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See detailThe psychology behind road pricing: Identification of socio-cognitive factors inducing changes in activity-travel behavior
Cools, Mario ULg; Brijs, Kris; Moons, Elke et al

in Proceedings of the 12 World Conference on Transport Research (2010)

The overall final objective of this study is to investigate the effect of road pricing on people’s tendency to adapt their current travel behaviour. In order to reach this goal, a two-stage hierarchical ... [more ▼]

The overall final objective of this study is to investigate the effect of road pricing on people’s tendency to adapt their current travel behaviour. In order to reach this goal, a two-stage hierarchical model is estimated, concentrated around the concept of public acceptability. The research was conducted in Flanders, the Dutch-speaking region of Belgium, by means of an interactive stated adaptation survey, administered on the internet, involving 300 respondents. It is found that behavioural changes themselves are not dependent on the perceived acceptability of road pricing. In addition, earlier findings concerning the acceptability of push measures are validated, and the relevance of using latent factors rather than aggregate indicators is illustrated. [less ▲]

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See detailCalibrating Activity-Based Models with External Origin-Destination Information: Overview Of Different Possibilities
Cools, Mario ULg; Moons, Elke; Wets, Geert

in Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board (2010), 2175

Many practitioners question the advantages of activity-based models over conventional four-step models in regard to replication of traffic counts. This paper highlights a framework that actively links ... [more ▼]

Many practitioners question the advantages of activity-based models over conventional four-step models in regard to replication of traffic counts. This paper highlights a framework that actively links travel demand models in general and activity-based models in particular with traffic counts. Two approaches are presented that calibrate activity-based models with traffic count—an indirect and a direct approach. The indirect approach tries to incorporate findings based on the analysis of traffic counts into the components of the activity-based models. The direct approach calibrates the parameters of the travel demand model in such a way that the model replicates the observed traffic counts (quasi-) perfectly. A practical example is provided to illustrate the direct approach. The study area for this practical example is Hasselt, Belgium, a city of about 70,000 residents, and its surrounding municipalities. The practical examples revealed not a single roadway to success in calibrating activity-based models, but different options exist in fine-tuning the activity-based model. It is important to recognize some open issues and avenues for further research. First, it is not always appropriate to assume that traffic counts are completely correct. Setting up some belief structure might increase the responsiveness of the activity-based model. In addition, the origin-destination matrix calibration that optimizes the correspondence between estimated and observed screen-line counts could negatively affect the correspondence to other measures, such as vehicle miles traveled. To conclude, the formulation of a multiobjective calibration method is a key challenge for further research. [less ▲]

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See detailChanges in Travel Behavior in Response to Weather Conditions: Do Type of Weather and Trip Purpose Matter
Cools, Mario ULg; Moons, Elke; Creemers, Lieve et al

in Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board (2010), 2157

Weather can influence travel demand, traffic flow, and traffic safety. A hypothesis—the type of weather determined the likelihood of a change in travel behavior, and changes in travel behavior because of ... [more ▼]

Weather can influence travel demand, traffic flow, and traffic safety. A hypothesis—the type of weather determined the likelihood of a change in travel behavior, and changes in travel behavior because of weather conditions depended on trip purpose—was assayed. A stated adaptation study was conducted in Flanders (the Dutch-speaking region of Belgium). A survey, completed by 586 respondents, was administered both on the Internet and as a traditional paper-and-pencil questionnaire. To ensure optimal correspondence between the survey sample composition and the Flemish population, observations in the sample were weighted. To test the main hypotheses, Pearson chi-square independence tests were performed. Results from both the descriptive analysis and the independence tests confirm that the type of weather matters and that changes in travel behavior in response to these weather conditions are highly dependent on trip purpose. This dependence of behavioral adjustments on trip purpose provides policy makers with a deeper understanding of how weather conditions affect traffic. Further generalizations of the findings are possible by shifting the scope toward revealed travel behavior. Triangulation of both stated and revealed travel behavior on the one hand and traffic intensities on the other hand is a key challenge for further research. [less ▲]

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See detailAssessing the Impact of Public Holidays on Travel Time Expenditure: Differentiation by Trip Motive
Cools, Mario ULg; Moons, Elke; Wets, Geert

in Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board (2010), 2157

The impact of public holidays on the underlying reasons for travel behavior, namely, the activities people perform and the trips made, is seldom investigated. Therefore, the effect of holidays on travel ... [more ▼]

The impact of public holidays on the underlying reasons for travel behavior, namely, the activities people perform and the trips made, is seldom investigated. Therefore, the effect of holidays on travel time expenditure in Flanders, differentiated by trip motive, is examined. The data used for the analysis stem from a household travel survey carried out in 2000. The zero-inflated Poisson regression approach is used; it explicitly takes into account the inherent contrast between travelers and nontravelers. The zero-inflated Poisson regression models yield findings that are harmonious with international literature: socio-demographic variables, temporal effects, and transportation preferences contribute significantly to unraveling the variability of travel behavior. In particular, it is shown that the effect of public holidays on daily travel behavior cannot be ignored. Triangulation of quantitative and qualitative techniques is a solid basis for insight into the underpinnings of travel behavior. [less ▲]

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See detailAssessing the Impact of Weather on Traffic Intensity
Cools, Mario ULg; Moons, Elke; Wets, Geert

in Weather, Climate and Society (2010), 2(1), 6068

This paper focuses on the effect of weather conditions on daily traffic intensities (the number of cars passing a specific segment of a road). The main objective is to examination whether or not weather ... [more ▼]

This paper focuses on the effect of weather conditions on daily traffic intensities (the number of cars passing a specific segment of a road). The main objective is to examination whether or not weather conditions uniformly alter daily traffic intensities in Belgium, or in other words whether or not road usage on a particular location determines the size of the impacts of various weather conditions. This general examination is a contribution that allows policymakers to assess the appropriateness of countrywide versus local traffic management strategies. In addition, a secondary goal of this paper is to validate findings in international literature within a Belgian context. To achieve these goals, the paper analyzes the effects of weather conditions on both upstream (toward a specific location) and downstream (away from a specific location) traffic intensities at three traffic count locations typified by a different road usage. Perhaps the most interesting results of this study for policymakers are the heterogeneity of the weather effects between different traffic count locations, and the homogeneity of the weather effects on upstream and downstream traffic at specific locations. The results also indicate that snowfall, rainfall, and wind speed diminish traffic intensity, and high temperatures increase traffic intensity. Further generalizations of the findings might be possible by studying weather impacts on local roads and by shifting the focus of research toward travel behavior. [less ▲]

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See detailInter- and intraday variability of Flemish travel behavior
Cools, Mario ULg

Doctoral thesis (2009)

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See detailThe use of time use surveys to study activity participation: emerging issues
Cools, Mario ULg; Moons, Elke; Wets, Geert

Conference (2009)

Time use surveys often are carried out to identify, classify and quantify social behaviour of people by focusing on the activities that people perform. Time use data, in the transportation field often ... [more ▼]

Time use surveys often are carried out to identify, classify and quantify social behaviour of people by focusing on the activities that people perform. Time use data, in the transportation field often referred to as activity-based data, can be used to study a variety of sociological, economic, and technological phenomena. Studying behaviour, social networks and transport patterns are a few of the topics that can be analysed based on these time use data. This first introductory paper discusses some emerging issues in the collection of travel-related data such as automatic spatial information recording using cell phones and GPS, and survey design experiences. On the one hand new technology offers the opportunity to record at a relative low cost a wide variety of the data, while on the other hand new problems occur. One of such problems for instance is the problems of ‘cold starts’ faced with GPS devices, clouding the first minutes of recording after each restart of the device after it was turned off completely. Notwithstanding, applications of new technologies offer the opportunity for performing detailed space-time analyses in different fields ranging from epidemiology to transportation science. Some of these applications are highlighted in this session. Next to the advantages and potential risks of new technologies, this introductory paper also discusses the combination of different modes to analyze space-time behaviour. In particular, this study investigates potential mixed mode design effects, observed in a large activity-based travel survey, using a PDA application on the one hand, and traditional paper and pencil diaries on the other hand. The mixed-mode effects are analysed using heteroscedastic linear regression models, taking into account not only mode-effects, but also potential fatigue-effects. The results show that in this mixed-mode survey no attrition effects are present, and that the survey mode (PDA versus paper and pencil) has no direct impact on the quantities investigated (number of out-of-home activities reported and number of trips). [less ▲]

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See detailRoad Pricing as an Impetus for Environment-Friendly Travel Behavior: Results from Stated Adaptation Experiment
Janssens, Davy; Cools, Mario ULg; Moons, Elke et al

in Proceedings of the 88th Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board (DVD-ROM) (2009)

An important policy instrument for governments to modify travel behavior and manage the increasing travel demand is the introduction of a congestion pricing system. In this study, the influence of a ... [more ▼]

An important policy instrument for governments to modify travel behavior and manage the increasing travel demand is the introduction of a congestion pricing system. In this study, the influence of a detailed classification of activities is examined to assess likely traveler response to congestion pricing scenarios. Despite the fact that most studies do not differentiate between activity categories, the value of time and in general the space-time properties and constraints of different types of activities vary widely. For this reason, it is of importance to provide sufficient detail and sensitivity in assessing the impact of congestion pricing scenarios. In addition, a first assessment of possible multi-faceted adaptation patterns of travelers is presented. For these purposes, a stated adaptation study was conducted in Flanders (Dutch speaking region of Belgium). The experiment was conducted through an interactive stated adaptation survey. In the stated adaptation experiment respondents could indicate their stated responses to the congestion pricing scenario. The most prevalent conclusion is that the activity type significantly predetermines the willingness to express a more environmental-friendly behavior (i.e. reducing the number of trips, reducing the total distance traveled, switching to more environmental-friendly modes). Also, the willingness to show ecological activity-travel behavior (e.g. carpooling and using public transport) in a non-pricing situation is a major differentiator of future behavior in a congestion pricing scenario. [less ▲]

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See detailShifting Towards Environment-Friendly Modes: Profiling Travelers using Q-Methodology
Cools, Mario ULg; Moons, Elke; Janssens, Brecht et al

in Proceedings of the 88th Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board (DVD-ROM) (2009)

Due to a variety of reasons, the previous century is characterized by an extraordinary growth in car use that has continued into the current century. This has resulted in serious environmental ... [more ▼]

Due to a variety of reasons, the previous century is characterized by an extraordinary growth in car use that has continued into the current century. This has resulted in serious environmental repercussions. Despite technological advancements, the externalities remain an ecological threat that can not be discarded by policy makers. Therefore, it is essential that policy makers focus on reducing car use and on stimulating the shift towards more environment-friendly transport modes. In this study, Q-methodology is adopted as the technique to segment people, and to ascertain which approaches and determinants matter to medium distance travel. Segmentation is important, as policy measures will be more efficient and effective if they are fine-tuned on specific target groups. The analysis revealed that four discourses preponderate the paradigm of environmentally sustainable transport: travelers who use public transport as a dominant alternative, car-dependent travelers, travelers with a positive perception of using public transport, and travelers with a preference for car use. Concerning rational, economic motives, individuals evaluate travel time reliability as most important. To increase the reliability policy makers should consider the use of separate bus lanes and traffic light manipulation. In addition, public transport can be made even more attractive, when costs of cars are made more variable by road or congestion charging. When the subjective motives are discussed, the differences between the different groups of travelers were more pronounced. Next to increasing the benefits of using public transport, policy makers should also pay attention to removing psycho-social barriers. [less ▲]

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See detailInvestigating the Variability in Daily Traffic Counts Trough Use of ARIMAX and SARIMAX Models: Assessing the Effect of Holidays on Two Site Locations
Cools, Mario ULg; Moons, Elke; Wets, Geert

in Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board (2009), 2136

In this paper, daily traffic counts are explained and forecast by different modeling philosophies: an approach using autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) models with explanatory variables (i.e ... [more ▼]

In this paper, daily traffic counts are explained and forecast by different modeling philosophies: an approach using autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) models with explanatory variables (i.e., the ARIMAX model) and approaches using a seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average (SARIMA) model as well as a SARIMA model with explanatory variables (i.e., the SARIMAX model). Special emphasis is placed on the investigation of seasonality in daily traffic data and on the identification and comparison of holiday effects at different sites. To get insight into prior cyclic patterns in the daily traffic counts, spectral analysis provides the required framework to highlight periodicities in the data. The analyses use data from single inductive loop detectors, which were collected in 2003, 2004, and 2005. Four traffic count locations are investigated in this study: an upstream and a downstream traffic count site on a highway used extensively by commuters, and an upstream and a downstream traffic count site on a highway typically used for leisure travel. The different modeling techniques show that weekly cycles appear to determine the variation in daily traffic counts. The comparison between seasonal and holiday effects at different site locations reveals that both the ARIMAX and the SARIMAX modeling approaches are valid frameworks for identifying and quantifying possible influencing effects. The techniques yield the insight that holidays have a noticeable impact on highways extensively used by commuters, while having a more ambiguous impact on highways typically used for leisure travel. Future research challenges are the modeling of daily traffic counts on secondary roads and the simultaneous modeling of underlying reasons for travel and revealed traffic patterns. [less ▲]

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See detailInvestigating the Variability in Daily Traffic Counts Trough the Use of ARIMAX and SARIMAX Models: Assessing the Effect of Holidays on two diverse site locations
Cools, Mario ULg; Moons, Elke; Wets, Geert

in Proceedings of the 88th Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board (DVD-ROM) (2009)

In this paper, daily traffic counts are explained and forecasted by different modeling philosophies, namely the ARIMAX and SARIMA(X) modeling approaches. Special emphasis is put on the investigation of ... [more ▼]

In this paper, daily traffic counts are explained and forecasted by different modeling philosophies, namely the ARIMAX and SARIMA(X) modeling approaches. Special emphasis is put on the investigation of the seasonality in the daily traffic data and on the identification and comparison of holiday effects at different site locations. To get prior insight in the cyclic patterns present in the daily traffic counts, spectral analysis provides the required framework to highlight periodicities in the data. Data originating from single inductive loop detectors, collected in 2003, 2004 and 2005, are used for the analyses. Four traffic count locations are investigated in this study, an upstream and downstream traffic count location on a highway that is excessively used by commuters and an upstream and downstream traffic count location on a highway that is typified by leisure traffic. The different modeling techniques pointed out that weekly cycles appear to determine the variation in daily traffic counts. The comparison between seasonal effects and holiday effects at different site locations revealed that both the ARIMAX and SARIMAX modeling approach are valid frameworks for the identification and quantification of possible influencing effects. The technique yielded the insight that holiday effects play a noticeable role on highways that are excessively used by commuters, while holiday effects have a more ambiguous effect on highways typified for their leisure traffic. Modeling of daily traffic counts on secondary roads, and simultaneous modeling of both the underlying reasons of travel and revealed traffic patterns, certainly are challenges for further research. [less ▲]

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See detailThe presentation of an integrated microsimulation modeling framework to measure and predict emissions and dynamic exposure
Janssens, Davy; Beckx, C.; Cools, Mario ULg et al

in Proceedings of the Next Generation Data Summit 2009 (2009)

In this paper, an integrated modelling methodology for the assessment of population exposure to air pollution, involving all compartments of the DPSIR-concept, is illustrated by an application in The ... [more ▼]

In this paper, an integrated modelling methodology for the assessment of population exposure to air pollution, involving all compartments of the DPSIR-concept, is illustrated by an application in The Netherlands. The application demonstrates the advantages of an activity-based approach by presenting three kinds of applications: the calculation of vehicle emissions, the simulation of pollutant concentration patterns and the assessment of the population exposure to air population. Understanding exposure variations among activities and subpopulations can be very useful for scientific and policy purposes: it can provide information on locations or population groups most at risk, or can indicate where and when the largest exposure values occur. [less ▲]

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See detailSurveying activity-travel behavior in Flanders: Assessing the impact of the survey design
Cools, Mario ULg; Moons, Elke; Bellemans, Tom et al

in Macharis, C.; Turcksin, L. (Eds.) Proceedings of the BIVEC-GIBET Transport Research Day 2009, Part II (2009)

Ever since car ownership and car use started to increase in Western Europe and the USA, transportation planners attempted to model people’s travel behavior. In the context of the Feathers project a ... [more ▼]

Ever since car ownership and car use started to increase in Western Europe and the USA, transportation planners attempted to model people’s travel behavior. In the context of the Feathers project a dynamic activity-based travel demand framework is developed for Flanders. In this paper, the complete survey design of the data collection effort required for such dynamic activity-based model is discussed. A mixed survey design of using a PDA application on the one hand, and using traditional paper and pencil diaries on the other hand, turns out to be a very suitable way of collecting detailed information about planned and executed activity-travel behavior of households. The results show that no attrition effects are present, not on the number of out-of-home activities reported, nor on the number of trips reported. Moreover the survey mode (PDA versus paper and pencil) has no direct impact on the quantities investigated. Notwithstanding, it is essential for further analysis on the Feathers data to explicitly take into account mode effects because of two reasons. First, the effect of explanatory variables can be influenced by the survey mode. Second, the variance in the estimation of the quantity investigated can differ significantly. Heteroscedatisc linear regression models provide the required framework to explicitly take into account these mode effects. [less ▲]

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See detailModeling Daily Traffic Counts: Analyzing the Effects of Holidays
Cools, Mario ULg; Moons, Elke; Wets, Geert

in Sloboda, Brian (Ed.) Transportation Statistics (2009)

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See detailShifting Towards Environment-Friendly Modes: Profiling Travelers using Q-Methodology
Cools, Mario ULg; Moons, Elke; Janssens, Brecht et al

in Transportation (2009), 36(4), 437-453

Due to a variety of reasons, the previous century is characterized by an extraordinary growth in car use that has continued into the current century. This has resulted in serious environmental ... [more ▼]

Due to a variety of reasons, the previous century is characterized by an extraordinary growth in car use that has continued into the current century. This has resulted in serious environmental repercussions. Despite technological advancements, the externalities remain an ecological threat that can not be discarded by policy makers. Therefore, it is essential that policy makers focus on reducing car use and on stimulating the shift towards more environment-friendly transport modes. In this study, Q-methodology is adopted as the technique to segment people, and to ascertain which approaches and determinants matter to medium distance travel. Segmentation is important, as policy measures will be more efficient and effective if they are fine-tuned on specific target groups. The analysis revealed that four discourses preponderate the paradigm of environmentally sustainable transport: travelers who use public transport as a dominant alternative, car-dependent travelers, travelers with a positive perception of using public transport, and travelers with a preference for car use. Concerning rational, economic motives, individuals evaluate travel time reliability as most important. To increase the reliability policy makers should consider the use of separate bus lanes and traffic light manipulation. In addition, public transport can be made even more attractive, when costs of cars are made more variable by road or congestion charging. When the s motives are discussed, the differences between the different groups of travelers were more pronounced. Next to increasing the benefits of using public transport, policy makers should also pay attention to removing psycho-social barriers. [less ▲]

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See detailRoad Pricing as an Impetus for Environment-Friendly Travel Behavior: Results from a Stated Adaptation Experiment
Janssens, Davy; Cools, Mario ULg; Moons, Elke et al

in Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board (2009), 2115

An important policy instrument for governments to modify travel behavior and manage the increasing travel demand is the introduction of a congestion pricing system. In this study, the influence of a ... [more ▼]

An important policy instrument for governments to modify travel behavior and manage the increasing travel demand is the introduction of a congestion pricing system. In this study, the influence of a detailed classification of activities is examined to assess likely traveler response to congestion pricing scenarios. Despite the fact that most studies do not differentiate between activity categories, the value of time and in general the space–time properties and constraints of different types of activities vary widely. For this reason, it is of importance to provide sufficient detail and sensitivity in assessing the impact of congestion pricing scenarios. In addition, a first assessment of travelers’ possible multifaceted adaptation patterns is presented. For these purposes, a stated adaptation study was conducted in Flanders, the Dutch-speaking region of Belgium. The experiment was conducted through an interactive stated adaptation survey. In the stated adaptation experiment, respondents could indicate their responses to the congestion pricing scenario. The most prevalent conclusion is that the activity type significantly predetermines the willingness to express a more environment-friendly behavior (i.e., reducing the number of trips, reducing the total distance traveled, switching to more environment-friendly modes). Also, the willingness to show ecological activity-travel behavior (e.g., carpooling and using public transport) in a nonpricing situation is a major differentiator of future behavior in a congestion pricing scenario. [less ▲]

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See detailAssessing the Impact of Weather on Traffic Intensity
Cools, Mario ULg; Moons, Elke; Wets, Geert

in Proceedings of the 87th Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board (DVD-ROM) (2008)

The investigation of weather effects on traffic intensity is important from a road safety point of view, because traffic intensity is noted as the first and primary determinant of traffic safety. Next to ... [more ▼]

The investigation of weather effects on traffic intensity is important from a road safety point of view, because traffic intensity is noted as the first and primary determinant of traffic safety. Next to traffic safety, weather conditions affect other predominant traffic variables, namely traffic demand and traffic flow. Therefore the main objective of this study is the identification and comparison of weather effects on traffic intensity at different site locations. To assess the impact of weather conditions on traffic intensity, the upstream and downstream traffic of four traffic count locations are considered. The traffic intensity data originate from minute data coming from single inductive loop detectors, collected by the Flemish Traffic Control Center. Data concerning weather events were recorded by the Royal Meteorological Institute of Belgium. The main modeling philosophy envisaged in this study to identify and quantify weather effects is the linear regression approach. Most appealing result of this study for policy makers, is the heterogeneity of the weather effects between different traffic count locations, and the homogeneity of the weather effects on upstream and downstream traffic at a certain location. The results also indicated that snowfall, rainfall and wind speed have a clear diminishing effect on traffic intensity, while maximum temperature significantly increases traffic intensity. Further generalizations of the findings are possible by studying weather effects on local roads and by shifting the scope towards travel behavior. Simultaneously modeling of weather conditions, traffic intensity rates, collision risk and activity travel behavior is certainly a key challenge for further research. [less ▲]

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See detailInvestigating Effect of Holidays on Daily Traffic Counts: Time Series Approach
Cools, Mario ULg; Moons, Elke; Wets, Geert

in Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board (2007), 2019

In this paper, different modeling philosophies are explored in order to explain and forecast daily traffic counts. The main objectives of this study are the analysis of the impact of holidays on daily ... [more ▼]

In this paper, different modeling philosophies are explored in order to explain and forecast daily traffic counts. The main objectives of this study are the analysis of the impact of holidays on daily traffic, and the forecasting of future traffic counts. Data coming from single inductive loop detectors, collected in 2003, 2004 and 2005, were used for the analysis. The different models that were investigated showed that the variation in daily traffic counts could be explained by weekly cycles. The Box-Tiao modeling approach was applied to quantify the effect of holidays on daily traffic. The results showed that traffic counts were significantly lower for holiday periods. When the different modeling techniques were compared with respect to forecasting with a large forecast horizon, Box-Tiao modeling clearly outperformed the other modeling strategies. Simultaneous modeling of both the underlying reasons of travel, and revealed traffic patterns, certainly is a challenge for further research. [less ▲]

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See detailAn activity-based approach for surveying and modelling travel behaviour: analysis of the mixed-mode design effects
Cools, Mario ULg; Moons, Elke; Wets, Geert

Conference (2007)

Reports from various international organisations, like for instance the European Commission’s White paper “European transport policy for 2010: time to decide” show that policy makers acknowledge the ... [more ▼]

Reports from various international organisations, like for instance the European Commission’s White paper “European transport policy for 2010: time to decide” show that policy makers acknowledge the increasing importance of mobility. Mobility is not just considered to be a cornerstone for economic growth, but also seen as a social need that offers people the opportunity for self-fulfilment and relaxation. In order to lead an efficient policy, governments require reliable predictions of travel behaviour, traffic performance, and traffic safety. Thus, traffic and transportation models can provide the right framework to support long-term decisions. On an international level, activity-based models have become one of the leading paradigms to model travel behaviour. The most important characteristic of these models is that travel is considered as a derivative from the activities that individuals and households need or wish to perform. This means that travel is no longer seen as an isolated fact in these models, which is a great advantage in comparison to the classic models. The development of activity-based models requires very specific data. Since a special emphasis was laid on the dynamic character of the model, both the planned and executed activities were surveyed. 2500 households were selected using a stratified cluster technique. The selected household were asked to fill out an activity-diary and to report rescheduling decisions during a one-week period. Approximately one half of the households received a PDA-module; the other half was surveyed by means of a traditional paper-and-pencil diary. Although both data collection modes were designed in such way that the correspondence of the questions was optimised, it remains essential to identify differences in the data that are introduced by using multiple modes. This paper starts with describing the differences that existed in the questionnaire design of the two modes, and then further explores the statistical differences in terms of some key observations, such as average number of trips reported, and average travel time. [less ▲]

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See detailInvestigating Effect of Holidays on Daily Traffic Counts: Time Series Approach
Cools, Mario ULg; Moons, Elke; Wets, Geert

in Proceedings of the 86th Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board (CD-ROM) (2007)

In this paper, different modeling philosophies are explored in order to explain and forecast daily traffic counts. The main objectives of this study are the analysis of the impact of holidays on daily ... [more ▼]

In this paper, different modeling philosophies are explored in order to explain and forecast daily traffic counts. The main objectives of this study are the analysis of the impact of holidays on daily traffic, and the forecasting of future traffic counts. Data coming from single inductive loop detectors, collected in 2003, 2004 and 2005, were used for the analysis. The different models that were investigated showed that the variation in daily traffic counts could be explained by weekly cycles. The Box-Tiao modeling approach was applied to quantify the effect of holidays on daily traffic. The results showed that traffic counts were significantly lower for holiday periods. When the different modeling techniques were compared with respect to forecasting with a large forecast horizon, Box-Tiao modeling clearly outperformed the other modeling strategies. Simultaneous modeling of both the underlying reasons of travel, and revealed traffic patterns, certainly is a challenge for further research. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 22 (2 ULg)