References of "Courard, Luc"
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See detailInfluence of granular fraction and origin of recycled concrete aggregates on their properties
Zhao, Zengfeng ULg; Courard, Luc ULg; Michel, Frédéric ULg et al

in European Journal of Environmental and Civil Engineering (2017)

Large quantities of construction and demolition wastes are produced each year. In order to make good use of recycled concrete aggregates (RCA) in concrete, it is very important to study the influence of ... [more ▼]

Large quantities of construction and demolition wastes are produced each year. In order to make good use of recycled concrete aggregates (RCA) in concrete, it is very important to study the influence of the granular fraction and the origin of RCA on their properties. In this study, RCA from industrial produced blocks (RCA_Blocks) and slabs (RCA_Slabs) were crushed and then separated into four granular fractions (0/2, 2/6.3, 6.3/14, 14/20 mm). Each granular fraction of RCA was physically characterised. Real RCA from recycling plant were also used for comparison. The results showed that recycled sands offered significantly higher cement paste content (higher bound water content) than coarse recycled aggregates. The fine RCA had therefore a higher water absorption coefficient compared to coarser fractions of RCA. The water absorption of finer fraction of RCA could be extrapolated precisely from the relationship between water absorption and cement paste content (or bound water content) of three coarse fractions of RCA. The values of hardened cement paste content obtained for the RCA_Blocks were lower than those measured on the RCA_Slabs, which was due to a smaller amount of initial cement paste content in blocks. The results showed that RCA_Slabs were more angular than RCA_Blocks. [less ▲]

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See detailDevelopment of Specifications and Performance Criteria for Surface Preparation Based on Issues Related to Bond Strength
Bissonnette, Benoît; Courard, Luc ULg; Garbacz, Andrzej et al

Report (2017)

In addition to the development of a satisfactory test procedure and recommendations to improve the overall quality of concrete repair works, the authors of this proposal intend to collaborate with various ... [more ▼]

In addition to the development of a satisfactory test procedure and recommendations to improve the overall quality of concrete repair works, the authors of this proposal intend to collaborate with various representatives from public agencies and from the industry to facilitate technological transfer. Presentations will be made in conferences and workshops in North America and Europe. At the end of the project, the results shall include two MSc theses and at least two papers in major journals, such as Concrete International or ACI Materials Journal. Also, the project should provide the basis towards a standard procedure for the evaluation of superficial cohesion of concrete, in relation with surface preparation and concrete removal techniques. Finally, recommendations and specifications could be incorporated in future versions of the ACI-ICRI Manual of Concrete Repairs as well as in DOT’s specifications. [less ▲]

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See detailAdhérence des réparations en béton: concepts, facteurs d'influence et évaluation
Bissonnette, Benoît; Courard, Luc ULg; Garbacz, Andrzej

Scientific conference (2017, February 20)

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See detailMesure de l'adhérence et principaux paramètres d'influence
Bissonnette, Benoît; Courard, Luc ULg; Garbacz, ANdrzej

Scientific conference (2017, February 20)

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See detailNotions de compatibilité relatives au développement de l'adhérence
Courard, Luc ULg; Garbacz, Andrzej; Bissonnette, Benoît

Scientific conference (2017, February 20)

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See detailSurface characterization methods for quality control of repair
Garbacz, Andrzej; Bissonnette, Benoît; Courard, Luc ULg

Scientific conference (2017, February 20)

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See detailThermal Conductivity of Straw Bales: Full Size Measurements Considering the Direction of the Heat Flow
Costes, Jean-Philippe; Evrard, Arnaud; Biot, Benjamin et al

in Buildings (2017), 7(11), 1-15

The thermal conductivity of straw bales is an intensively discussed topic in the international straw bale community. Straw bales are, by nature, highly heterogeneous and porous. They can have a relatively ... [more ▼]

The thermal conductivity of straw bales is an intensively discussed topic in the international straw bale community. Straw bales are, by nature, highly heterogeneous and porous. They can have a relatively large range of density and the baling process can influence the way the fibres are organised within the bale. In addition, straw bales have a larger thickness than most of the insulating materials that can be found in the building industry. Measurement apparatus is usually not designed for such thicknesses, and most of the thermal conductivity values that can be found in the literature are defined based on samples in which the straw bales are resized. During this operation, the orientation of the fibres and the density may not be preserved. This paper starts with a literature review of straw bale thermal conductivity measurements and presents a measuring campaign performed with a specific Guarded Hot Plate, designed to measure samples up to 50 cm thick. The influence of the density is discussed thoroughly. Representative values are proposed for a large range of straw bales to support straw-bale development in the building industry. [less ▲]

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See detailOn the evaluation of interface quality in concrete repair system by means of impact-echo signal analysis
Garbacz, Andrzej; Piotrowski, Tomacz; Courard, Luc ULg et al

in Construction and Building Materials (2017), 134

According to Concrete Repair Manual as well as ACI 562-16 and European EN 1504-10 standards, a bond strength as a measure of adhesion is one the main feature of repair system necessary to be assessed. The ... [more ▼]

According to Concrete Repair Manual as well as ACI 562-16 and European EN 1504-10 standards, a bond strength as a measure of adhesion is one the main feature of repair system necessary to be assessed. The most common laboratory and engineering method for bond strength evaluation is pull-off test. This is however a semi-destructive method that needs a repair in a place of measurement. Recently, the great interest in nondestructive techniques (NDT) development is noted. Impact-Echo (IE) is considered as one of the most promising methods for this purpose. In this paper, the study on the usability the IE test based on frequency spectrum analysis for bond strength evaluation is analyzed. Both Finite Element Method (FEM) simulation and experimental tests were performed in order to obtain potential relations between IE frequency spectrum and parameters characterizing concrete substrate quality that may affect the final bond strength and the real value of pull-off bond strength measured on samples as well. It was concluded that the IE method can be a useful tool for interface quality and bond strength evaluations in concrete repair system. However, more complex signal analysis, e.g. wavelet analysis, should be considered in the future. [less ▲]

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See detailWhy and how to repair concrete? Compatibility assessment
Courard, Luc ULg

Scientific conference (2016, December 06)

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See detailEvaluation du cursus  Sciences industrielles et de l’ingénieur industriel
Courard, Luc ULg

Conference given outside the academic context (2016)

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See detailMEASUREMENT OF MOISTURE DIFFUSIVITY BY INVESTIGATION OF SORPTION ISOTHERM AND MODELING MOISTURE TRANSFER OF MORTAR SUBMITED TO CONVECTIVE DRYING
Kahlerras, Loubna ULg; BELHAMRI, Azeddine; Fraikin, Laurent ULg et al

in Proceedings of The 20th International Drying Symposium (IDS 2016) (2016, August 08)

This work reports the results of experimental study concerning convective drying of cement mortar and the influence of water-to cement ratios (W/C) used for the preparation of mortar, on moisture changes ... [more ▼]

This work reports the results of experimental study concerning convective drying of cement mortar and the influence of water-to cement ratios (W/C) used for the preparation of mortar, on moisture changes. The first experimental campaign was a convective dryer; in the purpose to obtain the drying curves of mortar and the influence of water to cement ratios (W/C) on drying kinetics. A second experimental campaign aims to characterize from textural and hydric point of view, the materials, by mean of DVS (dynamic vapor sorption) In order to obtain sorption cycles and identify the moisture diffusivity coefficient of mortar. The pore size distribution is obtained from sorption cycles and completed by MIP. The contribution of each components of the microstructure to the diffusion is studied. Finally X-ray microtomography is used to measuring the moisture content in the internal structure of mortars during drying. [less ▲]

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See detailRéparation des bétons: principes, matériaux et techniques
Courard, Luc ULg

Scientific conference (2016, April 26)

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See detailEpuisement des ressources et construction durable
Courard, Luc ULg

Scientific conference (2016, April 15)

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See detailA quantitative approach to the concept of concrete repair compatibility
Bissonnette, Benoît; Modjabi-Sangnier, François; Courard, Luc ULg et al

in Dehn, Frank; Beushausen, Hans (Eds.) Concrete Repair, Rehabilitation and Retrofitting IV (2016)

The work reported in this paper is part of a wider research program intended to provide the repair industry with improved fundamental knowledge to implement rational design methods and rules for repairs ... [more ▼]

The work reported in this paper is part of a wider research program intended to provide the repair industry with improved fundamental knowledge to implement rational design methods and rules for repairs. In that regard, there is a strong need to study the fundamental relationships and parameters that underlie the repair compatibility concepts, in particular those relating to dimensional compatibility. In the first part of the paper, classical formulas derived for thick cylindrical specimens were used to analyze the tensile stress buildup in annular restrained shrinkage test specimens, taking into account the restraining conditions the investigated ring test method and the individual concrete properties/phenomena determined experimentally (elastic modulus, creep coefficient, drying shrinkage deformation). By comparing the ring test results with the calculated tensile stresses, the validity and accuracy of the theoretical approach could be appraised. A quantitative approach for the evaluation of the performance of concrete repair in terms of dimensional compatibility was then developed. Derived from the basic strain balance approach (ratio between the total deformability in tension and the drying shrinkage deformation), a parameter referred to as dimensional compatibility index (CI) was introduced in order to analyze the evolution of dimensional compatibility as a function of time for a given concrete mixture, taking into account the actual degree of restraint in the element. Compatibility index evolution curves were calculated for various repair concrete mixtures in order to highlight material behavior relating to composition parameters and temperature. As it requires the evaluation of a limited number of individual properties that are for most readily available (i.e. strength, elastic modulus, shrinkage), the compatibility index expressed in terms of deformation carries a lot of potential as a relatively simple and convenient analytical tool for assessing the cracking sensitivity of concrete repair materials. Overall, it can be stated that a good correlation was found between the ring test results and the tensile stress values calculated based on individual concrete properties / phenomena and that the proposed calculation method lays ground for evaluating quantitatively the dimensional compatibility of repair materials and defining suitable performance criteria. [less ▲]

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See detailFundamental approach for the concept of concrete repair compatibility
Courard, Luc ULg; Bissonnette, Benoît; Garbacz, Andrzej

in Dehn, Frank (Ed.) Concrete Repair, Rehabilitation and Retrofitting IV (2016)

Before being translated in terms of physical, mechanical and chemical of materials, the initial step for evaluating compatibility is interface creation. The thermodynamic properties of the materials as ... [more ▼]

Before being translated in terms of physical, mechanical and chemical of materials, the initial step for evaluating compatibility is interface creation. The thermodynamic properties of the materials as well as transport mechanisms – diffusion, capillary succion – at the interface and roughness of the concrete substrate are acting from the beginning and influencing the durability of the bond strength. A review of the main parameters influencing bond development is presented on the base of the equilibrium of the surface free ener-gies of liquid and solid, applied to the concept of repair mortars, coating and hydrophobic treatments [less ▲]

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See detailA repair quality control with elastic waves based methods vs. substrate quality
Garbacz, Andrzej; Piotrowski, Tomasz; Courard, Luc ULg et al

in Dehn; Beushausen, Hans (Eds.) Concrete Repair, Rehabilitation and Retrofitting IV (2016)

An adhesion in repair system is one of the most important factors that affect the repair efficiency. The elaboration of reliable nondestructive method for an adhesion mapping is one of the most important ... [more ▼]

An adhesion in repair system is one of the most important factors that affect the repair efficiency. The elaboration of reliable nondestructive method for an adhesion mapping is one of the most important tasks. A majority of NDT methods mentioned in EN 1504-10 and ACI Concrete Repair Manual for assessment of concrete structures are based on propagation of stress waves. However, these investigations are rarely focused on evaluation of bond strength. Repair system is difficult to test with NDT methods because of many factors influencing stress wave propagation. In this paper the effect of a quality of concrete substrate on propagation of stress waves in repair system and their influence on possibility of estimation of the bond strength is discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailLa paille parois performantes - Vademecum 2
de Herde, André; Evrard, Arnaud; Rouche, Sylvie et al

Book published by UCL (2016)

En novembre 2011, un consortium rassemblant l’Université catholique de Louvain (Architecture et Climat), l’Université de Liège (GeMMe et UMC), l’Institut de Conseil et d’Études en Développement Durable ... [more ▼]

En novembre 2011, un consortium rassemblant l’Université catholique de Louvain (Architecture et Climat), l’Université de Liège (GeMMe et UMC), l’Institut de Conseil et d’Études en Développement Durable (ICEDD) et la jeune entreprise Paille-Tech est formé autour du projet de recherche « aPROpaille » » financé par la DGO4 (Direction générale opérationnelle de l’Aménagement du territoire, du Logement, du Patrimoine et de l’Énergie) dans le cadre du programme ERable, organisé par le Service Public de Wallonie (DGO4 et DGO6, Direction Générale Opérationnelle de l’Économie, de l’Emploi et de la Recherche). Ce projet très complet a permis de déterminer les caractéristiques et performances des matériaux « terre » et « paille », de réaliser des simulations de comportement hygrothermique des parois en paille, de les comparer à des monitorings de bâtiments existants en paille, de réaliser une analyse de cycle de vie (ACV) de ce type de paroi… Outre la réalisation d’une plateforme Internet (www.apropaille.be) sur la filière belge, les principaux résultats de cette recherche ont été rassemblés fin 2015 dans trois vadémécums à destination d’un public large et varié. Ces vadémécums, dont le présent document en est la deuxième partie, ont pour but d’offrir à tout un chacun une information rigoureuse, claire et compréhensible, des avancées récentes de ce domaine pour favoriser le développement de la filière de la paille utilisée comme matériau isolant dans la construction. Afin de permettre aux acteurs du monde de la construction de s’approprier les connaissances relatives à ce matériau, ce vadémécum s’intéressera aux parois que les ballots de paille permettent de réaliser et à leurs performances. C’est le vadémécum le plus technique. Il commence par l’analyse microscopique des brins de paille pour ensuite décrire l’ensemble de propriétés hygrothermiques des ballots et des enduits en terre qui leur sont souvent associés. Une attention particulière est donnée à l’analyse de la conductivité thermique des ballots de paille. Un troisième chapitre analyse le comportement hygrothermique dynamique de différentes parois en paille et identifier les points clefs de leur performances en terme d’isolation, d’inertie thermique, de régulation de l’humidité et de leur validité à longs termes. Le quatrième chapitre aborde ces thématiques, mais du point de vue du confort des occupants, de l’évolution de l’ambiance intérieure et des consommations d’énergie. Le cinquième chapitre détaille l’analyse du résultat des trois monitorings effectués dans le cadre de la recherche. Le sixième chapitre présente un ensemble de noeuds constructifs et donne la valeur à utiliser pour le calcul des ponts thermiques. Le septième chapitre présente l’analyse du cycle de vie réalisée dans le cadre de la recherche en identifiant l’influence de différents scénarios. Le dernier chapitre fait une brève analyse économique de différents systèmes constructifs. [less ▲]

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See detailLa paille matière première - Vadémécum 1
de herde, André; Evrard, Arnaud; Rouche, Sylvie et al

Book published by UCL (2016)

En novembre 2011, un consortium rassemblant l’Université catholique de Louvain (Architecture et Climat), l’Université de Liège (GeMMe et UMC), l’Institut de Conseil et d’Études en Développement Durable ... [more ▼]

En novembre 2011, un consortium rassemblant l’Université catholique de Louvain (Architecture et Climat), l’Université de Liège (GeMMe et UMC), l’Institut de Conseil et d’Études en Développement Durable (ICEDD) et la jeune entreprise Paille-Tech est formé autour du projet de recherche « aPROpaille » » financé par la DGO4 (Direction générale opérationnelle de l’Aménagement du territoire, du Logement, du Patrimoine et de l’Énergie) dans le cadre du programme ERable, organisé par le Service Public de Wallonie (DGO4 et DGO6, Direction Générale Opérationnelle de l’Économie, de l’Emploi et de la Recherche). Ce projet très complet a permis de déterminer les caractéristiques et performances des matériaux « terre » et « paille », de réaliser des simulations de comportement hygrothermique des parois en paille, de les comparer à des monitorings de bâtiments existants en paille, de réaliser une analyse de cycle de vie (ACV) de ce type de paroi… Outre la réalisation d’une plateforme Internet (www.apropaille.be) sur la filière belge, les principaux résultats de cette recherche ont été rassemblés fin 2015 dans trois vadémécums à destination d’un large et varié. Ces vadémécums, dont le présent document en est la première partie, ont pour but d’offrir à tout un chacun une information rigoureuse, claire et compréhensible, des avancées récentes de ce domaine pour favoriser le développement de la filière de la paille utilisée comme matériau isolant dans la construction. Afin de permettre aux acteurs du monde de la construction de s’approprier les connaissances relatives à ce matériau, ce vadémécum s’intéressera au ballot de paille en tant que matière première. D’où vient le ballot de paille ? Comment est-il produit ? Quelles sont les dimensions disponibles ? Comment identifier la céréale à la base du ballot de paille ? Comment obtenir un ballot de qualité pour la construction ? La paille est-elle une ressource inépuisable ? ... A la lecture de ces quelques pages, le lecteur sera invité à découvrir le ballot de paille en tant que produit agricole avant qu’il ne devienne un matériau de construction. [less ▲]

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See detailDevelopment and use of foamed recycled fibers to control shrinkage cracking of cementitious mortars
Coppola, Bartolomeo ULg; Di Maio, Luciano; Courard, Luc ULg et al

in Proceedings of the 4rd Workshop "The New Boundaries of Structural Concrete" (2016)

In this study a new class of engineered fibers were produced using end of waste materials obtained from post-consumer plastics. Taking into account the rising issue of plastic waste disposal and the ... [more ▼]

In this study a new class of engineered fibers were produced using end of waste materials obtained from post-consumer plastics. Taking into account the rising issue of plastic waste disposal and the importance of fiber/matrix adhesion for composites materials, recycled plastic fibers with improved adhesion were developed. In particular, foamed fibers presenting a rough surface and a porous morphology were obtained by a foam extrusion process using a chemical blowing agent. Fiber reinforced mortars (FRMs) were produced containing foamed fibers at three volume fractions (0.50, 1 and 2 %) and two lengths (15 and 30 mm). FRM plastic shrinkage cracking resistance was investigated: the better adhesion of foamed fibers influenced cracks propagation, reducing crack area and delaying crack openings during shrinkage. Moreover, shorter fibers are better efficient in controlling cracks length while longer fibers are able to reduce cracks width and number. [less ▲]

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See detailDetermining the reactivity of concrete aggregates for Nuclear Power Plant concrete structures
Jackiewicz-Rek, Wioletta; Piotrowski, Tomasz; Courard, Luc ULg et al

in Budowa Elektowni Jadrowych (2016), 529(9), 99-102

The authors describe the additional requirements to ensure durability of concrete related to probability of corrosion due to alkali-silica reactivity of aggregates based on French Rules for Design and ... [more ▼]

The authors describe the additional requirements to ensure durability of concrete related to probability of corrosion due to alkali-silica reactivity of aggregates based on French Rules for Design and Construction of PWR nuclear civil works RCC-CW. Since these requirements are based both on European standards and the French experience they are not fully compatible with the conditions and requirements in other countries, including Poland. In the paper the RILEM methodology and assessment according to American ASTM standards are presented as well. The article is an introduction to the discussion on adapting to Polish conditions the guidelines for the reactivity assessment of aggregate for concrete resulting from RCC-CW. [less ▲]

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