References of "D'Argembeau, Arnaud"
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See detailSelf-defining future projections: exploring the identity function of thinking about the future
D'Argembeau, Arnaud ULg; Lardi, Claudia; Van der Linden, Martial ULg

in Memory (2012), 20

The act of projecting oneself into meaningful future events may significantly contribute to a person’s sense of self and identity. Yet, if the role of memories, in particular self-defining memories (SDMs ... [more ▼]

The act of projecting oneself into meaningful future events may significantly contribute to a person’s sense of self and identity. Yet, if the role of memories, in particular self-defining memories (SDMs), in grounding the self is now well established, the identity function of anticipated future events has received comparatively little attention. This article introduces the construct of self-defining future projection (SDFP) to address this issue. Two studies show that people can readily identify significant future events that they frequently think about and that convey core information about who they are as individuals. Furthermore, a person’s particular style of constructing SDMs is similarly manifested in SDFPs, suggesting that both types of events can be used to ground the self. Notably, people who display a stronger tendency to extract meaning from their past experiences also reflect more about the potential implications of imagined future events. The results further demonstrate that SDMs and SDFPs both give rise to a strong sense of personal continuity over time and are meaningfully related to self-esteem. Together, these findings lend support to the idea that a person’s sense of self and identity is in part nourished by the anticipation of significant future events. [less ▲]

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See detailValuing One's Self: Medial Prefrontal Involvement in Epistemic and Emotive Investments in Self-views.
D'Argembeau, Arnaud ULg; Jedidi, Haroun ULg; Balteau, Evelyne ULg et al

in Cerebral Cortex (2012), 22

Recent neuroimaging research has revealed that the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) is consistently engaged when people form mental representations of themselves. However, the precise function of this ... [more ▼]

Recent neuroimaging research has revealed that the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) is consistently engaged when people form mental representations of themselves. However, the precise function of this region in self-representation is not yet fully understood. Here, we investigate whether the MPFC contributes to epistemic and emotive investments in self-views, which are essential components of the self-concept that stabilize self-views and shape how one feels about oneself. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we show that the level of activity in the MPFC when people think about their personal traits (by judging trait adjectives for self-descriptiveness) depends on their investments in the particular self-view under consideration, as assessed by postscan rating scales. Furthermore, different forms of investments are associated with partly distinct medial prefrontal areas: a region of the dorsal MPFC is uniquely related to the degree of certainty with which a particular self-view is held (one's epistemic investment), whereas a region of the ventral MPFC responds specifically to the importance attached to this self-view (one's emotive investment). These findings provide new insight into the role of the MPFC in self-representation and suggest that the ventral MPFC confers degrees of value upon the particular conception of the self that people construct at a given moment. [less ▲]

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See detailThe neural basis of semantic and episodic forms of self-knowledge: insights from functional neuroimaging
D'Argembeau, Arnaud ULg; Salmon, Eric ULg

in Lopez-Larrea, Carlos (Ed.) Sensing in nature (2012)

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See detailValue and the self in the medial prefrontal cortex
D'Argembeau, Arnaud ULg

Conference (2011, August 04)

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See detailFuture thinking and the self
D'Argembeau, Arnaud ULg

Conference (2011, August 04)

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See detailPhenomenology, function, and neural correlates of mind-wandering
Stawarczyk, David ULg; Majerus, Steve ULg; D'Argembeau, Arnaud ULg

Conference (2011, May 27)

Mind-wandering refers to the occurrence of thoughts whose content is both decoupled from stimuli present in the immediate environment and unrelated to the task currently being carried out. In a series of ... [more ▼]

Mind-wandering refers to the occurrence of thoughts whose content is both decoupled from stimuli present in the immediate environment and unrelated to the task currently being carried out. In a series of experiments, we used a newly designed experience sampling method to assess mind-wandering episodes and to distinguish them from other kinds of distractions (irrelevant interoceptive/exteroceptive sensory perceptions and interfering thoughts related to the appraisal of the current task). In Experiment 1, we examined the impact of mind-wandering on performance of the Sustained Attention to Response Task (SART; a Go/No-Go task). Analyses demonstrated that episodes of mind-wandering impair SART performance to the same extent as irrelevant sensory perceptions. In Experiment 2, we focused on the content of mind-wandering in order to assess its possible functions. We observed that most of reported mind-wandering episodes refer to the anticipation and planning of future events. Furthermore, this “prospective bias” was increased when participants’ attention had been oriented toward their personal goals prior to performing the SART. In Experiment 3, we examined the neural correlates of mind-wandering using functional magnetic resonance imaging. The results showed that the brain regions that were more active during episodes of mind-wandering are similar to the regions that have been associated with imagining future events in previous studies. Together, these results suggest that although episodes of mind-wandering negatively impact current task performance, they may have important adaptive value and could, in particular, play a key role in planning for the future. [less ▲]

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See detailIs brain activity during a Stroop inhibitory task modulated by the kind of cognitive control required?
Collette, Fabienne ULg; D'Ostilio, Kevin ULg; D'Argembeau, Arnaud ULg et al

Conference (2011)

Performance on the Stroop task is associated to a large antero-posterior cerebral network involving notably the anterior cingulate and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. In this study, we used a mixed-BOLD ... [more ▼]

Performance on the Stroop task is associated to a large antero-posterior cerebral network involving notably the anterior cingulate and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. In this study, we used a mixed-BOLD-fMRI design (N=25) to determine the neural substrates of inhibitory functioning in a Stroop task according to contextual information. Consequently, two task-contexts were created: (1) congruent context with a majority of facilitator items, (2) non-congruent context with mainly interfering items. Based on the dual cognitive control model, we postulated that the non-congruent blocks will involve proactive control, which is anticipatory, sustained, and involved when a large number of interfering items are successively presented. On the contrary, congruent blocks were assumed to involve reactive control, which occurs when few interfering items are presented, and just after the presentation of these items only. On this basis, we hypothesized that the kind of cognitive control modulates cerebral activity associated to inhibitory functioning. For behavioral data, we obtained faster response times for interfering items in the non-congruent vs. congruent condition, indicating proactive control specific to the congruent condition only. Functional neuro-imaging data showed an increased transient activity for interfering vs neutral items in a fronto-parietal network more important in the congruent than in the neutral condition. A similar contrast in the non-congruent condition showed no significant brain activity at the statistical threshold used. These data indicate the existence of a modulation of the cerebral areas associated to inhibitory functioning according to the kind of cognitive control necessary to perform the task. [less ▲]

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See detailMotivational aspects of future thinking in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex
D'Argembeau, Arnaud ULg

in Ebstein, Richard; Shamy-Tsoory, Simone; Hong Chew, Soo (Eds.) From DNA to social cognition (2011)

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See detailTracking the construction of episodic future thoughts
D'Argembeau, Arnaud ULg; Mathy, Arnaud ULg

in Journal of Experimental Psychology. General (2011), 140

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See detailNeural Correlates of Ongoing Conscious Experience: Both Task-Unrelatedness and Stimulus-Independence Are Related to Default Network Activity
Stawarczyk, David ULg; Majerus, Steve ULg; Maquet, Pierre ULg et al

in PLoS ONE (2011), 6(2), 16997

The default mode network (DMN) is a set of brain regions that consistently shows higher activity at rest compared to tasks requiring sustained focused attention toward externally presented stimuli. The ... [more ▼]

The default mode network (DMN) is a set of brain regions that consistently shows higher activity at rest compared to tasks requiring sustained focused attention toward externally presented stimuli. The cognitive processes that the DMN possibly underlies remain a matter of debate. It has alternately been proposed that DMN activity reflects unfocused attention toward external stimuli or the occurrence of internally generated thoughts. The present study aimed at clarifying this issue by investigating the neural correlates of the various kinds of conscious experiences that can occur during task performance. Four classes of conscious experiences (i.e., being fully focused on the task, distractions by irrelevant sensations/perceptions, interfering thoughts related to the appraisal of the task, and mind-wandering) that varied along two dimensions (“task-relatedness” and “stimulus-dependency”) were sampled using thought-probes while the participants performed a go/no-go task. Analyses performed on the intervals preceding each probe according to the reported subjective experience revealed that both dimensions are relevant to explain activity in several regions of the DMN, namely the medial prefrontal cortex, posterior cingulate cortex/precuneus, and posterior inferior parietal lobe. Notably, an additive effect of the two dimensions was demonstrated for midline DMN regions. On the other hand, lateral temporal regions (also part of the DMN) were specifically related to stimulus-independent reports. These results suggest that midline DMN regions underlie cognitive processes that are active during both internal thoughts and external unfocused attention. They also strengthen the view that the DMN can be fractionated into different subcomponents and reveal the necessity to consider both the stimulus-dependent and the task-related dimensions of conscious experiences when studying the possible functional roles of the DMN. [less ▲]

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See detailMind-wandering: Phenomenology and function as assessed with a novel experience sampling method
Stawarczyk, David ULg; Majerus, Steve ULg; Maj, Michalina et al

in Acta Psychologica (2011), 136(3), 370-381

Mind-wandering refers to the occurrence of thoughts whose content is both decoupled from stimuli present in the current environment and unrelated to the task being carried out at the moment of their ... [more ▼]

Mind-wandering refers to the occurrence of thoughts whose content is both decoupled from stimuli present in the current environment and unrelated to the task being carried out at the moment of their occurrence. The core of this phenomenon is therefore stimulus-independent and task-unrelated thoughts (SITUTs). In the present study, we designed a novel experience sampling method which permitted to isolate SITUTs from other kinds of distractions (i.e., irrelevant interoceptive/exteroceptive sensory perceptions and interfering thoughts related to the appraisal of the current task). In Experiment 1, we examined the impact of SITUTs on the performance of the Sustained Attention to Response Task (SART; a Go/No-Go task). Analyses demonstrated that SITUTs impair SART performance to the same extent as irrelevant sensory perceptions. In Experiment 2, we further examined SITUTs in order to assess the possible functions of mind-wandering. We observed that the content of most of reported SITUTs refers to the anticipation and planning of future events. Furthermore, this “prospective bias” was increased when participants’ attention had been oriented toward their personal goals before performing the SART. These data support the view that an important function of mind-wandering relates to the anticipation and planning of the future. [less ▲]

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See detailFrequency, characteristics, and functions of future-oriented thoughts in daily life
D'Argembeau, Arnaud ULg; Renaud, Olivier; Van der Linden, Martial ULg

in Applied Cognitive Psychology (2011), 25

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See detailAutobiographical memory and future thinking
D'Argembeau, Arnaud ULg

Conference (2010, June 15)

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See detailUsing phenomenology and mindset induction to assess the prospective function of mind-wandering
Stawarczyk, David ULg; Majerus, Steve ULg; D'Argembeau, Arnaud ULg

Poster (2010, May 28)

A notable feature of the human cognitive apparatus resides in its propensity to spontaneously generate thoughts uncoupled from the “here and now”. An important function of these cognitions, often referred ... [more ▼]

A notable feature of the human cognitive apparatus resides in its propensity to spontaneously generate thoughts uncoupled from the “here and now”. An important function of these cognitions, often referred to as mind-wandering, might be to create and/or update scripts, schemata, and future plans in long-term memory. In this study, we investigated this hypothesis by examining whether priming personal projects influenced the occurrence and characteristics of mind-wandering episodes during a subsequent, unrelated cognitive task, as assessed with an experience sampling method. We found that inducing particular mindsets that were related to personal goals (i.e., writing an essay about one’s personal projects) in comparison to a control baseline condition (i.e., writing an essay about a familiar itinerary) increased the number of future-oriented mind-wandering reports while participants performed the Sustained Attention to Response Task (SART). Furthermore, participants judged most of these thoughts as having a future-oriented function (i.e., they were related to planning, decision making, or reevaluating situations). Finally, as behavioral validation of participants’ subjective reports, we found that mind-wandering was positively linked with intra-individual variability (IIV) in response times, whereas reports of being concentrated on the SART were negatively linked with IIV. These data support the view that an important function of mind-wandering resides in the anticipation and planning of the future. [less ▲]

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See detailLe rôle du vagabondage de l’esprit dans le maintien d’un état anxiété
Stawarczyk, David ULg; Blanchy, Sarah ULg; D'Argembeau, Arnaud ULg

Poster (2010, May 25)

Le vagabondage de l’esprit (c’est-à-dire, l’apparition spontanée de pensées prenant leur origine dans la mémoire à long-terme et sans lien avec la tâche en cours de réalisation) est un phénomène fréquent ... [more ▼]

Le vagabondage de l’esprit (c’est-à-dire, l’apparition spontanée de pensées prenant leur origine dans la mémoire à long-terme et sans lien avec la tâche en cours de réalisation) est un phénomène fréquent qui représente en moyenne 10 à 30% de nos pensées journalières. Les recherches dans le domaine suggèrent que ce type de pensées est lié à la gestion de nos préoccupations actuelles et que sa fréquence peut être augmentée par l’induction d’affects négatifs. Cependant, le rôle possible de ces pensées dans le maintien des affects négatifs est encore mal connu. Dans cette étude, une préoccupation anxiogène (supposément devoir réaliser un discours filmé) ou une préoccupation neutre (supposément devoir réaliser une tâche cognitive de réflexion) a été induite immédiatement avant la réalisation d’une tâche exécutive d’inhibition durant laquelle la fréquence et le contenu des pensées distractives ont été évalués. Trois mesures de l’état émotionnel des participants ont été réalisées : (1) au début de la session, (2) après l’induction de la préoccupation et (3) après la tâche exécutive. Les résultats montrent la présence d’un plus grand nombre de pensées distractives liées à la préoccupation induite, d’un plus grand nombre d’erreurs d’inhibition ainsi que d’une augmentation significative des affects négatifs entre les temps 1 et 2 dans la condition anxiogène par rapport à la condition neutre. Par ailleurs, une corrélation négative entre le nombre de pensées distractives liées au discours et la diminution de l’anxiété entre les temps 2 et 3 est observée. Ces résultats démontrent l’importance des cognitions anticipatoires spontanées dans le maintient de l’anxiété. [less ▲]

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See detailThe commonality of neural networks for verbal and visual short-term memory.
Majerus, Steve ULg; D'Argembeau, Arnaud ULg; Martinez Perez, Trecy ULg et al

in Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience (2010), 22(11), 2570-2593

Although many neuroimaging studies have considered verbal and visual short-term memory (STM) as relying on neurally segregated short-term buffer systems, the present study explored the existence of shared ... [more ▼]

Although many neuroimaging studies have considered verbal and visual short-term memory (STM) as relying on neurally segregated short-term buffer systems, the present study explored the existence of shared neural correlates supporting verbal and visual STM. We hypothesized that networks involved in attentional and executive processes, as well as networks involved in serial order processing, underlie STM for both verbal and visual list information, with neural specificity restricted to sensory areas involved in processing the specific items to be retained. Participants were presented sequences of nonwords or unfamiliar faces, and were instructed to maintain and recognize order or item information. For encoding and retrieval phases, null conjunction analysis revealed an identical fronto-parieto-cerebellar network comprising the left intraparietal sulcus, bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, and the bilateral cerebellum, irrespective of information type and modality. A network centered around the right intraparietal sulcus supported STM for order information, in both verbal and visual modalities. Modality-specific effects were observed in left superior temporal and mid-fusiform areas associated with phonological and orthographic processing during the verbal STM tasks, and in right hippocampal and fusiform face processing areas during the visual STM tasks, wherein these modality effects were most pronounced when storing item information. The present results suggest that STM emerges from the deployment of modality-independent attentional and serial ordering processes toward sensory networks underlying the processing and storage of modality-specific item information. [less ▲]

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See detailNeural networks involved in self-judgement in young and elderly adults
Feyers, Dorothée ULg; Collette, Fabienne ULg; D'Argembeau, Arnaud ULg et al

in NeuroImage (2010)

Recent studies have shown that both young and elderly subjects activate the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC) when they make self-referential judgements. However, the VMPFC might interact with ... [more ▼]

Recent studies have shown that both young and elderly subjects activate the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC) when they make self-referential judgements. However, the VMPFC might interact with different brain regions during self-referencing in the two groups. In this study, based on data from Ruby et al (2009), we have explored this issue using psychophysiological interaction analyses. Young and elderly participants had to judge adjectives describing personality traits in reference to the self versus a close friend or relative (the other), taking either a first-person or a third-person perspective. The physiological factor was the VMPFC activity observed in all participants during self judgement, and the psychological factor was the self versus other referential process. The main effect of first-person perspective in both groups revealed that the VMPFC was coactivated with the left parahippocampal gyrus and the precuneus for self versus other judgments. The main effect of age showed a stronger correlation between activity in the VMPFC and the lingual gyrus in young compared to elderly subjects. Finally, in the interaction, the VMPFC was specifically co-activated with the orbitofrontal gyrus and the precentral gyrus when elderly subjects took a first-person perspective for self judgements. No significant result was observed for the interaction in young subjects. These findings show that, although the VMPFC is engaged by both young and older adults when making self-referential judgements, this brain structure interacts differently with other brain regions as a function of age and perspective. These differences might reflect a tendency by older people to engage in more emotional/social processing than younger adults when making self-referential judgements with a first-person perspective [less ▲]

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