References of "Courard, Luc"
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See detailUtilisation des fillers dans les bétons
Michel, Frédéric ULg; Courard, Luc ULg

Report (2006)

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See detailAdhesion of repair systems to concrete: influence of interfacial topography and transport phenomena
Courard, Luc ULg

in Magazine of Concrete Research (2005), 57(5), 273-282

Eight types of cement slurries were applied to concrete substrates. Surface preparation involved mechanical action - sandblasting and polishing - as well as saturation regulation, both dry and saturated ... [more ▼]

Eight types of cement slurries were applied to concrete substrates. Surface preparation involved mechanical action - sandblasting and polishing - as well as saturation regulation, both dry and saturated surface wet. The adhesion strength for the different combinations was measured by direct tensile tests. Multivariate statistical analysis led to the identification of a major effect of surface saturation on the results. Knowledge of the interfacial behaviour was obtained by the discrimination of the effects of partial interaction between slurry and aggregates and slurry and cement mortar respectively. It clearly showed that a third factor has to be taken into account in the explanation of adhesion, namely the interfacial transition zone between cement paste and aggregates, due to its porosity and anchoring effect. This effect was quantified by topographical observation and image analysis. Penetration of cement slurry was also confirmed by observation with binocular and fluorescent microscopy. [less ▲]

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See detailOn the characterization of concrete surface roughness and its relation to adhesion in repair systems
Garbacz, Andrzej; Kostana, Katarzyna; Courard, Luc ULg

in Chraponski; Cwajna, J.; Wojnar, L. (Eds.) Stereology and Image Analysis (2005, May)

The aim of this work is the analysis of an effect of concrete surface geometry on adhesion of repair systems. Several types of surface preparation techniques are selected and analysed via different ... [more ▼]

The aim of this work is the analysis of an effect of concrete surface geometry on adhesion of repair systems. Several types of surface preparation techniques are selected and analysed via different systems: laser profilometry, mechanical profilometry, microscopy and "sand" patch test method. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of concrete surface treatment on adhesion in repair systems
Garbacz, A.; Gorka, M.; Courard, Luc ULg

in Magazine of Concrete Research (2005), 57(1), 49-60

Existing concrete surfaces need to be roughened to a profile necessary to achieve mechanical interlocking with any repair material. In this study, different surface treatments (e.g. grinding, sandblasting ... [more ▼]

Existing concrete surfaces need to be roughened to a profile necessary to achieve mechanical interlocking with any repair material. In this study, different surface treatments (e.g. grinding, sandblasting, shotblasting, hand- and mechanical milling) were performed and the quality of the preparation established on the basis of three main parameters: surface geometry, superficial concrete microcracking and adhesion. Surface geometry was characterised on the basis of the measurement of surface profile-profilometry-and the analysis of statistical and amplitude parameters calculated from the waviness (lower frequencies) and the roughness (higher frequencies) profiles of the surface. Investigations were also performed to assess the quality of the superficial zone of concrete and cracks were systematically observed in relation to surface treatment where both scanning electron microscopy and light microscopy were used for analysis. Finally, a repair mortar with or without bond coat, was applied to the concrete substrates in order to measure adhesion. Relationships clearly show the effect of roughness on adhesion in the case where no bond coat was used and also the influence of the power of the surface treatment on the waviness shape of the profile and the presence of microcracks in the near-surface layer related to failure type. [less ▲]

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See detailUtilisation des géosynthétiques en génie civil
Courard, Luc ULg; Rigo, Jean-Marie ULg

Learning material (2005)

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See detailUse of municipal solid waste incineration residues in concrete pavement setts
Courard, Luc ULg; Degeimbre, Robert ULg; Darimont, Anne ULg et al

in Proceedings of CONMAT'05 and Midness Symposium (2005)

Valorisation of Municipal Solid Waste Incineration Residues - excluding ashes - is a positive advance in sustainable development : saving natural resources, decrease of wastes volume stored, reduction of ... [more ▼]

Valorisation of Municipal Solid Waste Incineration Residues - excluding ashes - is a positive advance in sustainable development : saving natural resources, decrease of wastes volume stored, reduction of energy consumption. If good conditions of incineration can be ensured and post-combustion treatments are realised, solid residues are in the form of granular materials usable in construction and civil engineering. Application for the fabrication of concrete pavement has been developed. Mechanical and physical performances of municipal solid waste incineration residues let us to replace a part of the granular skeleton and to obtain similar behaviour than for reference granular composition : splitting resistance, water absorption and resistance to abrasion are optimised. Leaching behaviour is also verified in order to avoid detrimental effect on the environment. Example of application is presented in “sleeping policeman” technique and durability of the structure is explained. [less ▲]

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See detailOn the characterization of concrete surface roughness and its relation to adhesion in repair systems
Garbacz, Andrzej; Kostana, K.; Courard, Luc ULg

in Chaponski, J. (Ed.) Stereology and Image Analysis (2005)

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See detailSome effects of limestone fillers as a partial substitute for cement in mortar composition
Courard, Luc ULg; Degeimbre, Robert ULg; Darimont, Anne ULg et al

in Banthia, N. (Ed.) Third International Conference on construction materials: performance, innovations and structural implications (2005)

Limestone filler is a raw material that is already used in several applications like paints, bricks, bituminous mixes, … Moreover, and particularly in Belgium, classical additions like fly ashes and blast ... [more ▼]

Limestone filler is a raw material that is already used in several applications like paints, bricks, bituminous mixes, … Moreover, and particularly in Belgium, classical additions like fly ashes and blast furnace slags become rare. There is a need for new additions that could have a positive effect on the properties of the fresh and hardened cementitous composites. Substitution of limestone filler in Portland cement and blast furnace slag cement has been realized between 15 and 30% in mass. In addition to the characterization of the powder itself – specific mass, specific surface and laser granulometry – the problem of the water demand has been analysed: it seems that it remains constant with the substitution rate. Electric conductivity has also been performed in order to study the evolution of the “dormant” period. Tests on hardened mortars concerned the mechanical properties, the evolution of the porosity and the durability. The K factor indicates a higher value and the porosity seems to be better in the case of blast furnace slags cements, partially due to a very low diameter of the slags particles. Oxygen permeability doesn’t seem to be influenced by the filler while capillary absorption increases with substitution rate. Finally, chloride penetration, sulphate resistance and carbonation rate show quite interesting behaviours, leading to the conclusion that this material needs again more investigations in order to define optimum application conditions in cementitous matrixes [less ▲]

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See detailSurface quality of Self-Compacting Concrete and Raw Materials Properties
Dieryck, Vinciane; Desmyter, Jan; Michel, Frédéric ULg et al

in Shah, S. P. (Ed.) Self-Consolidating Concrete (2005)

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See detailUse of Concrete Recycled Aggregates in Roller Compacted Concrete
Delhez, Pierre; Willem, Xavier; Michel, Frédéric ULg et al

in Vasquez, E.; Hendricks, Ch F; Hansen, G. (Eds.) Recycled Materials in Building and Structures (2005)

Construction waste management is a quite important economical and environmental deal for our societies. More than 2 million tons are annually produced in Wallonia, South Region of Belgium, and numerous ... [more ▼]

Construction waste management is a quite important economical and environmental deal for our societies. More than 2 million tons are annually produced in Wallonia, South Region of Belgium, and numerous valorisations have been already promoted. Roller Compacted Concrete is a special dry concrete made of aggregates, water and low quantity of cement, laid down and compacted like a soil, for the construction of massive structures like dams or large horizontal surfaces like road foundations. The topic of this research is the replacement of natural aggregates by concrete recycled aggregates in the composition of the concrete. Characteristics of aggregates are of prime importance for the quality of the concrete: Los Angeles, water absorption and specific gravity are measured. Design method, type of hydraulic binder and proportions have to be adapted. Final and long term properties have also been evaluated. [less ▲]

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See detailAdaptation of the pull-off test for the evaluation of the superficial cohesion of concrete substrates in repair works: analysis of the test parameters
Courard, Luc ULg; Bissonnette, B.

in Materials and Structures (2004), 37(269), 342-350

Concrete repair works involve most of the time the removal of the damaged or contaminated surface layer. It is necessary to assess the effect of that operation (tool, procedure, etc) upon the integrity of ... [more ▼]

Concrete repair works involve most of the time the removal of the damaged or contaminated surface layer. It is necessary to assess the effect of that operation (tool, procedure, etc) upon the integrity of the residual concrete substrate, prior to the placement of the repair material, since it can affect significantly the adhesion of the repair system. This paper summarizes the findings of a study intended to develop a simple test method for that purpose. After a thorough review of the related scientific documentation, it has been decided to adapt the so-called pull-off test, which is commonly used to determine the bond strength of repair products. An experimental program has been conducted to evaluate the influence of various test parameters on the measured cohesion of a reference concrete surface: transfer plate thickness and diameter, core drilling depth, speed of loading, adhesive type and thickness, and number of tests. A multivaried statistical analysis of the test results clearly shows that the plate diameter and core depth are the most significant parameters, presumably with threshold values, and that there exists a synergetic effect between them. Also, a minimum number of tests can be defined based on the standard deviation and required level of confidence of the results. Overall, the test method shows good potential for a sound quantitative evaluation of a concrete surface mechanical integrity prior to repair, provided that the test parameters are selected properly. [less ▲]

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See detailPotential valorization for the finest particles of Automotive Shredder Residue (ASR) as filler in bituminous concrete
Bareel, Pierre-Francois; Courard, Luc ULg; Bastin, David ULg et al

in Proceedings of REWAS'04 - Global Symposium on Recycling, Waste Treatment and Clean Technology (2004)

Car manufacturers are faced with increasingly severe European regulations concerning End of Live Vehicles (ELV) recycling. Issues for the coarse fractions of Automotive Shredder Residue (ASR) are now ... [more ▼]

Car manufacturers are faced with increasingly severe European regulations concerning End of Live Vehicles (ELV) recycling. Issues for the coarse fractions of Automotive Shredder Residue (ASR) are now quite largely studied. However, the European objectives could only be achieved by considering the processing and valorization of the fine ASR fraction (< 2mm) which usually represents 5 to 10 wt.% of shredded ELV. A laboratory study was carried out on the fine ASR fraction. By combining granulometric, gravimetric and magnetic separations, four valorizable fractions were identified. This paper presents the valorization of the finest fraction (< 250 μm) as filler in bituminous concrete. Physical and chemical properties were first determined. Bituminous concrete samples were then prepared with different substitution levels of calcareous filler by fine ASR. Marshall tests (mechanical properties) and leaching tests were performed without compromising results. [less ▲]

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See detailEtude de la consolidation du béton frais sur base de la porosité à l'état durci
Willem; Darimont, Anne ULg; Degeimbre, Robert et al

in Courard, Luc (Ed.) Compte-rendu des Journées Scinetifiques du (RF)2B (2004)

La consolidation est le terme qui désigne la sédimentation des grains dans les suspensions très denses comme le béton. Le resserrement du squelette granulaire du béton frais entraîne une exsudation d’eau ... [more ▼]

La consolidation est le terme qui désigne la sédimentation des grains dans les suspensions très denses comme le béton. Le resserrement du squelette granulaire du béton frais entraîne une exsudation d’eau qui s’accumule à la surface de l’échantillon, formant la couche d’eau de ressuage. Cette migration de l’eau est à l’origine de nombreux défauts dans le béton qui mettent en péril sa durabilité. Le but de ce travail est de mettre en évidence l’existence d’une relation entre le ressuage et la porosité à l’état durci du béton. [less ▲]

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See detailConcrete surface treatments quantification by means of mechanical profilometry
Courard, Luc ULg; Garbacz, Andrzej; Gorka, M.

in Maultzsch, M. (Ed.) Proceedings of the 11th International Congress on Polymers in Concrete ICPIC 2004 (2004)

Existing concrete surfaces need to be roughened to a profile necessary to achieve mechanical interlock with repair material. Surface mechanical morphometry is based on the measurement of surface profile ... [more ▼]

Existing concrete surfaces need to be roughened to a profile necessary to achieve mechanical interlock with repair material. Surface mechanical morphometry is based on the measurement of surface profile - profilometry - which can be extended to 3D representation with surfometry by means of a stylus registering the profile. Profilometry and surfometry analysis were realized on concrete after different surface treatments (grinding, sandblasting, shotblasting, hand- and mechanical milling). The profile has been quantified by means of statistical and amplitude parameters calculated from the waviness (lower frequencies) and the roughness (higher frequencies) profiles of the surface. Bearing ratio and Abbott's curve observations are also very useful to characterise surface profiles. [less ▲]

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See detailA capillary action test for the investigation of adhesion in repair technology
Courard, Luc ULg; Degeimbre, Robert ULg

in Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering (2003), 30(6), 1101-1110

When repair material is laid down on a concrete substrate, the porosity of concrete allows it to penetrate the substrate, increasing the probability of physical interactions, and subsequently increasing ... [more ▼]

When repair material is laid down on a concrete substrate, the porosity of concrete allows it to penetrate the substrate, increasing the probability of physical interactions, and subsequently increasing adhesion. Water absorption by immersion or usual capillary action tests do not provide enough information to understand what happens when contact occurs between the concrete substrate and the cement slurries used as a bonding layer. An adaptation of the capillary action test is presented; this is based on a continuous measurement of mass change of the sample. Major differences according to the type of surface preparation are pointed out: absorption rates as well as mass changes are greater for polished concrete substrates than for sandblasted ones. Centrifuged solutions of cement slurries modified with plasticizers and superplasticizers are used for water replacement in the adapted capillary action test. Results clearly show the influence of these admixtures: the greater the adhesion tension, the greater the wetting of the concrete substrate. Determination of these thermodynamic characteristics and performance of an adapted capillary action test provide a better understanding of the mechanisms of interface creation and promotion of adhesion. [less ▲]

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See detailDurability of mortars modified with metakaolin
Courard, Luc ULg; Darimont, Anne ULg; Schouterden, M. et al

in Cement & Concrete Research (2003), 33(9), 1473-1479

Results of an investigation to determine the effects of metakaolin additions on transport properties of mortars are reported. Comparisons are made to ordinary Portland cement (OPC) to determine the ... [more ▼]

Results of an investigation to determine the effects of metakaolin additions on transport properties of mortars are reported. Comparisons are made to ordinary Portland cement (OPC) to determine the influence of addition and replacement percentage. Cement is replaced on a mass basis of 5-20% for metakaolin. A mixture with natural kaolin is also studied. The transport properties and chemical behaviors are analyzed by means of chloride diffusion tests and sulfate immersion. Obserdvations after more than 100 days are used to prescribe mixtures that reduce the rate of chloride diffusion and sulfate degradation. For metakaolin, the optimum seems to be between 10% and 15% with regard to inhibition effect on chloride diffusion and sulfate attack. (C) 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailSurface analysis of mineral substrates for repair works: roughness evaluation by profilometry and surfometry analysis
Courard, Luc ULg; Nélis, Marc

in Magazine of Concrete Research (2003), 55(4), 355-366

Existing concrete surfaces need to be roughened to a profile necessary to achieve mechanical interlock with repair material. Surface mechanical morphometry is based on the measurement of surface profile ... [more ▼]

Existing concrete surfaces need to be roughened to a profile necessary to achieve mechanical interlock with repair material. Surface mechanical morphometry is based on the measurement of surface profile - profilometry - which can be extended to 3D representation with surfometry by means of a stylus registering the profile. Profilometry and surfometry analysis enables the quantification of the profile by means of statistical and amplitude parameters lcalculated from the total profile of the surface (the waviness (lower frequencies) and roughness (higher frequencies) profiles). These parameters have been used to compare sandblasted and polished concrete surfaces. Arithmetic mean of the pro le and flatness coefficient are particularly discriminant. Bearing ratio and Abbott curve observations are also useful for clear and simple characterisation of surface profiles. Moreover, this investigation led to the calculation of the specific length of the profile and the Wenzel's coefficient. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of environment on Repair Materials: Results of a Five-Year Research Project
Courard, Luc ULg; Darimont, Anne ULg; Degeimbre, Robert ULg et al

in Sixth Canmet/ACI International Conference on Durability of Concrete (2003)

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