pathological, and genetic features of FIPA, and addresses aspects of the clinical approach to FIPA families with and without AIP mutations. [less ▲]

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See detailVariable pathological and clinical features of a large Brazilian family harboring a mutation in the aryl hydrocarbon receptor-interacting protein gene
Naves, L. A.; Daly, Adrian ULg; Vanbellinghen, Jean-François ULg et al

in European Journal of Endocrinology (2007), 157(4), 383-391

Background: Germline aryl hydrocarbon receptor-interacting protein (AIP) mutations occur in 15% of familial isolated pituitary adenoma (FIPA) cases. To date, studies have focused on the identification of ... [more ▼]

Background: Germline aryl hydrocarbon receptor-interacting protein (AIP) mutations occur in 15% of familial isolated pituitary adenoma (FIPA) cases. To date, studies have focused on the identification of such mutations in large international cohorts. Detailed genetic and clinical studies within AIP mutation-positive families have been limited. Aim: To undertake a comprehensive study of a large Brazilian FIPA kindred with an E174 frameshift (E174fs) AIP mutation to assess clinical, hormonal, and radiological features in mutation carriers. Methods: The kindred included 122 subjects across six generations; all underwent clinical examination. Genetic studies were performed to identify E174fs mutation carriers. E174fs-positive subjects underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and hormonal assessments. Results: Of the ten germline AIP mutation carriers, three had pituitary tumors, while seven were asymptomatic carriers. Three patients with pituitary tumors showed variability in terms of tumor phenotype (two with acromegaly, one with prolactinoma, or mixed prolactin/GH-secreting tumor) and age at diagnosis; both patients with acromegaly had poor responses to octreotide. Tumor AIP immunohistochemistry from the operated patient showed decreased expression when compared with normal tissue. Two adult subjects with normal MRI had elevated IGF-I in the absence of other causes. A 2-year-old child with the E174fs mutation and a normal MRI had premature thelarche, ovarian development, and advanced bone age in the absence of other underlying causes. Conclusions: The penetrance of pituitary tumors in AIP mutation-positive adult subjects was 33.3%, while clinical/hormonal features were variable. The features noted in AIP-mutation carriers in this kindred suggest that clinical characteristics of such carriers may extend beyond pituitary tumors. [less ▲]

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See detailAcromégalie : Aspects génétiques et diagnostic étiologique
Burlacu, M. C.; Daly, Adrian ULg; Beckers, Albert ULg

in Médecine Clinique, Diabétolgie et Endocrinologie (2007)

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See detailThe Epidemiology of pituitary tumors : Results of an international collaborative study
Daly, Adrian ULg; Cogne, M.; Jaffrain-Réa, M. L. et al

in The Endocrine Society's - 89 Annual Meeting : Toronto, Canada, 2-5 june 2007 (2007, June)

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See detailAryl hydrocarbon receptor-interacting protein gene mutations in familial isolated pituitary adenomas: analysis in 73 families.
Daly, Adrian ULg; Vanbellinghen, Jean-François ULg; Khoo, Sok Kean et al

in Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism (2007), 92(5), 1891-1896

CONTEXT: An association between germline aryl hydrocarbon receptor-interacting protein (AIP) gene mutations and pituitary adenomas was recently shown. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to assess ... [more ▼]

CONTEXT: An association between germline aryl hydrocarbon receptor-interacting protein (AIP) gene mutations and pituitary adenomas was recently shown. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to assess the frequency of AIP gene mutations in a large cohort of patients with familial isolated pituitary adenoma (FIPA). DESIGN: This was a multicenter, international, collaborative study. SETTING: The study was conducted in 34 university endocrinology and genetics departments in nine countries. PATIENTS: Affected members from each FIPA family were studied. Relatives of patients with AIP mutations underwent AIP sequence analysis. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Presence/absence and description of AIP gene mutations were the main outcome measures. INTERVENTION: There was no intervention. RESULTS: Seventy-three FIPA families were identified, with 156 patients with pituitary adenomas; the FIPA cohort was evenly divided between families with homogeneous and heterogeneous tumor expression. Eleven FIPA families had 10 germline AIP mutations. Nine mutations, R16H, G47_R54del, Q142X, E174frameshift, Q217X, Q239X, K241E, R271W, and Q285frameshift, have not been described previously. Tumors were significantly larger (P = 0.0005) and diagnosed at a younger age (P = 0.0006) in AIP mutation-positive vs. mutation-negative subjects. Somatotropinomas predominated among FIPA families with AIP mutations, but mixed GH/prolactin-secreting tumors, prolactinomas, and nonsecreting adenomas were also noted. Approximately 85% of the FIPA cohort and 50% of those with familial somatotropinomas were negative for AIP mutations. CONCLUSIONS: AIP mutations, of which nine new mutations have been described here, occur in approximately 15% of FIPA families. Although pituitary tumors occurring in association with AIP mutations are predominantly somatotropinomas, other tumor types are also seen. Further study of the impact of AIP mutations on protein expression and activity is necessary to elucidate their role in pituitary tumorigenesis in FIPA. [less ▲]

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See detailPseudomalabsorption of thyroid hormones: case report and review of the literature.
Livadariu, E.; Valdes Socin, Hernan Gonzalo ULg; Burlacu, M. C. et al

in Annales d'Endocrinologie (2007), 68(6), 460-463

Many causes of thyroxine malabsorption are described in the literature, but the most common cause of failure of thyroxine therapy is poor patient compliance, or pseudomalabsorption. We describe the case ... [more ▼]

Many causes of thyroxine malabsorption are described in the literature, but the most common cause of failure of thyroxine therapy is poor patient compliance, or pseudomalabsorption. We describe the case of a female patient who underwent total thyroidectomy for Basedow-Graves disease. Post-operatively, several treatment regimens were employed to achieve euthyroidism, but only injectable thyroxine was found to be effective. To exclude levothyroxine malabsorption, the patient was hospitalized in a hypothyroid state while a single oral test dose of levothyroxine (1000 microg) was administered. Within 4 hours a decrease of TSH level (from 59.7 to 55.6 microUI/ml) and a significant increase in free T4 levels (from 0.8 to 15.5 pg/ml) was observed, eliminating a malabsorption problem. The cause of resistance to thyroid hormone therapy was poor patient compliance, leading to the designation of this as a case of pseudomalabsorption. [less ▲]

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See detailThe epidemiology and management of pituitary incidentalomas
Daly, Adrian ULg; Burlacu, M. C.; Livadariu, E. et al

in Hormone Research (2007), 68(Suppl. 5), 195-198

Prevalence: The prevalence of pituitary tumors has been a topic of controversy for many years. Autopsy and radiological series show that pituitary incidentalomas may be present in one of six people ... [more ▼]

Prevalence: The prevalence of pituitary tumors has been a topic of controversy for many years. Autopsy and radiological series show that pituitary incidentalomas may be present in one of six people. Recent epidemiological data suggest that clinically apparent pituitary adenomas have a prevalence of approximately one in 1,000 people in the general population. The disconnect between these two prevalence rates underlines the common clinical quandary of how to manage pituitary incidentalomas, particularly those lacking clinical signs/symptoms or hormonal abnormalities. Management: The natural history of incidentalomas suggests that periodic hormonal, clinical and radiological follow-up is the optimal approach. In the absence of tumor growth or relevant symptoms, screening can be continued intermittently or curtailed based on the clinical judgment of the physician. In the presence of hormonal hypersecretion, the management of pituitary incidentalomas, whether they are micro- or macroadenomas, should follow accepted clinical guidelines. For incidental pituitary macroadenomas without hormonal hypersecretion, clinical management should also include assessments for visual field impairment or hypopituitarism. In such cases, regular radiological and hormonal follow-up is required to identify tumor growth or the appearance of new symptoms. In the presence of tumor growth or new hormonal abnormalities, surgical options should be considered and discussed with the patient. Copyright (C) 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel. [less ▲]

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See detailMutations in the aryl hydrocarbon receptor interacting protein gene are not highly prevalent among subjects with sporadic pituitary adenomas.
Barlier, Anne; Vanbellinghen, Jean-François ULg; Daly, Adrian ULg et al

in Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism (2007), 92(5), 1952-5

CONTEXT: Limited screening suggests that three germline mutations in the aryl hydrocarbon receptor interacting protein (AIP) gene are not involved in sporadic pituitary tumorigenesis. Multiple novel ... [more ▼]

CONTEXT: Limited screening suggests that three germline mutations in the aryl hydrocarbon receptor interacting protein (AIP) gene are not involved in sporadic pituitary tumorigenesis. Multiple novel mutations of this gene have since been identified in familial isolated pituitary adenoma cohorts. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to undertake full AIP coding sequence screening to assess for the presence of germline and somatic mutations in European Union subjects with sporadic pituitary tumors. DESIGN: The study design was the analysis of DNA from peripheral blood lymphocytes and analysis of exons 1-6 and paraexonic intron sequences of AIP. Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification was used to screen separate sporadic pituitary tumor tissue samples for discrete and extensive deletions or mutations of the AIP gene. Setting: The study was conducted in university tertiary referral Clinical Genetics, Molecular Biology, and Endocrinology Departments. RESULTS: In 107 patients [prolactinomas (n =49), nonfunctioning tumors (n = 29), somatotropinomas (n = 26), ACTH-secreting tumors (n = 2), TSH-secreting tumors (n = 1)], no germline mutations of AIP were demonstrated. Among a group of 41 tumor samples from other subjects, a novel AIP mutation (R22X) was found in one sample in which the corresponding allele was deleted; follow-up screening of the patient demonstrated a germline R22X AIP mutation. CONCLUSIONS: AIP mutations do not appear to play a prominent role in sporadic pituitary tumorigenesis in this population of European subjects. [less ▲]

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See detailEpidémiologie des adénomes hypophysaires
Burlacu, M. C.; Daly, Adrian ULg; Beckers, Albert ULg

in Mises au point cliniques d'Endocrinologie, Nutrition et Métabolisme, 27èmes Journées Françaises d'Endocrinologie Clinique, Nutrition et Métabolisme (2007)

Les adénomes hypophysaires représentent une pathologie fréquente parmi les tumeurs cérébrales. Une étude liégeoise récente a montré une prévalence des adénomes hypophysaires cliniquement actifs de 1/1064 ... [more ▼]

Les adénomes hypophysaires représentent une pathologie fréquente parmi les tumeurs cérébrales. Une étude liégeoise récente a montré une prévalence des adénomes hypophysaires cliniquement actifs de 1/1064 habitants, nettement supérieure aux données antérieures. Tant dans les séries cliniques qu'autopsiques, les microadénomes à prolactine sont les adénomes prédominants. Les adénomes hypophysaires sont le plus souvent de présentation sporadique, mais les adénomes familiaux dans des formes isolées ou syndromiques sont également décrits. Les adénomes hypophysaires familiaux représentent environ 5% des adénomes hypophysaires et leur caractérisation clinique et génétique a été récemment enrichie par la description de la nouvelle entité FIPA (familial isolated pituitary adenomas) et des mutations du gène AIP (aryl hydrocarbon receptor-interacting protein). Bien que l'évolution habituellement bénigne, les adénomes hypophysaires sont caractérisés par une grande diversité clinique et génétique qui réclame des moyens diagnostiques et thérapeutiques spécifiques. [less ▲]

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See detailAcromegalia familiar : Screening familiar y valoracion dentro de los adenomas hipofisarios aislados familiares (FIPA)
Fajardo, C.; Camara, R.; Daly, Adrian ULg et al

in The Sociedad Espanola de Endocrinologia y Nutricion - Annuala meeting 2007 : Murcia, Espagne (2007)

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See detailActualités à propos de l'origine génétique des adénomes de l'hypophyse
Burlacu, M. C.; Daly, Adrian ULg; Beckers, Albert ULg

in Quotidien de l'Endocrinologie, du Diabétologue et du Nutritionniste (2007)

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See detailPathologies infiltratives et inflammatoires de l'hypophyse
Burlacu, C.; Hansen, Isabelle ULg; Daly, Adrian ULg et al

in Chanson, Philippe; Young, Jacques (Eds.) Traité d'Endocrinologie (2007)

C’est le traité de référence dans la discipline : livre unique, sans concurrent de cette envergure. Il couvre toute l’endocrinologie moderne, qui s’appuie sur l’apport de la biologie moléculaire, de la ... [more ▼]

C’est le traité de référence dans la discipline : livre unique, sans concurrent de cette envergure. Il couvre toute l’endocrinologie moderne, qui s’appuie sur l’apport de la biologie moléculaire, de la biochimie, de l’immunocytochimie, de l’imagerie moderne avec, en particulier la T.E.P. La physiopathologie, les symptômes, les éléments du diagnostic, les orientations pronostiques, les choix thérapeutiques sont exposés de façon exhaustive pour les affections touchant toutes les glandes endocrines : thyroïde, parathyroïde, surrénales, testicules, ovaires, hypophyse. Au total, il s’agit d’un ouvrage complet, moderne et pratique ; la richesse des illustrations, des arbres décisionnels, l’abondante bibliographie contribuent à en faire un outil indispensable au quotidien. Ce Traité d'endocrinologie conçu par et maintenant publié sous la direction de Philippe Chanson et Jacques Young est remarquable, par son contenu, d'abord, ensuite, par le fait qu'il est écrit en français, ce qui en fait un ouvrage unique. En effet, les grands traités d'endocrinologie de ces dernières années sont en anglais. La liste des 154 chapitres couvre la totalité de l'endocrinologie d'aujourd'hui dans tous ses aspects, depuis la biologie moléculaire à la pratique du clinicien, interniste ou chirurgien. Et le texte, les textes, sont d'enseignement fondamental pour l'étudiant autant que de présentations et discussions diagnostiques pour le clinicien averti comme pour celui qui cherche à s'instruire. Comme la nostalgie, pour reprendre le cliché bien connu, l'endocrinologie n'est plus ce qu'elle était. Le concept de glandes endocrines, s'il reste vrai dans son ensemble, est cependant dépassé par ces nouvelles découvertes qui montrent sécrétion et utilisation in loto de ces mêmes substances (hormones ?) par des organes aussi variés que le cerveau ou le tissu adipeux. Et le Traité d'endocrinologie présente et discute, nombreuses références à l'appui, les nouveaux concepts des mécanismes d'action des différentes classes d'hormones tant au niveau du soma que du psyché. Les implications pour la thérapeutique sont considérables et ce sera le malade qui finalement, bénéficiera de toutes ces connaissances présentées ici à son médecin. L'endocrinologie et son ouverture sur la neuro-endocrinologie constituent plus que jamais la science de nous-mêmes, dans la santé comme dans la maladie. Ce Traité d'endocrinologie est une magnifique présentation de l'état des choses. [less ▲]

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See detailAdénomes hypophysaires thyréotropes
Valdes Socin, Hernan Gonzalo ULg; Daly, Adrian ULg; Beckers, Albert ULg

in Chanson, Philippe; Young, Jacques (Eds.) Traité d'Endocrinologie (2007)

C’est le traité de référence dans la discipline : livre unique, sans concurrent de cette envergure. Il couvre toute l’endocrinologie moderne, qui s’appuie sur l’apport de la biologie moléculaire, de la ... [more ▼]

C’est le traité de référence dans la discipline : livre unique, sans concurrent de cette envergure. Il couvre toute l’endocrinologie moderne, qui s’appuie sur l’apport de la biologie moléculaire, de la biochimie, de l’immunocytochimie, de l’imagerie moderne avec, en particulier la T.E.P. La physiopathologie, les symptômes, les éléments du diagnostic, les orientations pronostiques, les choix thérapeutiques sont exposés de façon exhaustive pour les affections touchant toutes les glandes endocrines : thyroïde, parathyroïde, surrénales, testicules, ovaires, hypophyse. Au total, il s’agit d’un ouvrage complet, moderne et pratique ; la richesse des illustrations, des arbres décisionnels, l’abondante bibliographie contribuent à en faire un outil indispensable au quotidien. Ce Traité d'endocrinologie conçu par et maintenant publié sous la direction de Philippe Chanson et Jacques Young est remarquable, par son contenu, d'abord, ensuite, par le fait qu'il est écrit en français, ce qui en fait un ouvrage unique. En effet, les grands traités d'endocrinologie de ces dernières années sont en anglais. La liste des 154 chapitres couvre la totalité de l'endocrinologie d'aujourd'hui dans tous ses aspects, depuis la biologie moléculaire à la pratique du clinicien, interniste ou chirurgien. Et le texte, les textes, sont d'enseignement fondamental pour l'étudiant autant que de présentations et discussions diagnostiques pour le clinicien averti comme pour celui qui cherche à s'instruire. Comme la nostalgie, pour reprendre le cliché bien connu, l'endocrinologie n'est plus ce qu'elle était. Le concept de glandes endocrines, s'il reste vrai dans son ensemble, est cependant dépassé par ces nouvelles découvertes qui montrent sécrétion et utilisation in loto de ces mêmes substances (hormones ?) par des organes aussi variés que le cerveau ou le tissu adipeux. Et le Traité d'endocrinologie présente et discute, nombreuses références à l'appui, les nouveaux concepts des mécanismes d'action des différentes classes d'hormones tant au niveau du soma que du psyché. Les implications pour la thérapeutique sont considérables et ce sera le malade qui finalement, bénéficiera de toutes ces connaissances présentées ici à son médecin. L'endocrinologie et son ouverture sur la neuro-endocrinologie constituent plus que jamais la science de nous-mêmes, dans la santé comme dans la maladie. Ce Traité d'endocrinologie est une magnifique présentation de l'état des choses. [less ▲]

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See detailCharacteristics of familial isolated pituitary adenomas (FIPA) - Review
Daly, Adrian ULg; Vanbellinghen, Jean-François ULg; Beckers, Albert ULg

in Expert Review of Endocrinology & Metabolism (2007), 2(6), 725-733

The familial occurrence of pituitary adenomas has been recognized for many years and currently accounts for approximately 5% of all cases. Molecular, genetic and clinical features of familial pituitary ... [more ▼]

The familial occurrence of pituitary adenomas has been recognized for many years and currently accounts for approximately 5% of all cases. Molecular, genetic and clinical features of familial pituitary adenomas have been well characterized in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN-1) and Carney's complex (CNC), which account for the majority of familial pituitary tumor cases. These conditions are caused by MEN1 and PRKAR1A gene mutations, respectively, and the clinical and pathological features of pituitary pathology in these diseases differ from those of sporadic pituitary tumors. Familial acromegaly has been recognized for many years and, more recently, the clinical features of this clinical phenotype, referred to as isolated familial somatotropinoma, have been clarified. Over the past decade, the concept of non-MEN-1/CNC familial pituitary tumors has been expanded significantly to include all phenotypes, a condition known as familial isolated pituitary adenomas (FIPA). In FIPA, tumors can present homogeneously (same phenotype) or heterogeneously (different tumor phenotypes) within the same family. Compared with sporadic pituitary adenomas, patients with FIPA have a younger age at diagnosis and have larger tumors. The clinical features of FIPA differ from those of MEN-1 in terms of a higher frequency of somatotropinomas and a lower frequency of prolactinomas. The recent discovery of the involvement of mutations in the aryl hydrocarbon receptor interacting protein (AIP) gene in association with pituitary tumors has provided new information regarding potential mechanisms of tumorigenesis in FIPA patients. While very infrequent in sporadic pituitary tumors, approximately 15% of FIPA patients have AIP mutations, rising to half of patients with familial acromegaly. In this review, we detail the clinical features of FIPA and discuss tumor pathology and genetic findings in this increasingly recognized clinical condition. [less ▲]

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See detailHigh prevalence of pituitary adenomas: A cross-sectional study in the province of Liege, Belgium
Daly, Adrian ULg; Rixhon, M.; Adam, Christelle et al

in Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism (2006), 91(12), 4769-4775

Context: Prevalence data are important for assessing the burden of disease on the health care system; data on pituitary adenoma prevalence are very scarce. Objective: The objective of the study was to ... [more ▼]

Context: Prevalence data are important for assessing the burden of disease on the health care system; data on pituitary adenoma prevalence are very scarce. Objective: The objective of the study was to measure the prevalence of clinically relevant pituitary adenomas in a well-defined population. Design: This was a cross-sectional, intensive, case-finding study performed in three regions of the province of Liège, Belgium, to measure pituitary adenoma prevalence as of September 30, 2005. Setting: The study was conducted in specialist and general medical practitioner patient populations, referral hospitals, and investigational centers. Methods: Three demographically and geographically distinct districts of the province of Liège were delineated precisely using postal codes. Medical practitioners in these districts were recruited, and patients with pituitary adenomas under their care were identified. Diagnoses were confirmed after retrieval of clinical, hormonal, radiological, and pathological data; full demographic and therapeutic follow-up data were collected in all cases. Results: Sixty-eight patients with clinically relevant pituitary adenomas were identified in a population of 71,972 individuals; the mean (± SD) prevalence was 94 ± 19.3 cases per 100,000 population (95% confidence interval, 72.2 to 115.8). The group was 67.6% female and had a mean age at diagnosis of 40.3 yr; 42.6% had macroadenomas and 55.9% underwent surgery. Prolactinomas comprised 66% of the group, with the rest having nonsecreting tumors (14.7%), somatotropinomas (13.2%), or Cushing’s disease (5.9%); 20.6% had hypopituitarism. Conclusion: The prevalence of pituitary adenomas in the study population (one case in 1064 individuals) was more than 3.5–5 times that previously reported. This increased prevalence may have important implications when prioritizing funding for research and treatment of pituitary adenomas. [less ▲]

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