References of "Croisier, Jean-Louis"
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See detailInfluence du stretching sur la performance musculaire explosive
Croisier, Jean-Louis ULg; Evrard, F.; Lehance, Cédric ULg

in Résumés des Communications du 3ème Colloque Médico-sportif « Entre laboratoire et terrain » (2007)

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See detailL’exercice excentrique dans le traitement des tendinopathies
Croisier, Jean-Louis ULg; Crielaard, Jean-Michel ULg; Forthomme, Bénédicte ULg

in Livre des résumés du 22ème Congrès de la Société Française de Médecine Physique et de Réadaptation (2007)

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See detailPositionnement scapulaire : évaluation et implications
Forthomme, Bénédicte ULg; Crielaard, Jean-Michel ULg; Croisier, Jean-Louis ULg

in Livre des résumés du 22ème Congrès de la Société Française de Médecine Physique et de Réadaptation (2007)

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See detailIsokinetic assessment of the scapular muscles
Forthomme, Bénédicte ULg; Arimont, A.; Maquet, Didier ULg et al

in Isokinetics & Exercise Science (2007), 15

The scapula plays an important role in normal shoulder function. In sports in which demands on the shoulder are extremely high, the quality of movements depends on the interaction between scapular and ... [more ▼]

The scapula plays an important role in normal shoulder function. In sports in which demands on the shoulder are extremely high, the quality of movements depends on the interaction between scapular and glenohumeral kinematics. Comparatively to a normal status, the scapular dyskinesis is defined as observable alteration in the position of the scapula and in the patterns of scapular motion in relation to the thoracic cage [1]. Surprisingly, only sparse literature focused on the isokinetic assessment of scapulothoracic muscles. To our knowledge, only Cools et al. [2,3] have investigated such evaluation, using a closed kinetic chain system. The aim of this study was to provide new insights in the isokinetic assessment of the scapular muscle performances, among sedentary and overhead athletes populations. 10 sedentary men (23.5  2.6 years; 67.3  62 kg) and 10 overhead athletes (22.2 +/- 2.3 years; 72.9 +/- 9.7 kg) participated into the study. All subjects were free of previous shoulder pathology. The overhead population included 2 volleyball, 2 handball, 3 tennis and 3 badminton players, all with at least 9 years of intensive practice. They sustained a bilateral isokinetic assessment (Biodex 3 dynamometer) of the protractors (PRO) and retractors (RET) of the scapula (closed kinetic chain). Subjects were seated and the closed kinetic chain attachment was placed in a horizontal plane, at 30° from the frontal plane, which corresponded to the scapular plane; the elbow was placed in full extension. The range of motion was individualized from the maximal protraction to the maximal retraction positions. After a specific warm up using an elastic theraband and familiarization on the isokinetic device, the isokinetic protocol consisted in 3 repetitions at slow speed (12.2 cm/s) and 5 repetitions at high speed (36.6 cm/s). The strength performances (peak-force in N) and ratios (Protractors / Retractors; PRO/RET) are described in Tables 1 and 2. The maximum force developed by scapular muscles decreased with increase in motion velocity. Generally, there was no dominance effect, except for the RET at high speed within the sedentary population (Table 1). The PRO/RET ratios remained inferior to 1 indicating higher performances on RET muscle group (Table 2). Even if the athletes recruited in our study used their shoulder in an asymmetrical way, we did not find any significant difference between the dominant and non dominant ratios in that population; only the PRO/RET ratio of sedentaries at high speed showed a dominance effect. The PRO/RET ratios were higher into the athletes, yet the difference did not reach statistical significance. There was no significant difference between both populations, if considering the absolute strength or the bodyweight normalized peak force. The sports population appeared more homogenous with lower standard deviation values for all data. Nevertheless, in such closed kinetic chain assessment, compensations of the trunk during protraction and of the elbow during retraction must be strictly controlled. The shoulder assessment in a closed kinetic chain allowed to investigate the force developed by the protractors and the retractors of the scapula. In spite of upper limb asymmetrical use through overhead activities, a dominance effect in strength performances or agonist-antagonist ratios was not detected among athletes recruited in that study. These preliminary results could be useful for further comparison with pathological cases. REFERENCES 1. W. Kibler, The role of the scapula in athletic shoulder function, Am J Sports Med 26 (1998), 325-337. 2. A. Cools, E. Witrouw, L. Danneels, Test-retest reproducibility of concentric strength values for shoulder girdle protraction and retraction using a Biodex isokinetic dynamometer, Isokin Exerc Sci 10 (2002), 129-136. 3. A. Cools, E. Witrouw, G. Declerq, G. Vanderstraeten, D. Cambier, Evaluation of isokinetic force production and associated muscle activity in the scapular rotators during a protraction-retraction movement in overhead athletes with impingement symptoms, Br J Sports Med 38 (2004), 64-68. [less ▲]

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See detailAnalysis of a fatigue protocol for knee extensor and flexor muscle groups
Croisier, Jean-Louis ULg; Maquet, Didier ULg; Forthomme, Bénédicte ULg et al

in Isokinetics & Exercise Science (2007), 15

Complementary to the muscle strength measurement, the isokinetic dynamometry offers the opportunity to investigate another essential variable: the fatigue which can be defined as a deterioration in ... [more ▼]

Complementary to the muscle strength measurement, the isokinetic dynamometry offers the opportunity to investigate another essential variable: the fatigue which can be defined as a deterioration in maximum torque generating capacity. Many articles in the literature refer to isokinetic fatigue protocols, yet we may consider that there is a lack of consensus about testing modalities and methodological aspects. The overall aim of that preliminary study was to investigate concentric fatigue protocols in terms of contraction number, measurement reproducibility and appropriateness of parameters classically analysed. Twelve male subjects (23  2 years old; 71  3 kg) without history of lower limb injury were included in the study. After standardized warm-up and familiarization with the isokinetic exercise (Biodex 3 dynamometer), each subject performed a unilateral concentric testing on their dominant side knee flexors and extensors. The protocol consisted in 50 maximal contractions at 180°/s angular velocity along a constant 100° range of motion. The fatigue protocol was repeated at 3 different sessions, separated by one week, in the same standardized conditions. Measured and calculated parameters were analysed: maximal work (Wmax); total work (Wtot); cumulated work on 10-20-30-40-50 repetitions (W10-20-30-40-50); different fatigue indexes: mean on the 3 last reps/Wmax (W3L/Wmax), mean on the 5 last reps/Wmax (W5L/Wmax), W3L/mean on the 3 first reps (W3L/W3F), W5L / mean on the 5 first reps (W5L/W5F). These fatigue indexes were established from the 50 repetitions protocol but also calculated on the 30 and 40 first repetitions of the whole test. The heart rate (HR) throughout the fatigue protocol was recorded using a Polar cardiofrequencemeter. A generalized linear mixed model (GLMM) was used for the statistical analysis of reproducibility. The cumulated work calculated on 20, 30, 40 or 50 repetitions was found to be reproducible for the Q muscle group. The same parameters calculated on the Fl muscle group showed a less satisfactory reproducibility. Among indexes of fatigue, the most reproducible were those using Wmax as denominator (by contrast with W3F or W5F as denominator), in particular the W5L/Wmax index for the Q. From 20 repetitions to the end of exercise, the fatigue indexes calculated on the Fl were significantly (p < 0.05) inferior to the indexes established for the Q, suggesting a more marked effect of fatigue on the Fl decrease of maximal strength production. With respect to the HR expressed in percentage of the theoretical maximal HR, the value averaged 53 % before exercise, 83 % after 20 reps and peaked at 87 % after 50 reps. After 2 minutes of recovery, the HR reached 58 % of the HR max. These findings must be taken into account when designing a fatigue isokinetic protocol, in terms of exercise duration and parameters to be analysed. [less ▲]

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See detailElectromyographic activity of the knee flexors and extensors during isokinetic fatigue assessments
Maquet, Didier ULg; Bosquet, L.; Forthomme, Bénédicte ULg et al

in Isokinetics & Exercise Science (2007), 15

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See detailEvaluation de la fonction musculaire au grand âge
Croisier, Jean-Louis ULg; Forthomme, Bénédicte ULg; Crielaard, Jean-Michel ULg et al

in Abstract Book des 10èmes Journées d’Automne de la Société Belge de Gérontologie et de Gériatrie (2007)

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See detailIsokinetic strength and fatigability in patients with multiple sclerosis. The relationship between gait speed and isokinetic parameters
Maquet, Didier ULg; Dive, Dominique ULg; Entem, Arnaud et al

in Isokinetics & Exercise Science (2007), 15

Introduction Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic disease characterized by inflammation and demyelisation of the central nervous system. Decline of muscular performances, fatigue, weakness and spasticity ... [more ▼]

Introduction Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic disease characterized by inflammation and demyelisation of the central nervous system. Decline of muscular performances, fatigue, weakness and spasticity are the most common and disabling symptoms characterizing this neurological disease. Undoubtedly, objective assessments of muscle function would be relevant to deliver the most appropriate treatment and to appraise possible training effects resulting from rehabilitation. The purposes of this study were to assess muscle strength and fatigue of knee flexors and extensors in patients with multiple sclerosis by means of an isokinetic dynamometer. Relations between isokinetic results and gait speed were also investigated. Methods Eight patients (49 +/- 7 years old) suffering from multiple sclerosis (with unaided gait) were included in this study. Bilateral knee flexor and extensor performances were assessed using a Cybex Norm dynamometer. Maximal isokinetic strength was measured at 60°/s (3 repetitions) and 180°/s (5 repetitions). Thereafter, patients performed a fatigue protocol consisting in 30 successive maximal-intensity knee flexions and extensions at 180°/s angular velocity. Fatigue was analysed using the cumulative work parameter (corresponding to the sum of work developed through the 30 movements) and a fatigue index (ratio between work developed during 3 last contractions and 3 first contractions). Gait speeds corresponded to the time necessary to subject for walking at maximal speed on a 7.62 m and 100 m long walkway. Results Isokinetic parameters (strength and fatigue) appeared to be decreased in MS patients comparatively to normative data [1]. Knee flexors/extensors ratio was reduced for some patients, yet MS subjects displayed no significant bilateral asymmetry, suggesting a bilateral weakness process. Significant negative correlations (- 0.76 < r < - 0.95, p < 0.05) between gait speeds (measured through a 7.62 m and 100 m long walkway) and hamstring isokinetic parameters (peak torque and cumulative work) were observed. In contrast, we did not find any correlation between gait speed and quadriceps isokinetic performances, except for the correlation between gait speed on 100 m long walkway and fatigue index (0.78 < r < 0.89, p < 0.05). Discussion and conclusion Objective evaluation of muscle performance deficiencies in patients with MS appears essential for designing a successful rehabilitation program. However, no consensus has been established with regard to the most relevant isokinetic protocol modalities for assessing patients suffering form central nervous system lesions. Our preliminary results underlined that gait speed was negatively correlated to hamstring isokinetic parameters (strength and cumulative work). Interestingly, no patient included in our study reported increased symptoms such as spasticity during or after the test, indicating that MS patients are able to perform strength and fatigue isokinetic assessments. References [1] Maquet D, Croisier JL, Renard C, Crielaard JM. Muscle performance in patients with fibromyalgia, Joint Bone Spine 69 :293-9, 2002. [less ▲]

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See detailUse of magnetic resonance imaging and 31p-spectroscopy to explore muscle energetics in fibromyalgia patients
Maquet, Didier ULg; Vanderthommen, Marc ULg; Lecart, Marie-Paule ULg et al

in Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases (2007), 66

Background: Fibromyalgia (FM) is defined as a chronic syndrome characterized by diffuse pain. FM patients generally complain of muscle fatigue during physical activities and symptoms worsening after ... [more ▼]

Background: Fibromyalgia (FM) is defined as a chronic syndrome characterized by diffuse pain. FM patients generally complain of muscle fatigue during physical activities and symptoms worsening after exercise. Some studies have explored muscle performances in FM patients. Similarly, we reported that all variables of muscle performances were decreased in FM patients as compared to the controls [1]. We found that muscle impairment predominated over aerobic processes. The 31P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMRS) appears especially useful to study muscle energy metabolism because it is non-invasive and allows the exploration during exercise. Objectives: The purposes were: (1) to determine the maximal transverse section (MTS) of calf muscles by Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) in order to calculate the individual mechanical loads of exercise without requiring the measurement of the maximal voluntary torque; (2) to monitor, by 31P-NMRS, high-energy phosphate metabolism and intracellular pH at rest, during exercise and recovery periods by means of continuous spectra acquisitions with an adequate temporal resolution; (3) to determine an original efficacy muscular index with the help of the ergometric and spectroscopic parameters; (4) to explore the oxidative pathway by means of determination of the PCr rephosphorylation time constant. Methods: Eight women with fibromyalgia (FM) and 30 healthy volunteers were included in this study. MRI of the dominant leg was acquired in order to determine the MTS of calf muscles and thus to calculate the different loads of exercise (dynamic plantar flexions). Subjects performed 3-6 bouts of 2 minutes with workload increments until exhaustion. Spectra were acquired continuously at rest, during the exercise and recovery periods. The analysis concerned the gamma-, alpha- and beta- ATP, Pi, PCr peaks, and intracellular pH. At the end of the exercise, the muscular efficacy index and the PCr re-phosphorylation time constant were calculated. Results: The MTS of the ankle plantar flexors reached respectively 43 cm² and 36.7 cm² in the control and FM groups (p > 0.05). No significant difference (p > 0.05) was observed between both groups in spectroscopic data registered at rest [10.7 (control) vs 9.1 (FM) for PCr/Pi rest ; 7.01 (control) vs 6.99 (FM) for pHrest] and at the end of exercise [1.18 (control) vs 0.68 (FM) for PCr/Pi end ; 6.89 (control) vs 6.81 (FM) for pHend]. However, the muscular efficacy index was significantly reduced in FM patients (1.25) in comparison with control group (2.46) (p < 0.05). Two patients presented an index extremely low (0.3 and 0.4). The PCr time constant was not different between control subjects (27.7 s) and FM patients (25.6 s) (p > 0.05). Conclusion: Our original protocol, not based on maximum voluntary contraction assessment, did not indicate any abnormalities in glycolytic and oxydative pathways in FM patients. We demonstrated a low efficiency of chemical to mechanical energy shift in FM patients. These results suggested a deconditioning syndrome without primitive muscular abnormalities in FM patients and displayed the importance of aerobic muscular rehabilitation. References: [1]Maquet D, Croisier JL, Renard C, Crielaard JM. Muscle performance in patients with fibromyalgia. J Bone Spine. 2002;69:293-9. [less ▲]

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See detailInfluence of specific rehabilitation programs on pressure pain thresholds in patients with fibromyalgia or chronic low back pain
Maquet, Didier ULg; Demoulin, Christophe ULg; Lecart, Marie-Paule ULg et al

in Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases (2007), 66

Background: Specific rehabilitation programs are recommended in chronic pain syndromes. The subjective experience and multidimensional nature of pain is problematic for assessment. Pressure pain threshold ... [more ▼]

Background: Specific rehabilitation programs are recommended in chronic pain syndromes. The subjective experience and multidimensional nature of pain is problematic for assessment. Pressure pain threshold (PPT) is defined as the minimum force applied which induces pain measured with a dolorimeter. Objectives: The purposes were: (1) to compare PPTs for 18 specific tender sites in patients with fibromyalgia (FM) and in patients with chronic low back pain (CLBP), (2) to assess the PPT changes in these groups following specific rehabilitation programs. Methods: Eleven women with CLBP and six women with FM were included in this study. They attended biweekly specific multidisciplinary rehabilitation sessions for 8 weeks. Pain intensity and PPTs for the 18 specific tender sites defined by the American College of Rheumatology were evaluated respectively with a visual analogue scale (VAS) and with an electronic dolorimeter, before and after the programs. Normative data of PPTs were established in a recent study [1]. Results: Before starting the rehabilitation program, patients with FM displayed VAS scores higher (p<0.05) than those with CLBP. Furthermore, FM patients had the lowest (p<0.05) PPTs over all examined areas. Statistical analysis failed to show any differences between PPTs of CLBP and healthy subjects. At the end of the specific program, VAS scores decreased significantly in both patient groups. In contrast, a significant increase of PPTs was only observed in FM patients. However, their PPTs remained below the CLBP and healthy PPT values. Conclusion: Despite the presence of chronic pain in these two syndromes, the decrease of PPTs appears to be specific in patients with FM. Measure of PPTs could represent a relevant method in order to perform a longitudinal follow-up of patient's pain perception. After the rehabilitation programs, pain intensity decreased in both patient groups. References: [1] Maquet D, Croisier JL, Demoulin C, Crielaard JM. Pressure pain thresholds of tender point sites in patients with fibromyalgia and in healthy controls. Eur J Pain, 2004, 8:111-117. [less ▲]

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See detailDoes neuromuscular electrical stimulation influence muscle recovery after maximal isokinetic exercise?
Vanderthommen, Marc ULg; Soltani, Karim ULg; Maquet, Didier ULg et al

in Isokinetics & Exercise Science (2007), 15(2), 143-149

Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (ES) and passive recovery (PR) were compared in ten healthy men after a provocation exercise inducing delayed onset of muscle soreness (DOMS). The exercise consisted ... [more ▼]

Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (ES) and passive recovery (PR) were compared in ten healthy men after a provocation exercise inducing delayed onset of muscle soreness (DOMS). The exercise consisted of 3 sets of 30 maximal eccentric contractions performed by the knee flexor muscles of the dominant leg on an isokinetic dynamometer at 60 degrees/s angular velocity. There was an interval of 8 weeks between both bouts and the order of the recovery mode (ES or PR) was block-randomly assigned. ES recovery consisted of a 25-min continuous and non-tetanic (5 Hz) stimulation of the hamstring muscles. Concentric and eccentric hamstrings peak torques were evaluated before and immediately after the provocation exercise, after the recovery period, as well as 24 h (d1), 48 h (d2), 72 h (0) and 168 h (0) after the bout. Subjective perception of muscle soreness (VAS, 0-10 a.u.) was evaluated before exercise and at d1, d2, 0 and d7. To assess the CK activity, five blood samples were drawn before exercise and at d1, d2, d3 and d7. For both recovery modes, the greatest reductions in isokinefic muscle performances were measured on d2 (66.3 +/- 24.1 % of initial values (ES) vs. 57.4 +/- 26.5% (PR) for the concentric mode and 55.6 +/- 16% (ES) vs. 53.1 +/- 19.3% (PR) for the eccentric mode). d2 also corresponded to the highest painful sensations (5.4 +/- 2.14 a.u. (ES) vs. 6.15 +/- 2.55 a.u. (PR)). Peak activities of CK were reached on d3 (47507 +/- 19973 IU/l (ES) vs. 75887 41962 IU/l (PR)). Serum CK was lower with ES than PR at 0 (p <= 0.05) but all other parameters changed in a manner that was not statistically different between the two recovery protocols (p > 0.05). This strong trend could be explained by an electro-induced hyperperfusion that may efficiently wash out the muscle from the cellular debris resulting from the initial injury, and hence diminish the inflammatory response and the delayed amplification of tissue damages. [less ▲]

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See detailPlace de l'isocinétisme dans la rééducation des instabilités d'épaule
Croisier, Jean-Louis ULg; Gremeaux, V.; Forthomme, Bénédicte ULg

in Codine, P.; Hérisson, C. (Eds.) Instabilité de l'épaule et médecine de rééducation (2007)

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See detailInstabilité de l'épaule : faillite de la contention musculaire active ? Apport de l'évaluation isocinétique
Gremeaux, V.; Croisier, Jean-Louis ULg; Forthomme, Bénédicte ULg

in Codine, P.; Hérisson, C. (Eds.) Instabilité de l'épaule et médecine de rééducation (2007)

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See detailRééducation des instabilités non opérées
Forthomme, Bénédicte ULg; Crielaard, Jean-Michel ULg; Croisier, Jean-Louis ULg

in Codine, P.; Hérisson, C. (Eds.) Instabilité de l'épaule et médecine de rééducation (2007)

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See detailRelationship between muscular performances of the shoulder and morphostatic profile
Forthomme, Bénédicte ULg; Arimont, A.; Bregonzio, Jany et al

in Isokinetics & Exercise Science (2007), 15

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See detailWhole body vibration in the treatment of fibromyalgia: Influence on muscle performances
Maquet, Didier ULg; Helene, Loic; Demoulin, Christophe ULg et al

in Isokinetics & Exercise Science (2007), 15

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See detailPhysiological consequences of strenuous concentric and eccentric isokinetic exercises
Croisier, Jean-Louis ULg; Maquet, Didier ULg; Lehance, Cédric ULg et al

in Isokinetics & Exercise Science (2007), 15(1), 51

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See detailIsokinetic and iso-inertial assessments: Competion or complementarity?
Jidovtseff, Boris ULg; Crielaard, Jean-Michel ULg; Croisier, Jean-Louis ULg

in Isokinetics & Exercise Science (2007), 15(1), 52-53

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See detailInfluence of bench press exercise modality on the iso-inertial performance
Jidovtseff, Boris ULg; Croisier, Jean-Louis ULg; Crielaard, Jean-Michel ULg

in Science & Sports (2006), 21(3), 159-162

Introduction. - This study used an iso-inertial dynamometer to investigate the influence of counter-movement and barbell throwing during bench press exercise. A critical analysis of these modalities ... [more ▼]

Introduction. - This study used an iso-inertial dynamometer to investigate the influence of counter-movement and barbell throwing during bench press exercise. A critical analysis of these modalities during muscular evaluation was also performed. Methods. - The action of muscle stretch during the counter-movement induced an increase in average velocity and a shortening of the time to reach the peak power and peak velocity. The barbell throwing did not alter the initial part of the movement yet lengthened the propulsive phase and delayed the braking phase. Consequently, maximal power and maximal velocity performances were improved. However, the throwing of the barbell requires its catch when failing down, which could be potentially harmful. Conclusion. - The counter-movement and the throwing of the barbell significantly change the iso-inertial performances through a bench press exercise. The modalities of bench press assessment execution would have to be rigorously standardized. (c) 2006 Elsevier SAS. Tous droits reserves. [less ▲]

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