References of "Courard, Luc"
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See detailGeosynthetics : materials, design, durability and applications
Courard, Luc ULg

Scientific conference (2015, October 20)

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See detailStraw-bale walls for sustainable architecture: Improving and promoting straw-bale use in European Buildings
Evrard, Arnaud; Biot, Benjamin; Keutgen, Gauthier et al

in Cucinella; Giulia (Eds.) Architecture in (R)Evolution (2015, September 09)

Straw-bale use in buildings may be an interesting way to decrease our energy needs and our impact on the environment. Moreover, it fosters a local economy and the creation of new jobs in the building ... [more ▼]

Straw-bale use in buildings may be an interesting way to decrease our energy needs and our impact on the environment. Moreover, it fosters a local economy and the creation of new jobs in the building industry. Combined with earth materials and other well-selected materials and systems, it allows creative designers to integrate highly efficient, low-tech and reusable envelopes in comfortable and healthy places. The present paper summarizes the results of a four year R&D program aiming to improve and promote the use of straw bale in buildings and also to remove uncertainties concerning this use. Three main aspects are pinpointed and discussed: hygrothermal transfer and storage in straw-bale walls, regulation of indoor conditions and environmental impact in the long term. These three topics were submitted to European experts (France, England and Germany) in order to discuss a cross-comparison of results obtained on a larger scale. The paper shows that straw-bale use in buildings is a relevant and innovative solution in facing one of the major challenges of today and tomorrow: "How to build/transform comfortable and affordable buildings with local resources and with a positive impact on the environment?". [less ▲]

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See detailTentatives de prétraitement des granulats recyclés pour l’amélioration des bétons préfabriqués
Zhao, Zengfeng ULg; Courard, Luc ULg; Remond, Sébastien et al

in Ciments, bétons et fibres - Matériaux et structures (2015, July)

De très grandes quantités de déchets de construction et de démolition sont produites chaque année. Jusqu'à présent, seule une petite fraction de ces déchets de béton est réutilisée sous forme de granulats ... [more ▼]

De très grandes quantités de déchets de construction et de démolition sont produites chaque année. Jusqu'à présent, seule une petite fraction de ces déchets de béton est réutilisée sous forme de granulats pour la fabrication de béton. Afin de faire bon usage des granulats recyclés (GR) dans le béton, il est très important d’améliorer leurs propriétés. Dans cette étude, une méthode de traitement des GR au moyen d’une carbonatation accélérée en laboratoire et des méthodes de traitement par modification de l’état de surface des GR ont été étudiées. Les résultats montrent qu'après la carbonatation accélérée au laboratoire, la teneur en pâte de ciment durcie des GR mesurée par dissolution de l'acide salicylique diminue, que la densité et la surface spécifique des GR augmentent et que la porosité des GR diminue, ce qui conduit à la réduction de l'absorption d'eau des GR. Des agents hydrofuges à base de silane ont également été étudiés et semblent diminuer l’absorption d’eau par les GR. [less ▲]

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See detailWITCONCRETE Vessel Inspection Report
Courard, Luc ULg

Report (2015)

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See detailMaladies des bétons: entre fatalité et prise en charge
Courard, Luc ULg

Conference given outside the academic context (2015)

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See detailLE PROJET AGROMOB - Utilisation des matériaux bio-sourcés dans la construction
Grigoletto, Sophie ULg; Paul, Julien; Courard, Luc ULg

Conference given outside the academic context (2015)

Depuis une dizaine d'années, la construction à ossature bois représente un marché en plein essor. L'un des défauts de ce système constructif est son manque d'inertie thermique. Le projet Agromob a visé à ... [more ▼]

Depuis une dizaine d'années, la construction à ossature bois représente un marché en plein essor. L'un des défauts de ce système constructif est son manque d'inertie thermique. Le projet Agromob a visé à étudier la possibilité d'incorporer, dans la phase de préfabrication, une couche d'inertie fabriquée à partir de matériaux bio-sourcés à base d'argile et de quelques adjuvants. Le résultat est une haute capacité d'emmagasinement d'énergie par rapport à la surface et au volume utilisé dans le bâtiment. [less ▲]

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See detailRessources secondaires et matériaux bio-sourcés pour une construction durable
Courard, Luc ULg

Scientific conference (2015, March 20)

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See detailPourquoi certaines réparations échouent-elles ? Un problème de compatibilité !
Courard, Luc ULg

Scientific conference (2015, February 12)

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See detailCarbonated concrete blocks for CO2 captation
Courard, Luc ULg; Parmentier, Véronique; Michel, Frédéric ULg

in Materialy Budowlane (2015), 10

The CO2 captation process called carbonation, improves specific properties of the concrete during the conversion of carbon dioxide CO2 into calcium carbonate CaCO3. Current environmental concerns motivate ... [more ▼]

The CO2 captation process called carbonation, improves specific properties of the concrete during the conversion of carbon dioxide CO2 into calcium carbonate CaCO3. Current environmental concerns motivate the study of carbonation in order to maximize the absorption of carbon dioxide. Moreover, lightweight concrete with bio-based products knows an interesting development in the construction field, especially as thermal insulation panels for walls in buildings. Concrete blocks produced with miscanthus mineralized aggregates offer interesting mechanical properties and minimal environmental impact. [less ▲]

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See detailStudy of water diffusivity during drying of mortar
Kahlerras, Loubna ULg; Courard, Luc ULg; Michel, Frédéric ULg et al

in Proceedings of the 5th European Drying Conference (EuroDrying'2015) (2015)

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See detailToward the quantification of the cement paste content of fine recycled concrete aggregates by salicylic acid dissolution corrected by a theoretical approach
Zhao, Zengfeng ULg; Remond, Sébastien; Damidot, Denis et al

in Proceedings of the 14th International Congress on the Chemistry of Cement (2015)

Recycled concrete aggregates (RCA) are mainly composed of an intimate mix between natural aggregates and cement paste and the complete separation between these two phases is difficult. Cement paste ... [more ▼]

Recycled concrete aggregates (RCA) are mainly composed of an intimate mix between natural aggregates and cement paste and the complete separation between these two phases is difficult. Cement paste generally presents a much larger porosity than natural aggregates, the content and the physicochemical properties of cement paste therefore have a large influence on the properties of RCA. Any method seems to be adapted to the characterization of cement paste content (CPC) in fine recycled concrete aggregates (FRCA) especially for RCA containing calcareous aggregates. A simple method based on the dissolution of the cement paste in a solution of salicylic acid in methanol was specifically developed to estimate the cement paste content of RCA. Results showed that salicylic acid dissolution method can dissolve most phases of hardened Portland cement paste such as Portlandite, ettringite and C-S-H without dissolving siliceous and calcareous aggregates. The experimental results for two neat Portland cement pastes (white cement paste and grey cement paste) showed that the soluble fraction in salicylic acid (SFSA) was equal to the cement paste content for white cement and slightly lower for the grey cement. The SFSA was measured for different types of RCA. The RCA manufactured in the laboratory whose composition is fully known and three RCA manufactured from industrial crushing platforms have been characterized. Whatever RCA used in our study, SFSA varies almost linearly with the average particle size. A linear relationship was obtained between the water absorption coefficient and SFSA. This relationship allowed us to accurately determine the water absorption coefficient of the smallest granular class 0/0.63mm. [less ▲]

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See detailLIGHTWEIGHT CEMENTITIOUS MORTAR MADE WITH FOAMED PLASTIC WASTE AGGREGATES
Coppola, Bartolomeo ULg; Di Maio, Luciano; Courard, Luc ULg et al

in Durability and Sustainability of Concrete Structures – Workshop Proceedings, Bologna 1-3 October 2015 (2015)

In recent years the increasing interest for eco-sustainable building materials and the rising issue of plastic waste disposal are leading to the engineering of new composite construction materials ... [more ▼]

In recent years the increasing interest for eco-sustainable building materials and the rising issue of plastic waste disposal are leading to the engineering of new composite construction materials incorporating post consumer recycled plastics, able at the same time to meet new standard requirements, in terms of energy efficiency, and to reduce the consumption of natural resources. In the context of these issues, we have performed investigations on the effects of the addition of foamed artificial aggregates deriving from recycled plastic materials to a cementitious mortar. For this purpose, several mortar samples containing natural sand and different amounts (10, 25 and 50 % by volume) of foamed recycled plastic wastes were produced. The foaming of the recycled plastic waste was performed in laboratory by a foam extrusion process using a blowing agent (2 wt.%). An artificial aggregates particle size distribution similar to standard sand was used. Rheological and physical properties of lightweight mortar were studied. The improved surface roughness of foamed plastic aggregates ensures a more continuous interface and the presence of surface pores provides interlocking effect with cement paste. Replacement of natural sand by artificial aggregates produces a lightweight mortar but reduces mechanical properties. [less ▲]

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See detailOn the Shape Simulation of Aggregate and Cement Particles in a DEM System
He, Huan; Stroeven, Piet; Pirard, Eric ULg et al

in Advances in Materials Science and Engineering (2015)

Aggregate occupies at least three-quarters of the volume of concrete, so its impact on concrete’s properties is significant. Both size and shape of aggregate influence workability, mechanical properties ... [more ▼]

Aggregate occupies at least three-quarters of the volume of concrete, so its impact on concrete’s properties is significant. Both size and shape of aggregate influence workability, mechanical properties, and durability of concrete. On the other hand, the shape of cement particles plays also an important role in the hydration process due to surface dissolution in the hardening process. Additionally, grain dispersion, shape, and size govern the pore percolation process that is of crucial importance for concrete durability. Discrete element modeling (DEM) is commonly employed for simulation of concrete structure. To be able to do so, the assessed grain shape should be implemented. The approaches for aggregate and cement structure simulation by a concurrent algorithm-based DEM system are discussed in this paper. Both aggregate and cement grains were experimentally analyzed by X-ray tomography method recently. The results provide a real experimental database, for example, surface area versus volume distribution, for simulation of particles in concrete technology. Optimum solutions are obtained by different simplified shapes proposed for aggregate and cement, respectively. In this way, more reliable concepts for aggregate structure and fresh cement paste can be simulated by a DEM system. [less ▲]

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See detailFundamental approach for the concept of concrete repair compatibility
Courard, Luc ULg; Bissonnette, Benoît; Garbacz, Andrzej

in Dehn, Frank (Ed.) Concrete Repair, Rehabilitation and Retrofitting IV (2015)

Before being translated in terms of physical, mechanical and chemical of materials, the initial step for evaluating compatibility is interface creation. The thermodynamic properties of the materials as ... [more ▼]

Before being translated in terms of physical, mechanical and chemical of materials, the initial step for evaluating compatibility is interface creation. The thermodynamic properties of the materials as well as transport mechanisms – diffusion, capillary succion – at the interface and roughness of the concrete substrate are acting from the beginning and influencing the durability of the bond strength. A review of the main parameters influencing bond development is presented on the base of the equilibrium of the surface free ener-gies of liquid and solid, applied to the concept of repair mortars, coating and hydrophobic treatments [less ▲]

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See detailA repair quality control with elastic waves based methods vs. substrate quality
Garbacz, Andrzej; Piotrowski, Tomasz; Courard, Luc ULg et al

in Dehn; Beushausen, Hans (Eds.) Concrete Repair, Rehabilitation and Retrofitting IV (2015)

An adhesion in repair system is one of the most important factors that affect the repair efficiency. The elaboration of reliable nondestructive method for an adhesion mapping is one of the most important ... [more ▼]

An adhesion in repair system is one of the most important factors that affect the repair efficiency. The elaboration of reliable nondestructive method for an adhesion mapping is one of the most important tasks. A majority of NDT methods mentioned in EN 1504-10 and ACI Concrete Repair Manual for assessment of concrete structures are based on propagation of stress waves. However, these investigations are rarely focused on evaluation of bond strength. Repair system is difficult to test with NDT methods because of many factors influencing stress wave propagation. In this paper the effect of a quality of concrete substrate on propagation of stress waves in repair system and their influence on possibility of estimation of the bond strength is discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailA quantitative approach to the concept of concrete repair compatibility
Bissonnette, Benoît; Modjabi-Sangnier, François; Courard, Luc ULg et al

in Dehn, Frank; Beushausen, Hans (Eds.) Concrete Repair, Rehabilitation and Retrofitting IV (2015)

The work reported in this paper is part of a wider research program intended to provide the repair industry with improved fundamental knowledge to implement rational design methods and rules for repairs ... [more ▼]

The work reported in this paper is part of a wider research program intended to provide the repair industry with improved fundamental knowledge to implement rational design methods and rules for repairs. In that regard, there is a strong need to study the fundamental relationships and parameters that underlie the repair compatibility concepts, in particular those relating to dimensional compatibility. In the first part of the paper, classical formulas derived for thick cylindrical specimens were used to analyze the tensile stress buildup in annular restrained shrinkage test specimens, taking into account the restraining conditions the investigated ring test method and the individual concrete properties/phenomena determined experimentally (elastic modulus, creep coefficient, drying shrinkage deformation). By comparing the ring test results with the calculated tensile stresses, the validity and accuracy of the theoretical approach could be appraised. A quantitative approach for the evaluation of the performance of concrete repair in terms of dimensional compatibility was then developed. Derived from the basic strain balance approach (ratio between the total deformability in tension and the drying shrinkage deformation), a parameter referred to as dimensional compatibility index (CI) was introduced in order to analyze the evolution of dimensional compatibility as a function of time for a given concrete mixture, taking into account the actual degree of restraint in the element. Compatibility index evolution curves were calculated for various repair concrete mixtures in order to highlight material behavior relating to composition parameters and temperature. As it requires the evaluation of a limited number of individual properties that are for most readily available (i.e. strength, elastic modulus, shrinkage), the compatibility index expressed in terms of deformation carries a lot of potential as a relatively simple and convenient analytical tool for assessing the cracking sensitivity of concrete repair materials. Overall, it can be stated that a good correlation was found between the ring test results and the tensile stress values calculated based on individual concrete properties / phenomena and that the proposed calculation method lays ground for evaluating quantitatively the dimensional compatibility of repair materials and defining suitable performance criteria. [less ▲]

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See detailDetermination of Particle Size, Surface Area, and Shape of Supplementary Cementitious Materials by Using Different Techniques
Arvaniti, Eleni; Juenger, Maria; Bernal, Susan et al

in Materials and Structures (2015), 48(11), 3687-3701

The particle size distribution, surface area and shape are fundamental characteristics of supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs). Accurate measurement of these properties is required in computational ... [more ▼]

The particle size distribution, surface area and shape are fundamental characteristics of supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs). Accurate measurement of these properties is required in computational efforts to model the hydration process, and the characterization of these parameters is also an important practical issue during the production and use of blended cements. Since there are no standard procedures specifically for the determination of physical properties of SCMs, the techniques that are currently used for characterizing Portland cement are applied to SCMs. Based on the fact that most of the techniques have been developed to measure cements, limitations occur when these methods are used for other materials than cement, particularly when these have lower fineness and different particle shape and mineralogical composition. Here, samples of fly ash, granulated blast furnace slag and silica fume were tested. Different results obtained using several methods for the determination of specific surface area are presented. Recommendations for testing SCMs using air permeability, sieving, laser diffraction, BET, image analysis and MIP are provided, which represent an output from the work of the RILEM Technical Committee on Hydration and Microstructure of Concrete with Supplementary Cementitious Materials (TC-238-SCM). [less ▲]

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See detailPhysical Characterization Methods for Supplementary Cementitious Materials.
Arvaniti, Eleni; Juenger, Maria; Bernal, Susan et al

in Materials and Structures (2015), 48(11), 3675-3686

The main supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs) that are used today are industrial by-products. In most cases the quality of these materials cannot be controlled during their production, resulting in ... [more ▼]

The main supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs) that are used today are industrial by-products. In most cases the quality of these materials cannot be controlled during their production, resulting in materials with varied characteristics. The adequate physical characterization of SCMs is important to better predict their performance and optimize their use in concretes production. There are standardized methods used to determine the particle characteristics for Portland cements that are usually adopted to characterize SCMs; however, these methods may not be as accurate when applied to SCMs. This paper is an overview of the techniques that are currently used for the determination of the density, particle size distribution, surface area and shape of SCMs. The main principles of each method are presented. The limitations that occur for the SCMs measurements are also discussed. This paper is an output from the work of the RILEM Technical Committee on Hydration and Microstructure of Concrete with Supplementary Cementitious Materials (TC-238-SCM). [less ▲]

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See detailEvaluation of the durability of hydrophobic treatments on concrete architectural heritage
Lucquiaud, Vincent ULg; Courard, Luc ULg; Gérard, Olivier et al

in Restoration of Buildings and Monuments = Bauinstandsetzen und Baudenkmalpflege (2014), 20(6), 395404

The protection of historical concrete structures is a challenge for the coming years. Hydrophobic treatment may reduce the deterioration process while providing protection against water penetration ... [more ▼]

The protection of historical concrete structures is a challenge for the coming years. Hydrophobic treatment may reduce the deterioration process while providing protection against water penetration. Existing commercial products —mainly silane or siloxane in either water or solvent based formulations– were submitted to different ageing processes including UV radiation, dry-wet cycles, thermal shocks, freeze-thaw cycles, carbonation and their effectiveness has been evaluated on the basis of contact angle, vapour and chloride permeability and, capillarity water absorption. The results obtained clearly show that hydrophobic treatments display a good behaviour under the main ageing conditions. [less ▲]

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See detailRessources secondaires et matériaux bio-sourcés: complémentarité pour une construction durable
Courard, Luc ULg

Scientific conference (2014, November 06)

Le recyclage n'est pas un luxe ou une mode mais une nécessité, qui provient d'une constatation fort simple : nous vivons dans un monde limité. Contrairement à ce que nous avons cru fort longtemps, notre ... [more ▼]

Le recyclage n'est pas un luxe ou une mode mais une nécessité, qui provient d'une constatation fort simple : nous vivons dans un monde limité. Contrairement à ce que nous avons cru fort longtemps, notre activité humaine n'est pas infiniment développable, car bornée en termes d'énergie, de ressources naturelles, d'espace ou simplement de capacité d'adaptation de la nature. De cette constatation et de cette prise de conscience doit découler un comportement qui, essentiellement, est basé sur le respect que nous avons de nous-mêmes et donc de la nature (à ménager et non à aménager). Le recyclage, la réutilisation, le réemploi, la régénération ou la valorisation sont des comportements qui visent à minimiser l'énergie utilisée, à tirer un parti maximum des matériaux, à réduire les risques de pollution au moment de la fabrication, de l'utilisation ou de l'élimination de ces matériaux. D'une manière générale, cela signifie que l'on cherche à retarder le plus possible le moment où un objet devient un déchet. Cette démarche nécessite une vision d'ensemble de la vie du matériau ou de l'objet (Analyse du Cycle de Vie), au cours de laquelle un bilan est établi à chaque étape de vie - extraction des matières premières, fabrication, transformation, recyclage, élimination. Complémentairement aux matériaux dits « naturels » ou d’origine végétale, l’industrie de la construction intègre de plus en plus ces matériaux alternatifs, non sans quelques réticences psychologiques, normatives et techniques. Source de pollution importante (CO2, déchets solides, ..), la construction constitue aussi un réservoir majeur pour la valorisation de déchets et de sous-produits industriels : à côté de la filière traditionnelle de production des matériaux de construction et de la résurgence des matériaux bio-sourcés, les matériaux recyclés contribuent également au développement des matériaux du futur. [less ▲]

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