References of "Crielaard, Jean-Michel"
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See detailValidity and reliability of the French translation of the VISA-A questionnaire for Achilles tendinopathy
Kaux, Jean-François ULg; Delvaux, François ULg; Oppong-Kyei, Julian et al

in Disability & Rehabilitation (in press)

Purpose The Victorian Institute of Sport Assessment – Achilles tendinopathy questionnaire (VISA-A) evaluates the clinical severity of Achilles tendinopathy. The aim of this study was to translate the VISA ... [more ▼]

Purpose The Victorian Institute of Sport Assessment – Achilles tendinopathy questionnaire (VISA-A) evaluates the clinical severity of Achilles tendinopathy. The aim of this study was to translate the VISA-A into French and to study the reliability and validity of this French version, the VISA-AF. Method The VISA-A was translated into French to produce the VISA-AF using a validated methodology in six steps. Thereafter, several psychometric properties of this French version such as test–retest reliability, internal consistency, construct validity and floor and ceiling effects were evaluated. Therefore, we recruited 116 subjects, distributed into 3 groups: pathological patients (n¼31), at-risk athletes (n¼63) and healthy people (n¼22). Results The final version of the VISAAF was approved by an expert committee. On a scale ranging from 0 to 100, the average scores of the VISA-AF obtained were 59 (± 18) for the pathological group, 99 (± 1) for the healthy group and 94 (± 7) for the at-risk group. The VISA-AF shows excellent reliability, low correlations with the discriminant subscales of the SF-36 and moderate correlations with the convergent subscales of the SF-36. Conclusions The French version of the VISA-A is equivalent to its original version and is a reliable and valid questionnaire for French-speaking patients with Achilles tendinopathy. [less ▲]

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See detailLe point sur l’évaluation de la force des muscles respiratoires
Kellens, Isabelle ULg; Crielaard, Jean-Michel ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (in press)

The strength of respiratory muscles is crucial for quality of life, especially for patients with lung or neurological disorders. Several methods can be used to assess them: i.e direct or indirect ... [more ▼]

The strength of respiratory muscles is crucial for quality of life, especially for patients with lung or neurological disorders. Several methods can be used to assess them: i.e direct or indirect, voluntary or involuntary. The conventional spirometry method assesses indirectly the respiratory function by measuring maximum inspiratory and expiratory pressure, which reflects the coordination of all respiratory muscles. Techniques of magnetic and electrical stimulation can detect a specific muscle dysfunction, independently of the patient's motivation, however they are invasive methods as measurements are made in the esophagus and stomach. The voluntary techniques are generally non-invasive and require patient's cooperation. Measures of respiratory muscle strength, coupled to a conventional spirometry, can predict the development of ventilatory support in patients at risk, and may be useful during weaning from mechanical ventilation in intensive care units. [less ▲]

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See detailCross-cultural adaptation and validation of the victorian institute of sport assessment-patella questionnaire for French-speaking patients with patellar tendinopathy
Kaux, Jean-François ULg; Delvaux, François ULg; Oppong-Kyei, Julian et al

in Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy (2016), 46(5), 384-393

Study Design Clinical measurement study. Background The Victorian Institute of Sports Assessment–Patellar tendinopathy questionnaire (VISA-P), originally developed in English, assesses the severity of ... [more ▼]

Study Design Clinical measurement study. Background The Victorian Institute of Sports Assessment–Patellar tendinopathy questionnaire (VISA-P), originally developed in English, assesses the severity of patellar tendinopathy symptoms. No French version of the questionnaire exists. Objectives The aim of our study was to translate the VISA-P in French and verify its psychometric properties. Methods The translation and cultural adaptation were performed according to international recommendations in six steps: initial translation, translation merging, back translation to the original language, expert committee to reach a pre-final version, test of the pre-final version, and expert committee appraisal of a final version. Afterwards, the psychometric properties the final French version (VISA-PF) were assessed in 92 subjects, divided into three groups: pathological subjects (n = 28), asymptomatic subjects (n = 22) and sports-risk subjects (n = 42). Results All members of the expert committee agreed with the final version. On a scale ranging from 0 to 100 (asymptomatic subject), the average scores of the VISA-PF obtained were 53 (± 17) for the pathological group, 99 (± 2) for the healthy group and 86 (± 14) for the sports-risk group. The test-retest reliability of the VISA-PF was excellent and good internal consistency. Correlations between the VISA-PF and diverging validity of the SF-36 were low and the correlation coefficient values measured between the VISA-PF scores and converged items of the SF-36 were higher. Conclusion The VISA-PF is understandable, valid and suitable for French-speaking patients with patellar tendinopathy. [less ▲]

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See detailExploring the effect of a second closely-timed infiltration of platelet-rich plasma to treat proximal patellar tendinopathies
Kaux, Jean-François ULg; CROISIER, Jean-Louis ULg; FORTHOMME, Bénédicte ULg et al

in European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine (2016, April), 54(Suppl. 1 No. 2), 199

Intorduction: Some clinical series have evaluated the effect of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) in the treatment of jumper’s knee. Although it is possible that a single infiltrative administration may prove to ... [more ▼]

Intorduction: Some clinical series have evaluated the effect of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) in the treatment of jumper’s knee. Although it is possible that a single infiltrative administration may prove to be an effective treatment for this indication, most of the existing studies evaluated the effects of 2 or 3 successive infiltrations. Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate whether 2 infiltrations of PRP proves more effective than a single treatment. Methods: Twenty patients suffering from chronic jumper’s knee were enrolled into the study and split into two randomized groups (1 or 2 infiltrations of PRP, respectively). The 3-month follow-up evaluation consisted of VAS, IKDC and VISA-P scores, along with algometer, isokinetic and ultrasounds evaluations. After 1 year, subjects were contacted to define their functional evolution. Results: The concentration of the PRP used for each infiltration was similar in both groups, and contained no red or white cells. Results revealed no difference in treatment efficacy between the groups. Discussion and Conclusion: The comparison between 1 or 2 infiltrations of PRP did not reveal any difference between the 2 groups at short to mid term. A second closely-timed infiltration of PRP to treat jumper’s knees is not necessary to improve the efficacy of this treatment in the short term. A second infiltration should perhaps be envisaged later, but this remains to be demonstrated. [less ▲]

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See detailEffectiveness of High Intensity Radial Shock Wave Therapy in The Treatment of Chronic Plantar Fasciitis
Demoulin, Christophe ULg; Vanderthommen, Marc ULg; Fromm, Aurélien et al

in European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine (2016, April), 52(Suppl. 1 No. 2), 733

Introduction: Literature is scarce concerning the effectiveness of high dose radial extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT). Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate its effectiveness on pain ... [more ▼]

Introduction: Literature is scarce concerning the effectiveness of high dose radial extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT). Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate its effectiveness on pain, function and pressure pain threshold in patients with chronicplantar fasciitis (PF). Materials and Methods: Patients with a diagnosis of chronic (pain lasting for more than 3 months) uni- or bilateral PF with a history of failed conservative treatment were included. After a 6-week control period during which no treatment occurred, a 2-week treatment period followed by a three weeks of rest (cicatrization phase) was provided. The treatment period consisted of three radial ESWT sessions (2000 impulses of 10 Hz frequency per session with an energy flux density of 0,275mJ/mm2) separated by a one-weekinterval. Patient assessments (pain intensity, foot function and pressure pain threshold (PPT) at the site of maximum local tenderness disability) were conducted at baseline, after the 6-week control phase (pre-treatment) and at the end of the cicatrization phase (post-treatment). Results: Thirty patients (19 women (63.3%)) with chronic PF and a mean age of 51.9±11 years were included in the present study. No drop-out occurred throughout the study period. No changes were observed at the pre-treatment assessment session except for pain intensity which decreased slightly but significantly (P<0.05). At the post-treatment session, highly significant (P<0.001) and clinically meaningful changes occurred for pain intensity (-34%), foot function score (-60%) and PPT (+68%). Conclusions: The present study suggests that high dose radial ESWT is a feasible and effective way to quickly and significantly decrease pain and disability in most patients with chronic PF. [less ▲]

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See detailTraumatologie du joueur de tennis
Kaux, Jean-François ULg; Schaus, Jean; Delvaux, François ULg et al

in Journal de Traumatologie du Sport (2016), 33(1), 43-47

Tennis is a racquet sport with approximately 10 million licensees and 26 million unaffiliated players in Europe. Tennis injuries represent 21%of those generated by rackets sports. Tennis players are ... [more ▼]

Tennis is a racquet sport with approximately 10 million licensees and 26 million unaffiliated players in Europe. Tennis injuries represent 21%of those generated by rackets sports. Tennis players are subject to traumatic and microtraumatic pathologies. This epidemiological review oftennis-related injuries addresses their type and locations, the cause and time of absence, the demographic and gender differences, as well as theinfluence of technique of play and type of field on their impact. [less ▲]

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See detailUsing platelet-rich plasma to treat jumper’s knees: Exploring the effect of a second closely-timed infiltration
Kaux, Jean-François ULg; Croisier, Jean-Louis ULg; Forthomme, Bénédicte ULg et al

in Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport (2016), 19(3), 200-204

Some clinical series have evaluated the effect of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) in the treatment of proximal patellar tendinopathy. Although it is possible that a single infiltrative administration may prove ... [more ▼]

Some clinical series have evaluated the effect of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) in the treatment of proximal patellar tendinopathy. Although it is possible that a single infiltrative administration may prove to be an effective treatment for this indication, most of the existing studies evaluated the effects of two or three successive infiltrations. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether two infiltrations of PRP proves more effective than a single treatment. DESIGN: Prospective, randomized and comparative study of level 2. METHODS: Twenty patients suffering from chronic proximal patellar tendinopathy were enrolled into the study and split into two randomized groups (one or two infiltrations of PRP, respectively). The 3-month follow-up evaluation consisted of VAS, IKDC and VISA-P scores, along with algometer, isokinetic and ultrasounds evaluations. After 1 year, subjects were contacted to define their functional evolution. RESULTS: The concentration of the PRP used for each infiltration was similar in both groups, and contained no red or white cells. Results revealed no difference in treatment efficacy between the groups. CONCLUSIONS: The comparison between one or two infiltrations of PRP did not reveal any difference between the two groups at short to mid term. A second closely-timed infiltration of PRP to treat proximal patellar tendinopathies is not necessary to improve the efficacy of this treatment in the short term. [less ▲]

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See detailHyaluronic acid and tendon lesions
Kaux, Jean-François ULg; SAMSON, Antoine; Crielaard, Jean-Michel ULg

in Muscles, Ligaments and Tendons Journal (2016), 5(4 (eCollection 2015 Oct-Dec)), 264-269

Introduction: Recently, the viscoelastic properties of hyaluronic acid on liquid connective tissue have been proposed for the treatment of tendinopathies. Some fundamental studies show encouraging results ... [more ▼]

Introduction: Recently, the viscoelastic properties of hyaluronic acid on liquid connective tissue have been proposed for the treatment of tendinopathies. Some fundamental studies show encouraging results on hyaluronic acid’s ability to promote tendon gliding and reduce adhesion as well as to improve tendon architectural organisation. Some observations also support its use in a clinical setting to improve pain and function. This literature review analyses studies relating to the use of hyaluronic acid in the treatment of tendinopathies. Methods: This review was constructed using the Medline database via Pubmed, Scopus and Google Scholar. The keywords hyaluronic acid, tendon and tendinopathy were used for the research. Results: In total, 27 articles (in English and French) on the application of hyaluronic acid to tendons were selected for their relevance and scientific quality, including eight for the 'in vitro' part, three for the 'in vivo' animal part and six for the human section. Conclusions: Preclinical studies demonstrate encouraging results: HA permits tendon gliding, reduces adhesions, creates better tendon architectural organisation and limits inflammation. These laboratory observations appear to be supported by limited but encouraging short-term clinical results on pain and function. However, controlled randomised studies are still needed. [less ▲]

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See detailPlatelet-rich plasma (PRP) to treat chronic patellar tendinopathies: comparison of a single versus two closely-timed injections
Kaux, Jean-François ULg; Libertiaux, Vincent ULg; Croisier, Jean-Louis ULg et al

in Muscles, Ligaments and Tendons Journal (2016), 5(4 (eCollection 2015 Oct-Dec)), 297-298

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See detailLumbopelvic motor control and low back pain in elite soccer players: a cross-sectional study
GROSDENT, Stéphanie ULg; Demoulin, Christophe ULg; Rodriguez de la Cruz, Carlos ULg et al

in Journal of Sports Sciences (2016)

This study aimed to investigate the relationship between the history of low back pain and quality of lumbopelvic motor control in soccer players. Forty-three male elite soccer players (mean age, 18.2 ± 1 ... [more ▼]

This study aimed to investigate the relationship between the history of low back pain and quality of lumbopelvic motor control in soccer players. Forty-three male elite soccer players (mean age, 18.2 ± 1.4 years) filled in questionnaires related to low back pain and attended a session to assess lumbopelvic motor control by means of five tests (the bent knee fall out test, the knee lift abdominal test, the sitting knee extension test, the waiter ’ s bow and the transversus abdominis test). A physiotherapist, blinded to the medical history of the participants, scored (0 = failed, 1 = correct) the performance of the players for each of the tests resulting in a lumbopelvic motor control score ranging from 0 to 5. Forty-seven per cent of the soccer players reported a disabling low back pain episode lasting at least two consecutive days in the previous year. These players scored worse lumbopelvic motor control than players without a history of low back pain (lumbopelvic motor control score of 1.8 vs. 3.3, P < 0.01). The between-groups difference was particularly marked for the bent knee fall out test, the knee lift abdominal test and the transversus abdominis test (P < 0.01). In conclusion, most soccer players with a history of low back pain had an altered lumbopelvic motor control. Further research should examine whether lumbopelvic motor control is etiologically involved in low back pain episodes in soccer players. [less ▲]

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See detailIs the Sørensen test valid to assess muscle fatigue of the trunk extensor muscles?
Demoulin, Christophe ULg; Boyer, Mathieu; Duchateau, Jacques et al

in Journal of Back and Musculoskeletal Rehabilitation (2016), 00

BACKGROUND: Very few studies have quantified the degree of fatigue characterized by the decline in the maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) force of the trunk extensors induced by the widely used Sørensen ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Very few studies have quantified the degree of fatigue characterized by the decline in the maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) force of the trunk extensors induced by the widely used Sørensen test. OBJECTIVE: Measure the degree of fatigue of the trunk extensor muscles induced by the Sørensen test. METHODS: Eighty young healthy subjects were randomly divided into a control group (CG) and an experimental group (EG), each including 50% of the two genders. The EG performed an isometric MVC of the trunk extensors (pre-fatigue test) followed by the Sørensen test, the latter being immediately followed by another MVC (post-fatigue test). The CG performed only the preand post-fatigue tests without any exertion in between. RESULTS: The comparison of the pre- and post-fatigue tests revealed a significant (P <0.05) decrease in MVC force normalized by body mass (−13%) in the EG, whereas a small increase occurred in the CG (+2.7%, P = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that the Sørensen test performed until failure in a young healthy population results in a reduced ability of the trunk extensor muscles to generate maximal force, and indicates that this test is valid for the assessment of fatigue in trunk extensor muscles. [less ▲]

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See detailQualités métrologiques de la version courte du Neurophysiology of Pain Questionnaire
Demoulin, Christophe ULg; Brasseur, P.; Roussel, N. et al

in Revue du Rhumatisme (2015, December), 82S

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See detailCroyances de la population générale au sujet des manipulations vertébrales
Demoulin, Christophe ULg; Baeri, D.; TOUSSAINT, Geoffrey ULg et al

in Revue du Rhumatisme (2015, December), 82S

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See detailTrunk muscle profile in elite tennis players with and without low back pain
GROSDENT, Stéphanie ULg; Demoulin, Christophe ULg; Souchet, Matthieu et al

in Journal of Sports Medicine & Physical Fitness (2015), 55(11), 1354-1362

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See detailPièges à considérer lors de l’évaluation isocinétique
Croisier, Jean-Louis ULg; Kaux, Jean-François ULg; Crielaard, Jean-Michel ULg et al

in Abstract book des XVIIèmes RENCONTRES ISOCINETIQUES DE MEDIMEX (2015, November)

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See detailEvaluation isocinétique de la fatigabilité musculaire du genou: qu'en est-il de la reproductibilité intra-dynamomètre et de la compatibilité inter-dynamomètre?
Paulus, Julien ULg; Krecke, Roland; Bosquet, Laurent et al

Poster (2015, October 26)

Abstract Certains aspects de l'isocinétisme, bien que considéré comme un gold standard de l'évaluation musculaire [1], restent à explorer: entre autre la reproductibilité intra-dynamomètre des index de ... [more ▼]

Abstract Certains aspects de l'isocinétisme, bien que considéré comme un gold standard de l'évaluation musculaire [1], restent à explorer: entre autre la reproductibilité intra-dynamomètre des index de fatigue (quotient des n dernières répétitions par les x premières par exemple) et des paramètres mesurés lors d'une épreuve de fatigabilité musculaire pour le genou mais également la compatibilité inter-dynamomètre de cette même épreuve de résistance à la fatigue. Après étude via à un test-retest, la reproductibilité des index de fatigue semble très insuffisante pour une utilisation clinique ou scientifique, au contraire des paramètres mesurés. De plus, après exploration via la réalisation du protocole sur trois modèles différents, il apparait que la reproductibilité insuffisante des fléchisseurs du genou ne permettrait pas de comparer les résultats obtenus sur différents dynamomètres. Introduction Les tests isocinétiques contribuent largement à l'évaluation de la performance musculaire et en sont considérés comme un gold standard [1]. Les tests de fatigabilité peuvent s'avérer complémentaires des épreuves courtes de force notamment pour évaluer un athlète sollicitant particulièrement la filière anaérobie lactique ou dans des contextes pathologiques spécifiques [2]. Bien que Bosquet et al. [3] aient démontré la reproductibilité d'un protocole de fatigabilité pour le genou, 30 flexions-extensions maximales à 180°.s-1 avec une amplitude de 100°, à notre connaissance, aucune étude, ayant pour objectif d'être exhaustive dans son analyse, n'a été menée sur la reproductibilité des paramètres mesurés (meilleure répétition, cumuls total et partiels) et index de fatigue (quotient des n dernières répétitions par les x premières, du cumul des répétitions par la meilleure,…) bien qu'ils soient proposés directement par les dynamomètres et/ou utilisés en clinique et dans la littérature lors de l'étude de la fatigabilité du genou [4]. Sont-ils suffisamment reproductibles pour que leur utilisation soit scientifiquement validée? La compatibilité des résultats d'une épreuve de fatigabilité du genou entre différents dynamomètres isocinétiques n'a également, à notre connaissance, pas été évaluée récemment, qui plus est sur plus de deux dynamomètres de marques différentes [5]. Est-il envisageable de comparer les résultats obtenus sur des dynamomètres de marques différentes et de généraliser les normes? Méthodes Pour tenter d'apporter un élément de réponse à la première question, dix-huit hommes sains, modérément actifs, ont réalisé trente extensions-flexions maximales du genou à trois occasions sur un Biodex System 3 Pro, en observant sept à dix jours de repos entre chaque session. Afin de compiler onze paramètres mesurés et de construire quarante-quatre index, le moment de force maximum (MFM) et le travail maximal (Wmax) de chaque répétition ont été enregistrés. La reproductibilité de chaque paramètre et index a été évaluée via leur ICC (2,1), SEM et MD respectifs. Pour évaluer la compatibilité inter-dynamomètre du Biodex System 3 Pro, du Con-Trex MJ PM-2 et du Cybex Humac CSMI, vingt-et-un sujets sains, modérément actifs, ont réalisé trente extensions-flexions maximales du genou à trois occasions, en observant six à dix jours de repos entre chaque session. Le MFM et le Wmax de chaque répétition ont été enregistrés. La compatibilité inter-dynamomètre deux-à-deux a été évaluée à l'aide des ICC (3,1), SEM et MD des paramètres mesurés.   Résultats En ce qui concerne la reproductibilité intra-dynamomètre, les valeurs d'ICC des paramètres mesurés pour les extenseurs du genou sont quasi-systématiquement supérieures à 0.8 tandis que celles pour les fléchisseurs oscillent entre 0.7 et 0.8. Les index de fatigue présentent quant à eux des ICC inférieurs à 0.7 et 0.5 respectivement pour les extenseurs et fléchisseurs. Les valeurs d'ICC ne diffèrent guère entre le MFM et le Wmax (que ce soit pour les extenseurs ou les fléchisseurs ou pour les paramètres mesurés et les index de fatigue). Pour le volet compatibilité inter-dynamomètre, les ICC des paramètres mesurés lors de l'épreuve de fatigabilité musculaire des extenseurs du genou sont très majoritairement supérieurs à 0.8, quelle que soit la paire de dynamomètres considérée. A contrario, les ICC de ces mêmes paramètres mesurés sont presque tous inférieurs à 0.7 pour les fléchisseurs. Les valeurs d'ICC ne diffèrent guère entre le MFM et le Wmax (que ce soit pour les extenseurs ou les fléchisseurs). Logiquement, la compatibilité inter-dynamométrique des index de fatigue n'a pas été étudiée puisque leur reproductibilité intra-dynamomètre a été démontrée comme insuffisante dans la première partie de notre étude. Discussion Considérant qu'un ICC supérieur à 0.8 soit acceptable pour une utilisation clinique [6], nous pouvons conclure que, compte tenu des valeurs obtenues sur notre population, aucun index de fatigue, bien que séduisant compte tenu de leur capacité théorique à caractériser la décroissance de la performance lors d'une épreuve de fatigabilité, ne semble présenter une reproductibilité intra-dynamométrique suffisante pour une utilisation clinique ou de recherche. Seuls les paramètres mesurés tels que la meilleure répétition, les cumuls total ou partiels apparaissent utilisables, en clinique et dans un contexte de recherche, en raison d'une reproductibilité intra-dynamométrique qui peut être qualifiée de (très) haute voire excellente [7, 8]. Des index de fatigue sont donc fréquemment utilisés alors que leur reproductibilité semble très largement insuffisante. La reproductibilité inter-dynamomètre des paramètres mesurés du protocole de fatigue défini par Bosquet et al. [3] permet leur utilisation clinique pour les extenseurs du genou mais est très insuffisante pour les fléchisseurs. Il apparaît donc nécessaire de réaliser les tests à chaque reprise sur le même dynamomètre dans le cadre de suivis longitudinaux ou des comparaisons transversales impliquant les fléchisseurs du genou. Ce manque de compatibilité inter-dynamomètre implique également que les normes soient spécifiques à chaque modèle de dynamomètre isocinétique. Conclusion Nos résultats indiquent que les index de fatigue ne peuvent être utilisés que ce soit dans un contexte clinique ou de recherche pour l'évaluation isocinétique du genou. Seuls les paramètres mesurés sont suffisamment reproductibles pour être employés. Le manque de compatibilité inter-dynamomètre pour les fléchisseurs du genou impliquent d'utiliser le même dynamomètre isocinétique lors de suivis longitudinaux ou de comparaisons transversales. [less ▲]

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See detailEvaluation isocinétique du genou: quelle est la compatibilité entre différents dynamomètres?
Paulus, Julien ULg; Crielaard, Jean-Michel ULg; Croisier, Jean-Louis ULg et al

Conference (2015, October 10)

Objective The aim of this study was to assess the compatibility between dynamometer Biodex System 3 Pro, Con-Trex MJ PM-2 and Cybex Humac CSMI of knee extensors and flexors. Material & method Twenty-one ... [more ▼]

Objective The aim of this study was to assess the compatibility between dynamometer Biodex System 3 Pro, Con-Trex MJ PM-2 and Cybex Humac CSMI of knee extensors and flexors. Material & method Twenty-one subjects, moderately active, performed three isokinetic evaluation sessions with six to ten days of rest between each. Each of it, performed on a dynamometer in accordance with a different randomized order, included a concentric evaluation (60°.s-1 & 240°.s-1), eccentric (30°.s-1) and fatigue-resistance protocol (30 concentric repetitions maximum 180°.s-1) for the knee extensors and flexors. The peak torque (PT) and the maximal work (MW) of each repetition were recorded, as well as concentric and mixed agonists/antagonists ratios, to measure the compatibility inter-dynamometer two by two through their respective ICC (3.1), SEM and MD. Results For the short maximal strength test, ICC values for the extensors are almost always higher than 0.85 in concentric mode although they don't exceed 0.61 in eccentric mode. The ICC values for the flexor in slow concentric and eccentric mode are above 0.7, 0.75 and 0.8 for pairs Biodex/Cybex, Biodex/Con-Trex and Cybex/Con-Trex. None of ICC value exceeds 0.75 in fast concentric mode for the flexors. The ratios have ICC values lower than 0.6 except concentric ratio at 60°.s-1 for the pair Cybex/Con-Trex (0.83) and mixed ratio for the pairs Biodex/Cybex (0.73) and Cybex/Con-Trex (0.77). The ICC values of the parameters measured during the extensors fatigue-resistance protocol are mostly above 0.8 regardless of the pair of dynamometers considered. The ICC values of these parameters for the flexors are almost all lower than 0.7. Discussion Although the reproducibility of extensors in concentric mode is high, it's important to inform users, whether in clinical or scientific domain, that different dynamometers provide regular incompatible results and we draw attention to the little reproducibility of the agonist/antagonist ratios. Our results justify the establishment of norms for each dynamometers brand in order to interpret, with relevance, the isokinetic test, either for short maximal strength evaluation or fatigue-resistance protocol. [less ▲]

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