References of "D'Argembeau, Arnaud"
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See detailAn ALE meta-analysis on the neural correlates of personal goal processing during episodic future thoughts and mind-wandering
Stawarczyk, David ULg; D'Argembeau, Arnaud ULg

Conference (2015, May 28)

The ability to project oneself into the future is a multi-determined mental faculty that depends on various cognitive processes supported by an extended set of brain regions. The aim of the present study ... [more ▼]

The ability to project oneself into the future is a multi-determined mental faculty that depends on various cognitive processes supported by an extended set of brain regions. The aim of the present study was to examine a crucial component of future thinking—personal goal processing—and to determine its neural correlates during both experimentally directed mental time travel towards the future and mind-wandering, a form of spontaneous thoughts characterized by a prospective bias towards upcoming events. To address this question, we performed three distinct ALE meta-analyses of brain imaging studies on episodic future thinking, mind-wandering, and personal goal processing. We then examined the commonalities and differences in brain activity between these three areas of research. The results showed that the three domains activated a common set of brain regions within the default network including the posterior inferior parietal cortex, posterior cingulate cortex, lateral temporal lobe, and, most notably, the medial prefrontal cortex. Differences in activation were also observed, and the medial prefrontal cortex was more activated during personal goal processing than the other two domains. These findings suggest that the medial prefrontal cortex mediates the processing of personal goals during both episodic future thinking and mind-wandering. [less ▲]

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See detailNeural correlates of personal goal processing during episodic future thinking and mind-wandering: an ALE meta-analysis
Stawarczyk, David ULg; D'Argembeau, Arnaud ULg

in Human Brain Mapping (2015), 36(8), 2928-2947

The ability to imagine the future is a complex mental faculty that depends on an ensemble of cognitive processes supported by an extended set of brain regions. Our aim here was to shed light on one key ... [more ▼]

The ability to imagine the future is a complex mental faculty that depends on an ensemble of cognitive processes supported by an extended set of brain regions. Our aim here was to shed light on one key component of future thinking—personal goal processing—and to determine its neural correlates during both directed and spontaneous forms of thoughts. To address this question, we performed separate ALE meta-analyses of neuroimaging studies of episodic future thinking, mind-wandering, and personal goal processing, and then investigated the commonalities and differences in brain activity between these three domains. The results showed that the three domains activated a common set of brain regions within the default network and, most notably, the medial prefrontal cortex. This finding suggests that the medial prefrontal cortex mediates the processing of personal goals during both episodic future thinking and mind-wandering. Differences in activation were also observed, and notably regions supporting cognitive control processes (the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex) were recruited to a lesser extent during mind-wandering than experimentally directed future thinking, suggesting that different kinds of self-generated thoughts may recruit varying levels of attentional control abilities. [less ▲]

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See detailThe role of personal goals in episodic future thought
D'Argembeau, Arnaud ULg

Conference (2015, March 14)

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See detailNetworks of prospective thoughts: the organizational role of emotion and its impact on well-being
Demblon, Julie ULg; D'Argembeau, Arnaud ULg

in Cognition & Emotion (2015)

Recent research has shown that many prospective thoughts are organised in networks of related events, but the relational dimensions that contribute to the formation of such networks are not fully ... [more ▼]

Recent research has shown that many prospective thoughts are organised in networks of related events, but the relational dimensions that contribute to the formation of such networks are not fully understood. Here, we investigated the organisational role of emotion by using cues of different valence for eliciting event networks. We found that manipulating the emotional valence of cues influenced the characteristics of events within networks, and that members of a network were more similar to each other on affective components than they were to members of other networks. Furthermore, a substantial proportion of events within networks were part of thematic clusters and cluster membership significantly modulated the impact of represented events on current well-being, in part through an intensification of the emotion felt when thinking about these events. These findings demonstrate that emotion contributes to the organisation of future thoughts in networks that can affect people’s well-being. [less ▲]

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See detailSelf-knowledge
D'Argembeau, Arnaud ULg

in Toga, A. W. (Ed.) Brain mapping: An encyclopedic reference (2015)

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See detailThe neural basis of temporal order processing in past and future thought
D'Argembeau, Arnaud ULg; Jeunehomme, Olivier ULg; Majerus, Steve ULg et al

in Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience (2015), 27

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See detailThe organization of prospective thinking: Evidence of event clusters in freely generated future thoughts
Demblon, Julie ULg; D'Argembeau, Arnaud ULg

in Consciousness & Cognition (2014), 24

Recent research suggests that many imagined future events are not represented in isolation, but instead are embedded in broader event sequences—referred to as event clusters. It remains unclear, however ... [more ▼]

Recent research suggests that many imagined future events are not represented in isolation, but instead are embedded in broader event sequences—referred to as event clusters. It remains unclear, however, whether the production of event clusters reflects the underlying organizational structure of prospective thinking or whether it is an artifact of the event-cuing task in which participants are explicitly required to provide chains of associated future events. To address this issue, the present study examined whether the occurrence of event clusters in prospective thought is apparent when people are left to think freely about events that might happen in their personal future. The results showed that the succession of events participants spontaneously produced when envisioning their future frequently included event clusters. This finding provides more compelling evidence that prospective thinking involves higher-order autobiographical knowledge structures that organize imagined events in coherent themes and sequences. [less ▲]

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See detailRelationships between mind-wandering and attentional control abilities in young adults and adolescents
Stawarczyk, David ULg; Majerus, Steve ULg; Catale, Corinne ULg et al

in Acta Psychologica (2014), 148

Recent findings suggest that mind-wandering—the occurrence of thoughts that are both stimulus-independent and task-unrelated—corresponds to temporary failures in attentional control processes involved in ... [more ▼]

Recent findings suggest that mind-wandering—the occurrence of thoughts that are both stimulus-independent and task-unrelated—corresponds to temporary failures in attentional control processes involved in maintaining constant task-focused attention. Studies supporting this proposal are, however, limited by a possible confound between mind-wandering episodes and other kinds of conscious experiences, such as external distractions (i.e., interoceptive sensations and exteroceptive perceptions). In the present study, we addressed this issue by examining, in adolescents and young adults, the relations between tasks measuring attentional control abilities and a measure of mind-wandering that is distinct from external distractions. We observed (1) that adolescents experienced more frequent external distractions, but not more mind-wandering, than young adults during the Sustained Attention to Response Task (SART) and (2) that, in young adults, the influence of external distractions on SART performance was fully accounted for by attentional control abilities, whereas mind-wandering was associated with decreases in SART performance above and beyond what was explained by attentional control abilities. These results show that mind-wandering cannot be entirely reduced to failures in the ability to maintain one’s attention focused on task, and suggest that external distractions rather than mind-wandering are due to attentional control failures. [less ▲]

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See detailDorsomedial prefrontal metabolism and unawareness of current characteristics of personality traits in Alzheimer’s disease
Jedidi, Haroun ULg; Feyers, Dorothée ULg; Collette, Fabienne ULg et al

in Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience (2014), 9(10), 1458-1463

Anosognosia is a complex symptom corresponding to a lack of awareness of one’s current clinical status. Anosognosia for cognitive deficits has frequently been described in Alzheimer’s disease (AD), while ... [more ▼]

Anosognosia is a complex symptom corresponding to a lack of awareness of one’s current clinical status. Anosognosia for cognitive deficits has frequently been described in Alzheimer’s disease (AD), while unawareness of current characteristics of personality traits has rarely been considered. We used a well-established questionnaire-based method in a group of 37 AD patients and in healthy controls to probe self- and hetero-evaluation of patients’ personality and we calculated differential scores between each participant’s and his/her relative’s judgments. A brain-behavior correlation was performed using FDG-PET images. The behavioral data showed that AD patients presented with anosognosia for current characteristics of their personality and their anosognosia was primarily explained by impaired third perspective taking. The brain-behavior correlation analysis revealed a negative relationship between anosognosia for current characteristics of personality and dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dMPFC) activity. Behavioral and neuroimaging data are consistent with the view that impairment of different functions subserved by the dMPFC (self-evaluation, inferences regarding complex enduring dispositions of self and others, confrontation of perspectives in interpersonal scripts) plays a role in anosognosia for current characteristics of personality in AD patients. [less ▲]

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See detailCognitive and neuroimaging evidence of impaired interaction between Self and memory in Alzheimer’s disease
Genon, Sarah ULg; Bahri, Mohamed Ali ULg; Collette, Fabienne ULg et al

in Cortex : A Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System & Behavior (2014), 51

In human cognition, self and memory processes strongly interact, as evidenced by the memory advantage for self-referential materials (Self Reference Effect (SRE) and Self Reference Recollection Effect ... [more ▼]

In human cognition, self and memory processes strongly interact, as evidenced by the memory advantage for self-referential materials (Self Reference Effect (SRE) and Self Reference Recollection Effect (SRRE)). The current study examined this interaction at the behavioural level and its neural correlates in patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Healthy older controls (HC) and AD patients performed trait-adjectives judgements either for self-relevance or for other-relevance (encoding phase). In a first experiment, the encoding and subsequent yes-no recognition phases were administrated in an MRI scanner. Brain activation as measured by fMRI was examined during self-relevance judgements and anatomical images were used to search for correlation between the memory advantage for self-related items and grey matter density (GMD). In a second experiment, participants described the retrieval experience that had driven their recognition decisions (familiarity vs. recollective experience). The behavioural results revealed that the SRE and SRRE were impaired in AD patients compared to HC participants. Furthermore, verbal reports revealed that the retrieval of self-related information was preferentially associated with the retrieval of contextual details, such as source memory in the HC participants, but less so in the AD patients. Our imaging findings revealed that both groups activated the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) at encoding during self-relevance judgments. However, the variable and limited memory advantage for self-related information was associated with GMD in the lateral prefrontal cortex in the AD patients, a region supporting high-order processes linking self and memory. These findings suggest that even if AD patients engage MPFC during self-referential judgments, the retrieval of self-related memories is qualitatively and quantitatively impaired in relation with altered high-order processes in the lateral PFC. [less ▲]

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See detailBrains creating stories of selves: the neural basis of autobiographical reasoning.
D'Argembeau, Arnaud ULg; Cassol, Helena; Phillips, Christophe ULg et al

in Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience (2014), 9

Personal identity critically depends on the creation of stories about the self and one's life. The present study investigates the neural substrates of autobiographical reasoning, a process central to the ... [more ▼]

Personal identity critically depends on the creation of stories about the self and one's life. The present study investigates the neural substrates of autobiographical reasoning, a process central to the construction of such narratives. During fMRI scanning, participants approached a set of personally significant memories in two different ways: on some trials, they remembered the concrete content of the events (autobiographical remembering), whereas on other trials they reflected on the broader meaning and implications of their memories (autobiographical reasoning). Relative to remembering, autobiographical reasoning recruited a left-lateralized network involved in conceptual processing (including the dorsal medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC), inferior frontal gyrus, middle temporal gyrus, and angular gyrus). The ventral MPFC-an area that may function to generate personal/affective meaning-was not consistently engaged during autobiographical reasoning across participants but, interestingly, the activity of this region was modulated by individual differences in interest and willingness to engage in self-reflection. These findings support the notion that autobiographical reasoning and the construction of personal narratives go beyond mere remembering in that they require deriving meaning and value from past experiences. [less ▲]

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See detailPhenomenology of future-oriented mind-wandering episodes
Stawarczyk, David ULg; CASSOL, Héléna ULg; D'Argembeau, Arnaud ULg

in Frontiers in Psychology (2013), 4

Recent research suggests that prospective and non-prospective forms of mind-wandering possess distinct properties, yet little is known about what exactly differentiates between future-oriented and non ... [more ▼]

Recent research suggests that prospective and non-prospective forms of mind-wandering possess distinct properties, yet little is known about what exactly differentiates between future-oriented and non-future-oriented mind-wandering episodes. In the present study, we used multilevel exploratory factor analyses to examine the factorial structure of various phenomenological dimensions of mind-wandering, and we then investigated whether future-oriented mind-wandering episodes differ from other classes of mind-wandering along the identified factors. We found that the phenomenological dimensions of mind-wandering are structured in four factors: representational format (inner speech vs. visual imagery), personal relevance, realism/concreteness, and structuration. Prospective mind-wandering differed from non-prospective mind-wandering along each of these factors. Specifically, future-oriented mind-wandering episodes involved inner speech to a greater extent, were more personally relevant, more realistic/concrete, and more often part of structured sequences of thoughts. These results show that future-oriented mind-wandering possesses a unique phenomenological signature and provide new insights into how this particular form of mind-wandering may adaptively contribute to autobiographical planning. [less ▲]

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See detailOn the role of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex in self-processing: the valuation hypothesis
D'Argembeau, Arnaud ULg

in Frontiers in Human Neuroscience (2013), 7

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See detailConcern-induced negative affect is associated with the occurrence and content of mind-wandering
Stawarczyk, David ULg; Majerus, Steve ULg; D'Argembeau, Arnaud ULg

in Consciousness & Cognition (2013), 22(2), 442-448

Previous research has shown that the content and frequency of mind-wandering episodes—the occurrence of thoughts that are both stimulus-independent and task-unrelated—are closely related to an ... [more ▼]

Previous research has shown that the content and frequency of mind-wandering episodes—the occurrence of thoughts that are both stimulus-independent and task-unrelated—are closely related to an individual’s future-related concerns. Whether this relationship is shaped by the affective changes that are usually associated with future-related concerns still remains unclear, however. In this study, we induced the anticipation of a negatively valenced event and examined whether the ensuing affective changes were related to the occurrence and content of mind-wandering during an unrelated attentional task. We found that the increase in negative affect following concern induction predicted the general frequency of mind-wandering episodes. Furthermore, mind-wandering episodes specifically directed at the induced concern were related to a lower decrease in negative affect during the attentional task. These results suggest that the negative emotional impact of future-related concerns is an important factor to be taken into consideration for the subsequent occurrence of mind-wandering episodes, which might in turn be involved in the maintenance of negative affect over time. [less ▲]

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See detailMind-wandering and attentional control: two sides of the same coin or independent processes?
Stawarczyk, David ULg; Majerus, Steve ULg; D'Argembeau, Arnaud ULg

Conference (2012, May 11)

Mind-wandering refers to the occurrence of thoughts whose content is both unrelated to the task that we are currently carrying out and decoupled from current sensory perceptions (e.g., having our mind ... [more ▼]

Mind-wandering refers to the occurrence of thoughts whose content is both unrelated to the task that we are currently carrying out and decoupled from current sensory perceptions (e.g., having our mind distracted by past memories or future concerns when reading a novel). Recent frameworks suggest that the occurrence of mind-wandering reflects temporary breakdowns in attentional control processes. Other proposals however consider that mind-wandering is a cognitive process of its own, independent of attentional control. Based on the dual mechanisms of control framework (Braver et al., 2007), we examined whether proactive and reactive attentional control processes (measured with the A-X Continuous Performance Test), as well as working memory capacity (WMC), are related to the occurrence of mind-wandering during the Sustained Attention to Response Task (SART). Results showed that WMC was positively related to proactive but not reactive control, while the frequency of mind-wandering was unrelated to these three measures of attentional control. Additionally, we found that proactive control, reactive control, WMC, and mind-wandering contributed significantly and independently to the prediction of commission errors during the SART. These results suggest that mind-wandering is not the mere reflection of attentional control abilities and that these two factors have separate influences on task performance. [less ▲]

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