References of "Courard, Luc"
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See detailConcrete removal techniques: influence on residual cracking and bond strength
Bissonnette, Benoit; Courard, Luc ULg; Vaysburd, Alex et al

in Concrete International (2006), 28(12), 49-55

The aim of concrete surface preparation prior to repair is to obtain a surface with properties close to that of the bulk concrete. In this paper, the results of an investigation intended to evaluate the ... [more ▼]

The aim of concrete surface preparation prior to repair is to obtain a surface with properties close to that of the bulk concrete. In this paper, the results of an investigation intended to evaluate the mechanical degradation induced by different surface preparation techniques are presented. Optical microscope observations clearly show that more cracking is induced with jack-hammers than with the other investigated techniques and that the cracking density increases with the hammer weight. While more information is needed to evaluate quantitatively the effects of concrete removal operations, it appears from the reported results that techniques such as sandblasting, scarifying and water jetting are preferable, as they clearly leave much less defects in the substrate. [less ▲]

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See detailInżyneria powierzchni betonu. Część 1. Struktura geometryczna powierzchni.
Garbacz, Andrzej; Piotrowski, Tomasz; Courard, Luc ULg

in Materialy Budowlane (2006), 9

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See detailMix stability as a criterion for optimizing the granular composition to improve concrete durability – an application
Willem, Xavier; Courard, Luc ULg; Darimont, Anne ULg et al

in Marchand, J.; Bissonnette, B.; Gagné, R. (Eds.) et al Advances in Concrete through Science and Engineering (2006, September)

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See detailDesign of a Self Compacting Repair Mortar to be applied under concrete slabs and floors
Flamant, St; Courard, Luc ULg

in Marchand, J.; Bissonnette, B.; Gagné, R. (Eds.) et al Advances in Concrete through Science and Engineering (2006, September)

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See detailTesting procedures and other regulations
Courard, Luc ULg; Zajc, Andrej; Garbacz, Andzej et al

in Seidler, Peter (Ed.) Industrial floors (2006)

In the civil engineering are the industrial floors in the background. There don't exist the standards for finished industrial floors and their execution and also not for testing of the properties of the ... [more ▼]

In the civil engineering are the industrial floors in the background. There don't exist the standards for finished industrial floors and their execution and also not for testing of the properties of the flooring materials. The current aproach to the design and construction of industrial pavements in many cases is based on wide, mostly negative experiences which have been gained through time. Nowadays with development of industrial and storage technology the industrial floors have to fulfiel many special requirements for intended use and the importancy of them is increasing. This is the reason for the needs for the relevant regulation for proper designing, construction and controll of industrial floors with the relevant testing methods. Many of test methods are succefully used in the field of industrial floors and also exist in some developed contries some regulation mostly as a guidelines or reports. But it is neccessary to develope advanced regulation for designing, construction and controll of industrial floors. For this development they are very useful the European standards for repair and protection of concrete construction of series EN 1504 becouse of their similarities with the industrial floors. In this chapter there are collected testing procedures suitable for testing of flooring materials as well as of finished industrial floors or industrial floors in construction and standards and regulations on this topic used in different countries. [less ▲]

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See detailEvaluation and quality assessement of industrial floors
Courard, Luc ULg; Garbacz, Andrzej; Wolff, Lars

in Seidler, Peter (Ed.) Industrial floors (2006)

In the beginning of a project where repair, protection or reinforcement works are planed on industrial floors, the condition of the structure must be inspected and assessed properly. Which kind of ... [more ▼]

In the beginning of a project where repair, protection or reinforcement works are planed on industrial floors, the condition of the structure must be inspected and assessed properly. Which kind of expertise and qualifications are expected from the assessment consultant, depends on the structure, its environment and potential defects. The investigation must be thorough enough to get a reliable picture over the existence, extent, grade, reasons and effects of all significant degradation mechanisms and to assess their progress and effect on the essential requirements that the structure shall meet. The aim of this chapter is to present the general procedures to be followed in order to investigate the common situation of the industrial floors. As the testing procedures are very similar as well for concrete substrate than for overlay evaluation, the principles of the measurement are given hereafter, while the specific applications will be described in chapters 4.2., 4.3. and 4.4. Engineers generally require guidance on both the techniques available for the condition assessment of structures and the methods for data interpretation. Two major stages are usually recommended for such operation. The first stage is based on a rapid-scan visual assessment, often including limited sampling in areas obviously damaged, from which areas can be selected for more detailed investigations. The second stage contains detailed diagnostic survey relies on destructive and non destructive testing techniques. [less ▲]

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See detailCharacterization of concrete surface roughness and its relation to adhesion in repair systems
Garbacz, A.; Courard, Luc ULg; Kostana, K.

in Materials Characterization (2006), 56(4-mai Sp. Iss. SI), 281-289

The aim of this work to analyse the relationships between parameters of concrete surface geometry determined with various methods as well as their relations to adhesion in repair systems. Several types of ... [more ▼]

The aim of this work to analyse the relationships between parameters of concrete surface geometry determined with various methods as well as their relations to adhesion in repair systems. Several types of concrete preparation techniques were selected to obtain different levels of surface roughness of concrete substrates. Four measurement techniques, corresponding to different levels of observation, have been used to characterize the surface geometry: laser profilometry, mechanical profilometry, a microscopic method and a "sand" (macroscopic) method. The correlations between parameters describing surface geometry are determined. The relationships between bond strength and selected parameters of surface geometry are also discussed. (c) 2005 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of concrete substrate texture on the adhesion properties of PCC repair mortar
Courard, Luc ULg; Garbacz, A.; Schwall, D. et al

in Barroso de Aguiar, J.; Jalali, S.; Camoes, A. (Eds.) et al Polymers in Concrete (2006, April)

The study of adhesion of repair materials on concrete structures implies a good knowledge of the influence of concrete surface characteristics. A large research project has been realized with regards to ... [more ▼]

The study of adhesion of repair materials on concrete structures implies a good knowledge of the influence of concrete surface characteristics. A large research project has been realized with regards to the influence of concrete substrate strength and preparation technique efficiency. Three types of concretes and four types of surface preparation have been combined in order to obtain twelve different concrete slabs. They have been characterized according different destructive and non destructive techniques: Schmidt hammer, compressive strength, superficial cohesion (pull-off tests), Impact Echo measurements and cracking quantification (microscopical observations). Finally, a polymer cement concrete mortar has been applied and adhesion has been evaluated by means of pull-off and laboratory tensile tests. The relationships between parameters describing surface quality (roughness, cracking), adhesion strength and stress wave propagation have been analysed. [less ▲]

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See detailTwo different techniques for the evaluation of concrete surface roughness
Courard, Luc ULg; Perez, Fabien; Bissonnette, Benoît et al

in Beushausen, H.; Dehn, F.; Alexander, M. G. (Eds.) Concrete Repair, Rehabilitation and Retrofitting (2006)

The study of adhesion of repair materials on concrete structures implies a good knowledge of the influence of concrete surface treatment. The effects of surface preparation technique is rarely clearly ... [more ▼]

The study of adhesion of repair materials on concrete structures implies a good knowledge of the influence of concrete surface treatment. The effects of surface preparation technique is rarely clearly described and parameterised: it is consequently difficult to point out the real influence of roughness on adhesion results. A first step was made by using mechanical profilometry to differentiate concrete surfaces prepared by shot blasting, sand blasting and hand or mechanical milling. This technique is very accurate for investigations in laboratory, on a limited surface area. If Quality Control is requested or if it is impossible to core samples from the site, other procedures should be followed. That the reason why opto-morphometry analysis has been developed, in order to analyse larger surfaces. The comparison of the two techniques shows clearly the advan-tages of each one and the precision that can be achieved. [less ▲]

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See detailApport de la granulométrie laser dans la caractérisation physique des fillers calcaires
Michel, Frédéric ULg; Courard, Luc ULg

in Arliguie, Ginette (Ed.) Compte-rendu des Journées Scientifiques du (RF)2B (2006)

On assiste actuellement en Belgique à une baisse importante de la production des matériaux habituellement employés comme additions dans les composites à matrice cimentaire (cendres volantes, laitier de ... [more ▼]

On assiste actuellement en Belgique à une baisse importante de la production des matériaux habituellement employés comme additions dans les composites à matrice cimentaire (cendres volantes, laitier de haut fourneau). Pour faire face à ce problème, un vaste programme de recherche a été mis sur pied dans le but d’évaluer le potentiel de valorisation de fillers calcaires, de production wallonne, dans ce secteur. Ce papier traite des techniques utilisées pour caractériser de manière physique les fillers calcaires. Une étude paramétrique a permis de définir les conditions optimales de mesure de leur granulométrie par diffraction laser. Les résultats ont été comparés à ceux obtenus par la technique plus classique de tamisage en voie humide. La surface spécifique des poudres a également été mesurée par adsorption d’azote (méthode BET), par perméabilité (Blaine) et calculée à partir des résultats de la diffraction, via le diamètre de Sauter. [less ▲]

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See detailDurabilité des réparations du béton: entre théorie et pratique
Courard, Luc ULg

in Arliguie, Ginette (Ed.) Compte-rendu des Journées Scientifiques du (RF)2B (2006)

Le béton est réputé durable. L’expérience de cette durabilité est toutefois fort limitée en termes d’échelle temporelle : nombreux sont les facteurs – internes et externes - qui peuvent amener une ... [more ▼]

Le béton est réputé durable. L’expérience de cette durabilité est toutefois fort limitée en termes d’échelle temporelle : nombreux sont les facteurs – internes et externes - qui peuvent amener une dégradation parfois très rapide du matériau. Fort heureusement, ces dégradations n’ont que très peu souvent d’effet irrémédiable sur le comportement structurel de l’ouvrage en béton. Les réparations permettent en général de prolonger la durée de vie des structures, en réhabilitant le comportement du matériau : l’adhérence du système de protection ou de réparation constitue dans ce cas une condition nécessaire mais pas toujours suffisante. Définir les conditions d’ « appétence » est la première étape du processus : quelles sont les conditions minimales à rencontrer pour que les matériaux « adhèrent », dans un environnement donné ? Ces conditions sont-elles suffisantes pour garantir la durabilité des réparations ? De plus, l’évaluation de l’adhérence pose problème en soi : traction, cisaillement, torsion sont autant de sollicitations censées représenter le comportement réel d’une interface : quel type d’essai employer ? Comment allier facilité et efficacité ? Laboratoire et chantier ? [less ▲]

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See detailInżyneria powierzchni betonu. Część 1. Struktura geometryczna powierzchni.
Garbacz, Andrzej; Piotrowski, Tomasz; Courard, Luc ULg

in Materialy Budowlane (2006), 9

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See detailEvaluation of concrete substrate prior to overlay. Bonded concrete overlays – Recommendations and Applications
Courard, Luc ULg

Conference (2006)

The knowledge and analysis of the causes of degradations is the first step in repairing existing concrete structures. The assessment is performed by using destructive and non destructive methods. These ... [more ▼]

The knowledge and analysis of the causes of degradations is the first step in repairing existing concrete structures. The assessment is performed by using destructive and non destructive methods. These allow to detect modification of physical, chemical and/or mechanical properties of concrete: cracking, deformation, spalling, carbonation, …etc are various causes of distress, with potential irreversible consequences on concrete structure behaviour. A description of specific methods for pavements and structural slabs is proposed; it is usually recommended to combine complementary methods for efficient diagnosis. This chapter wants to offer an overview of techniques and references that could help the user in selecting the most appropriate investigation program. [less ▲]

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See detailRelationship between surface characteristics and superficial cohesion of concrete
Garbacz, Andrzej; Gorka, M.; Courard, Luc ULg

in Beushausen, H.; Dehn, F.; Alexander, M. G. (Eds.) Concrete Repair, Rehabilitation and Retrofitting (2006)

Existing concrete surfaces have to be prepared before the application of a new layer. Different surface treatments (grinding, sandblasting, shotblasting, hand- and mechanical milling) have been performed ... [more ▼]

Existing concrete surfaces have to be prepared before the application of a new layer. Different surface treatments (grinding, sandblasting, shotblasting, hand- and mechanical milling) have been performed and the quality of the preparation has been established on the base of three main parameters: surface roughness, superficial concrete microcracking and adhesion. Cracks have been systematically observed, in relation with surface treatment by means of Scanning Electron Microscope and Light Microscope. Finally, a repair mortar, with or without bond coat, has been applied on the concrete substrates and adhesion has been measured. Analysis of results clearly show the effect of roughness on adhesion in the case where no bond coat is used, the influence of the surface treatment on the waviness shape of the profile and the presence of microcracks in the near-to-surface layer, which is related to failure type. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of surface preparation techniques on the cohesion of superficial concrete: comparison between jack-hammering and water-jetting
Courard, Luc ULg; Bissonnette, Benoît; Belair, Normand

in Beushausen, H.; Dehn, F.; Alexander, M. G. (Eds.) Concrete Repair, Rehabilitation and Retrofitting (2006)

The aim of concrete surface preparation is to obtain a surface with properties similar to those of the bulk concrete. Superficial concrete must be sound, dry, cohesive and contaminant-free. Particularly ... [more ▼]

The aim of concrete surface preparation is to obtain a surface with properties similar to those of the bulk concrete. Superficial concrete must be sound, dry, cohesive and contaminant-free. Particularly, the preparation must be performed in such a way that sound and homogeneous concrete is reached. The most widespread surface preparation techniques are sandblasting, jack-hammering, milling and other water hydro-jetting. Evaluation of the effect of surface preparation is often based upon surface roughness or specific sur-face. It is necessary however to investigate further within the first few centimetres from the surface to verify the concrete homogeneity and soundness. Pull-off test is a destructive method that can be useful for such evaluation, but it only gives an indication; the observation of the failure mode is more instructive. This paper summarizes the results of a microscopy investigation performed to quantify the number and length of cracks. The analysis leads to the comparison of jack-hammering and water-jetting techniques in terms of their poten-tial effect on superficial cohesion of concrete. [less ▲]

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See detailUtilisation des fillers dans les bétons
Michel, Frédéric ULg; Courard, Luc ULg

Report (2006)

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See detailAdhesion of repair systems to concrete: influence of interfacial topography and transport phenomena
Courard, Luc ULg

in Magazine of Concrete Research (2005), 57(5), 273-282

Eight types of cement slurries were applied to concrete substrates. Surface preparation involved mechanical action - sandblasting and polishing - as well as saturation regulation, both dry and saturated ... [more ▼]

Eight types of cement slurries were applied to concrete substrates. Surface preparation involved mechanical action - sandblasting and polishing - as well as saturation regulation, both dry and saturated surface wet. The adhesion strength for the different combinations was measured by direct tensile tests. Multivariate statistical analysis led to the identification of a major effect of surface saturation on the results. Knowledge of the interfacial behaviour was obtained by the discrimination of the effects of partial interaction between slurry and aggregates and slurry and cement mortar respectively. It clearly showed that a third factor has to be taken into account in the explanation of adhesion, namely the interfacial transition zone between cement paste and aggregates, due to its porosity and anchoring effect. This effect was quantified by topographical observation and image analysis. Penetration of cement slurry was also confirmed by observation with binocular and fluorescent microscopy. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of concrete surface treatment on adhesion in repair systems
Garbacz, A.; Gorka, M.; Courard, Luc ULg

in Magazine of Concrete Research (2005), 57(1), 49-60

Existing concrete surfaces need to be roughened to a profile necessary to achieve mechanical interlocking with any repair material. In this study, different surface treatments (e.g. grinding, sandblasting ... [more ▼]

Existing concrete surfaces need to be roughened to a profile necessary to achieve mechanical interlocking with any repair material. In this study, different surface treatments (e.g. grinding, sandblasting, shotblasting, hand- and mechanical milling) were performed and the quality of the preparation established on the basis of three main parameters: surface geometry, superficial concrete microcracking and adhesion. Surface geometry was characterised on the basis of the measurement of surface profile-profilometry-and the analysis of statistical and amplitude parameters calculated from the waviness (lower frequencies) and the roughness (higher frequencies) profiles of the surface. Investigations were also performed to assess the quality of the superficial zone of concrete and cracks were systematically observed in relation to surface treatment where both scanning electron microscopy and light microscopy were used for analysis. Finally, a repair mortar with or without bond coat, was applied to the concrete substrates in order to measure adhesion. Relationships clearly show the effect of roughness on adhesion in the case where no bond coat was used and also the influence of the power of the surface treatment on the waviness shape of the profile and the presence of microcracks in the near-surface layer related to failure type. [less ▲]

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