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See detailSpatial Analysis of GNSS Measurements from an Equatorial Ionospheric Scintillation Monitoring Receiver (ISMR) Network
Lonchay, Matthieu ULg; Wautelet, Gilles ULg; Cornet, Yves ULg et al

Conference (2014, November 19)

The ionosphere has always been a major limitation for GNSS positioning applications. Free electrons in the ionosphere perturb the propagation of GNSS radio signals involving both refraction and ... [more ▼]

The ionosphere has always been a major limitation for GNSS positioning applications. Free electrons in the ionosphere perturb the propagation of GNSS radio signals involving both refraction and diffraction effects. In particular, small-scale ionospheric irregularities generated by different physical processes may cause scattering effects on GNSS signals, producing rapid fluctuations of the signal phase and amplitude as a result. Such scintillations of GNSS signals are responsible for critical consequences regarding applications, such as precise positioning, due to many resulting effects: cycle slips, signal power fading, receiver loss of lock and poor resulting satellite geometry. Ionospheric Scintillation Monitoring Receivers collect high-rate GNSS data. Specific scintillation parameters, such as the well-known S4 and Phi60 indices, are built on high-rate measurements performed on GNSS signals and provide additional information to characterize the intensity of such an event occurring at a specific geographic location at a given time. Spatial Statistics belong to the field of Spatial Analysis, Geography and GIS (Geographic Information System). This discipline allows to perform analyses of data which are localised in space. Ionospheric Scintillation observations achieved by ISMR stations can be characterized by a set of attributes (S4, Phi60, Rate of TEC, etc.) including also the geographic location of their respective Ionospheric Pierce Point (IPP). By combining the simultaneous Multi-GNSS ISMR measurements from a network of ISMR stations, we can obtain a spatially denser data set, able to support spatial statistics tests. The idea of our research is to provide a spatio-temporal analysis of ionospheric scintillation events over Equatorial regions by applying spatial statistics on ISMR Multi-GNSS measurements. In particular, by using spatial statistics, we aim to resolve specific issues regarding ionospheric scintillation data from an ISMR network established in Brazil. The research consists in spatially describing the data set, detecting and measuring potential spatial autocorrelation, determining the scale of the spatial dependency and finally producing an interpolated scintillation sky map at a given time. In terms of applicability of the methodology, our research project consists in exploiting the spatio-temporal analysis performed on ionospheric scintillation data in order to improve the performances and the reliability of Absolute GNSS Positioning algorithms under moderate ionospheric scintillation conditions. By assessing correlations existing between specific ISMR data and classic GNSS observations, the method could be extended to a more general usage which would be independent of ISMR measurements. [less ▲]

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See detailMICROPHYSIQUE DES NUAGES ET RAYONNEMENT SOLAIRE : COMPARAISON DES MESURES IN SITU AU MONT RIGI EN HAUTE BELGIQUE ET DES DONNÉES CLOUD PHYSICAL PROPERTIES (CPP) OBTENUES À PARTIR DES IMAGES METEOSAT-9
Beaumet, Julien ULg; Clerbaux, Nicolas; Cornet, Yves ULg et al

in Camberlin, Pierre; Richard, Yves (Eds.) Actes du XXVIIe Colloque de l'Association Internationale de Climatologie : CLIMAT : SYSTÈME & INTERACTIONS (2014, July 02)

Le rayonnement solaire global mesuré au mont Rigi a été comparé à l'épaisseur optique des nuages (COT) estimée à l'aide des données SEVIRI. Une relation logarithmique avec un coefficient de détermination ... [more ▼]

Le rayonnement solaire global mesuré au mont Rigi a été comparé à l'épaisseur optique des nuages (COT) estimée à l'aide des données SEVIRI. Une relation logarithmique avec un coefficient de détermination d'environ 0,5 a été trouvée. Ce résultat plutôt faible peut en grande partie s'expliquer par un nombre limité de cas où subsistent des erreurs de positionnement ou par des interactions plus complexes entre nébulosité et rayonnement. De plus, l'incertitude sur l'estimation de l'épaisseur optique des nuages à l'aide des données SEVIRI pour les nuages optiquement plus épais n'est pas négligeable. [less ▲]

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See detailSpatio-Temporal Analysis of Equatorial Ionospheric Scintillations in the Frame of Absolute GNSS Positioning Algorithms
Lonchay, Matthieu ULg; Cornet, Yves ULg; Aquino, Marcio et al

Conference (2014, April 30)

The ionosphere has always been a major limitation for GNSS positioning applications. Free electrons in the ionosphere perturb the propagation of GNSS radio signals involving both refraction and ... [more ▼]

The ionosphere has always been a major limitation for GNSS positioning applications. Free electrons in the ionosphere perturb the propagation of GNSS radio signals involving both refraction and diffraction effects. The ionospheric refraction mainly results in a modification of the propagation speed of the GNSS electromagnetic signals, inducing an error (propagation delay or phase advance depending on the observable) in GNSS measurements. In the frame of absolute positioning techniques, single-frequency algorithms usually exploit an ionospheric model to mitigate the ionospheric error while dual-frequency algorithms, such as the well-known Precise Point Positioning (PPP), take the benefit of the availability of two frequencies and the fact that the ionosphere is a dispersive medium to construct an ionosphere-free mathematical model. But these two strategies are not able to counteract the effect of the ionospheric diffraction which is due to small-scale irregularities in the free electron density. By scattering GNSS signals, these irregularities generate rapid fluctuations (scintillations) in the amplitude and phase of GNSS signals with critical consequences for GNSS applications: cycle slips, signal power fading, receiver loss of lock and poor resulting satellite geometry. The goal of our research is to develop a strategy to mitigate the effect of ionospheric scintillations on absolute GNSS positioning techniques, in particular the SPP (Standard Point Positioning) and the PPP (Precise Point Positioning). The strategy is based on the adjustment of the stochastic model. In order to construct the stochastic model (diagonal and non-diagonal elements) and study the correlation between observables, we adopted a “spatial” and an “empirical” approach. The spatial approach consists in a study of the spatial autocorrelation existing in scintillations effects on GNSS signals. The spatial autocorrelation is detected by using specific spatial analysis techniques applied on data from a network of ISMR (Ionospheric Scintillation Monitoring Receiver) stations located at equatorial and polar latitudes, where scintillations effects are most severe. The knowledge of how scintillation effects are spatially correlated is helpful for determining a coherent stochastic model. The empirical approach does not take into account the phenomenon spatiality and the locations of the measurements but only the observation data. Its objective is to determine the statistical correlation which exists between GNSS measurements during a scintillation event by using a moving filter applied on GNSS observation and scintillation data. The spatial approach exploits data and data locations while the empirical approach is based only the data itself. [less ▲]

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See detailSpatio-Temporal Analysis of Equatorial Ionospheric Scintillations in the Frame of Absolute GNSS Positioning Algorithms
Lonchay, Matthieu ULg; Cornet, Yves ULg; Aquino, Marcio et al

Poster (2014, April 23)

The ionosphere has always been a major limitation for GNSS positioning applications. Free electrons in the ionosphere perturb the propagation of GNSS radio signals involving both refraction and ... [more ▼]

The ionosphere has always been a major limitation for GNSS positioning applications. Free electrons in the ionosphere perturb the propagation of GNSS radio signals involving both refraction and diffraction effects. The ionospheric refraction mainly results in a modification of the propagation speed of the GNSS electromagnetic signals, inducing an error (propagation delay or phase advance depending on the observable) in GNSS measurements. In the frame of absolute positioning techniques, single-frequency algorithms usually exploit an ionospheric model to mitigate the ionospheric error while dual-frequency algorithms, such as the well-known Precise Point Positioning (PPP), take the benefit of the availability of two frequencies and the fact that the ionosphere is a dispersive medium to construct an ionosphere-free mathematical model. But these two strategies are not able to counteract the effect of the ionospheric diffraction which is due to small-scale irregularities in the free electron density. By scattering GNSS signals, these irregularities generate rapid fluctuations (scintillations) in the amplitude and phase of GNSS signals with critical consequences for GNSS applications: cycle slips, signal power fading, receiver loss of lock and poor resulting satellite geometry. The goal of our research is to develop a strategy to mitigate the effect of ionospheric scintillations on absolute GNSS positioning techniques, in particular the SPP (Standard Point Positioning) and the PPP (Precise Point Positioning). The strategy is based on the adjustment of the stochastic model. In order to construct the stochastic model (diagonal and non-diagonal elements) and study the correlation between observables, we adopted a “spatial” and an “empirical” approach. The spatial approach consists in a study of the spatial autocorrelation existing in scintillations effects on GNSS signals. The spatial autocorrelation is detected by using specific spatial analysis techniques applied on data from a network of ISMR (Ionospheric Scintillation Monitoring Receiver) stations located at equatorial and polar latitudes, where scintillations effects are most severe. The knowledge of how scintillation effects are spatially correlated is helpful for determining a coherent stochastic model. The empirical approach does not take into account the phenomenon spatiality and the locations of the measurements but only the observation data. Its objective is to determine the statistical correlation which exists between GNSS measurements during a scintillation event by using a moving filter applied on GNSS observation and scintillation data. The spatial approach exploits data and data locations while the empirical approach is based only the data itself. [less ▲]

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See detailAUTOMATISATION DE LA DÉTECTION DES CRATÈRES LUNAIRES SUR DES IMAGES ET MNT PLANÉTAIRES
Renson, Pierre; Poncelet, Nadia; Vandeloise, Yannick et al

in Bulletin de la Société Géographique de Liège (2014), 61

This research is part of the preparation of a lunar mission. Its objective is to implement, test and validate an automated method that detects craters on the lunar surface from planetary products (images ... [more ▼]

This research is part of the preparation of a lunar mission. Its objective is to implement, test and validate an automated method that detects craters on the lunar surface from planetary products (images and DTM). In this context, the automation of the process is essential because the craters represent a landing risk and landmarks for visual navigation. It is also the key challenge because it is difficult to develop high level automatic processing comparable to the thinking carried out in a traditional visual interpretation. Our method automatically establishes a semantic diagnosis based on the combination of crater descriptors computed on the planetary products used. Finally, this application is part of a decision support tool and an assessment system of landing and mission survival risks. It also aims to feed a landmarks database for automatic visual navigation of a lunar landing spacecraft. [less ▲]

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See detailMethodology used for the European badger (Meles meles) monitoring in Wallonie
Schockert, Vincianne ULg; Lambinet, Clotilde ULg; Cornet, Yves ULg et al

in Lecocq, Yves (Ed.) Abstracts of 31st IUGB congress (2013, August)

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See detailMonitoring the evolution of irrigated areas with Landsat images using backward and forward change detection analysis in the Kou watershed
Traore, Farid ULg; Cornet, Yves ULg; Denis, Antoine ULg et al

in Geocarto International (2013)

The Kou watershed is characterized by important water resources used for drinking, agriculture (especially in the important irrigated areas), industry and the preservation of aquatic fauna and flora. For ... [more ▼]

The Kou watershed is characterized by important water resources used for drinking, agriculture (especially in the important irrigated areas), industry and the preservation of aquatic fauna and flora. For several decades there has been increasing pressure on the Kou’s water resources, partly because of the expansion of the irrigated agricultural areas. This study was conducted to examine this issue, focusing on one specific irrigated area. In order to monitor the expansion of irrigated areas in developing countries, a low-cost remote sensing method based on Landsat images and aerial photographs was developed. The method is based on maximum-likelihood classifications, followed by backward and forward change detection analysis requiring agronomic expertise. Using pixel trajectory analysis, the method connects all pixels to their consecutive states in order to correct their current states. The study showed that the irrigated area has expanded by almost 80% over 20 years, with most of this expansion occurring in the past 10 years. The approach, if validated, could be used to obtain information on past occupation in the rural irrigated areas for which there is no archived data. [less ▲]

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See detailSimilar local and landscape processes affect both a common and a rare newt species
Denoël, Mathieu ULg; Perez, Amélie; Cornet, Yves ULg et al

in PLoS ONE (2013), 8(5), 62727

Although rare species are often the focus of conservation measures, more common species may experience similar decline and suffer from the same threatening processes. We tested this hypothesis by ... [more ▼]

Although rare species are often the focus of conservation measures, more common species may experience similar decline and suffer from the same threatening processes. We tested this hypothesis by examining, through an information-theoretic approach, the importance of ecological processes at multiple scales in the great crested newt Triturus cristatus, regionally endangered and protected in Europe, and the more common smooth newt, Lissotriton vulgaris. Both species were similarly affected by the same processes, i.e. suitability of aquatic and terrestrial components of their habitat at different scales, connectivity among breeding sites, and the presence of introduced fish. T. cristatus depended more on water depth and aquatic vegetation than L. vulgaris. The results show that environmental pressures threaten both common and rare species, and therefore the more widespread species should not be neglected in conservation programs. Because environmental trends are leading to a deterioration of aquatic and terrestrial habitat features required by newt populations, populations of the common species may follow the fate of the rarest species. This could have substantial conservation implications because of the numerical importance of common species in ecosystems and because commonness could be a transient state moving towards rarity. On the other hand, in agreement with the umbrella species concept, targeting conservation efforts on the most demanding species would also protect part of the populations of the most common species. [less ▲]

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See detailAssessing urbanisation effects on rainfall-runoff using a remote sensing supported modelling strategy
Verbeiren, Boud; Van de Voorde, Tim; Canters, Frank et al

in International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation (2013), 21

This paper aims at developing a methodology for assessing urban dynamics in urban catchments and the related impact on hydrology. Using a multi-temporal remote sensing supported hydrological modelling ... [more ▼]

This paper aims at developing a methodology for assessing urban dynamics in urban catchments and the related impact on hydrology. Using a multi-temporal remote sensing supported hydrological modelling approach an improved simulation of runoff for urban areas is targeted. A time-series of five medium resolution urban masks and corresponding sub-pixel sealed surface proportions maps was generated from Landsat and SPOT imagery. The consistency of the urban mask and sealed surface proportion timeseries was imposed through an urban change trajectory analysis. The physically based rainfall-runoff model WetSpa was successfully adapted for integration of remote sensing derived information of detailed urban land use and sealed surface characteristics. A first scenario compares the original land-use class based approach for hydrological parameterisation with a remote sensing sub-pixel based approach. A second scenario assesses the impact of urban growth on hydrology. Study area is the Tolka River basin in Dublin, Ireland. The grid-based approach of WetSpa enables an optimal use of the spatially distributed properties of remote sensing derived input. Though change trajectory analysis remains little used in urban studies it is shown to be of utmost importance in case of time series analysis. The analysis enabled to assign a rational trajectory to 99% of all pixels. The study showed that consistent remote sensing derived land-use maps are preferred over alternative sources (such as CORINE) to avoid over-estimation errors, interpretation inconsistencies and assure enough spatial detail for urban studies. Scenario 1 reveals that both the class and remote sensing sub-pixel based approaches are able to simulate discharges at the catchment outlet in an equally satisfactory way, but the sub-pixel approach yields considerably higher peak discharges. The result confirms the importance of detailed information on the sealed surface proportion for hydrological simulations in urbanised catchments. In addition a major advantage with respect to hydrological parameterisation using remote sensing is the fact that it is site- and period-specific. Regarding the assessment of the impact of urbanisation (scenario 2) the hydrological simulations revealed that the steady urban growth in the Tolka basin between 1988 and 2006 had a considerable impact on peak discharges. Additionally, the hydrological response is quicker as a result of urbanisation. Spatially distributed surface runoff maps identify the zones with high runoff production. It is evident that this type of information is important for urban water management and decision makers. The results of the remote sensing supported modelling approach do not only indicate increased volumes due to urbanisation, but also identifies the locations where the most relevant impacts took place. [less ▲]

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See detailMapping error due to image geometric correction.
Hallot, Eric ULg; Cornet, Yves ULg; Hallot, Pierre ULg

Poster (2012, April)

Nowadays, image processing and GIS tools are more accessible and available to all. Most of diachronical or historical studies use the image geometric correction with several documents like old maps, plans ... [more ▼]

Nowadays, image processing and GIS tools are more accessible and available to all. Most of diachronical or historical studies use the image geometric correction with several documents like old maps, plans or aerial photographs. They are usually based on low-order polynomial equation to perfom these kinds of simplistic uses. Most of commercial softwares provide us a total or by ground control points RMSE but they don’t offer a overview of the spatial error distribution. More this does not guarantee that its significance for the other points of the image. Do not consider these errors can lead to erroneous observations and misinterpretations like historical moving streams or bank erosion rate. Using a least square adjustment (LSA), allow to recalculate the transformation equation from the pairs of control points coordinates. Assuming that residuals are spatially auto-correlated, we can build error vectors whose direction and magnitude symbolize the error at each point of the image. By another way, LSA manage the precision during transformation process by using a stochastic model in addition of the mathematical model during the transformation. This gives us variance on parameters of the transformation. Knowing the precision of all elements and variance/covariance matrix on transformation parameters, we apply variance propagation on the model. As an output, we obtain confidence ellipses on each transformed points, thus a spatial distribution of error for the entire image. Moreover, this leads us to determine statistically if observed movement are significant or not. The represent error is a complex problem that cannot be solved with a quick fix. In this work, we present an interesting example of using well-known topographic methods to solve image processing problems. [less ▲]

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See detailPredicting the spatial distribution of population based on impervious surface maps and modeled land use change
Cornet, Yves ULg; Binard, Marc ULg; Ledant, Martin et al

in Perakis, Konstantinos G.; Moysiadis, Athanasios K. (Eds.) European Association of Remote Sensing Laboratories 32nd EARSeL Symposium Proceedings Advances in Geosciences Mykonos Island, Greece, 21 May - 24 May 2012 (2012)

Land use and changes in the spatial distribution of population are spatially and temporally linked and have an obvious impact on the urban environment. For instance, they influence the mobility and ... [more ▼]

Land use and changes in the spatial distribution of population are spatially and temporally linked and have an obvious impact on the urban environment. For instance, they influence the mobility and accessibility and play an important role in waste water management. This forecasting of the spatial distribution of population is thus a critical issue in planning. In order to allow this forecasting we have adjusted a multiple regression model to estimate the population distribution in function of land-use. The originality in our modeling strategy is the use of sealed surface proportion maps as weighting factor assuming that sealed surface proportion is a proxy of population density. The data exploited to adjust the parameters of the model are three time-series of landuse maps from the EU-MOLAND, census data and medium and high resolution remotely sensed images. We made use of these images in a spectral unmixing procedure that provides the sealed surface proportion maps. In the model, the population was normalized in order to get a model that is independent of time and space. This is required for prediction and spatial extrapolation which assumes a temporally and spatially stable relationship between land use, imperviousness and population density. We validated the model by means of a population disaggregation/re-aggregation procedures and tested its robustness regarding the resolution because predicted sealed surface proportion and predicted landuse maps using the calibrated EU-MOLAND model are generated at lower resolution (200 m) than the resolution used in the model adjustment. The results described in this paper regard the urban zone of Dublin. [less ▲]

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See detailLANDSAFE: LANDING SITE RISK ANALYSIS SOFTWARE FRAMEWORK
Schmidt, Ralph; Bostelmann, Jonas; Cornet, Yves ULg et al

in International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences (2012), XXXIX(B4), 505-510

The European Space Agency (ESA) is planning a Lunar Lander mission in the 2018 timeframe that will demonstrate precise soft landing at the polar regions of the Moon. To ensure a safe and successful ... [more ▼]

The European Space Agency (ESA) is planning a Lunar Lander mission in the 2018 timeframe that will demonstrate precise soft landing at the polar regions of the Moon. To ensure a safe and successful landing a careful risk analysis has to be carried out. This is comprised of identifying favorable target areas and evaluating the surface conditions in these areas. Features like craters, boulders, steep slopes, rough surfaces and shadow areas have to be identified in order to assess the risk associated to a landing site in terms of a successful touchdown and subsequent surface operation of the lander. In addition, global illumination conditions at the landing site have to be simulated and analyzed. The Landing Site Risk Analysis software framework (LandSAfe) is a system for the analysis, selection and certification of safe landing sites on the lunar surface. LandSAfe generates several data products including high resolution digital terrain models (DTMs), hazard maps, illumination maps, temperature maps and surface reflectance maps which assist the user in evaluating potential landing site candidates. This paper presents the LandSAfe system and describes the methods and products of the different modules. For one candidate landing site on the rim of Shackleton crater at the south pole of the Moon a high resolution DTM is showcased. * Corresponding [less ▲]

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See detailA Remote Sensing Based Calibration Framework for the MOLAND Urban Growth Model of Dublin
Van de Voorde, Tim; van der Kwast, Johannes; Canters, Frank et al

in International Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Information Systems (2012), 3(2), 1-21

Land-use change models are useful tools for assessing and comparing the environmental impact of alternative policy scenarios. Their increasing popularity as spatial planning instruments also poses new ... [more ▼]

Land-use change models are useful tools for assessing and comparing the environmental impact of alternative policy scenarios. Their increasing popularity as spatial planning instruments also poses new scientific challenges, such as correctly calibrating the model. The challenge in model calibration is twofold: obtaining a reliable and consistent time series of land-use information and finding suitable measures to compare model output to reality. Both of these issues are addressed in this paper. The authors propose a model calibration framework that is supported by information on urban form and function derived from medium-resolution remote sensing data through newly developed spatial metrics. The remote sensing derived maps are compared to model output of the same date for two model scenarios using well-known spatial metrics. Results demonstrate a good resemblance between the simulation output and the remote sensing derived maps. [less ▲]

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See detailMapping the error due to image geometric correction ?
Hallot, Eric ULg; Hallot, Pierre ULg; Cornet, Yves ULg

Conference (2011, October 14)

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See detail3-years experience review of neonatal screening for hemoglobin disorders using tandem mass spectrometry.
BOEMER, François ULg; Cornet, Yves ULg; LIBIOULLE, Cécile ULg et al

in Clinica Chimica Acta (2011), 412(15-16), 1476-9

BACKGROUND: Neonatal screening programs for sickle cell disease are common in North America and in some European countries. Isoelectric Focusing or High Performance Liquid Chromatography is the main ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Neonatal screening programs for sickle cell disease are common in North America and in some European countries. Isoelectric Focusing or High Performance Liquid Chromatography is the main technique used for hemoglobin variant detection. METHODS: Since tandem mass spectrometry is being used for screening of inherited metabolic disorders and allows protein identification, we had developed an application to identify the most relevant hemoglobin mutations with this technology. RESULTS: This approach had been previously validated and has been routinely applied in our laboratory for the last three years. We report here our experience with this new method in the field, applied to our East-Belgian population. CONCLUSIONS: To conclude, mass spectrometry provides an efficient alternative approach for laboratories performing neonatal screening of hemoglobin disorders. [less ▲]

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See detailAnalyse des potentialités d'accueil du lynx boréal (Lynx lynx) dans l'est de la province de Liège (Belgique)
Thiry, Violaine; Schockert, Vincianne ULg; Libois, Roland ULg et al

in Rosoux, René; de Bellefroid, Marie des Neiges; Baillon, Jacques (Eds.) et al Lynx... le grand retour ? (2011)

The fist lynx were seen in eastern Belgium at the end of the 1990s. Since then, both sightings and tracks have been recorded there and in the Ardenne (south east Belgium). Whether this presence indicates ... [more ▼]

The fist lynx were seen in eastern Belgium at the end of the 1990s. Since then, both sightings and tracks have been recorded there and in the Ardenne (south east Belgium). Whether this presence indicates a spontaneous return of individuals deriving from the population reintroduced in Germany or results from illicit releases, it raises the question of the suitability and the carrying capacity of habitats in an area of dense human occupation. Using two software programs, a mapping model to assess habitat characterization, drawn from relevant criteria for this species, was tested to estimate the potential host of the study area, via the determination of areas of suitable habitats, and the dispersion potential of the species, through the identification of the most viable dispersal corridors. The findings of the study (multi criteria analysis of potential host of habitats, identification of corridors of lowest cost, estimation of the potential population...), compiled on the basis mapping model and simulations, suggest that a return of the lynx in Wallonia may be sustainable if supported and managed wisly by the regional administrative services. [less ▲]

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See detailCHOLTIC Epidémies de choléra au lac Tanganyika induites par les changements climatiques ?
Plisnier, Pierre-Denis; Bompangue, Didier; Piarroux, Renaud et al

in Sciences Connection (2011), 35(Juillet-Août), 38-42

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