Coordinated regulation of procollagens I and III and their post-translational enzymes by dissipation of mechanical tension in human dermal fibroblasts.
Lambert, Charles ; Colige, Alain ; et al
in European Journal of Cell Biology (2001), 80(7), 479-85
Mechanical tension governs fibroblast proliferation and survival and the homeostasis of the extracellular matrix to adapt its resistance to the mechanical requirements of the organs. To consolidate this ... [more ▼]
Mechanical tension governs fibroblast proliferation and survival and the homeostasis of the extracellular matrix to adapt its resistance to the mechanical requirements of the organs. To consolidate this view, we analysed the effect of tension release on the expression of molecules involved in the architecture and stabilisation of the collagen fibres, namely the procollagens type I and III, the amino- and carboxy-procollagen peptidases (N-pCP and C-pCP) and lysyl oxidase. Cells were cultured in conditions of high mechanical stress in monolayer on a collagen coat and under reduced tension by disruption of the cytoskeleton upon treatment with cytochalasin D in monolayer on a collagen coat or by integrin-mediated stress relaxation in a freely retracting collagen gel. The mRNAs were measured by quantitative RT-PCR monitored by simultaneous reverse-transcription and amplification of an original internal standard. Tension relaxation resulted in a decreased expression of the procollagens type I and III, of the two expressed forms of C-pCP, of the two forms of N-pCP and of lysyl oxidase. Type III collagen, known to control diameter of the fibres, was less down-regulated than type I collagen. Interestingly, the expression of the two alternatively spliced forms of the N-pCP was dissimilarly regulated. These data suggest that mechanical tension may modulate the stiffness of the extracellular matrix by controlling not only the level of expression of its fibrillar constituents but also that of the enzymes participating in their extracellular processing and mechanical stabilisation. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 7 (0 ULg)
Microgravity stimulates the expression of interleukin-6 and matrix metalloproteinase-1 in human dermal fibroblasts
Lambert, Charles ; ; Colige, Alain et al
in Microgravity (2001)Detailed reference viewed: 5 (1 ULg)
Down-Regulation of MT1-MMP expression by the alpha3 chain of type IV collagen inhibits bronchial tumor cell line invasion
; ; Noël, Agnès et al
in Laboratory Investigation : Journal of Technical Methods & Pathology (2001), 81
The basement membrane (BM) is the first barrier encountered by tumor cells when they become invasive. Moreover, some invasive tumor clusters are surrounded by a remnant or neosynthetized BM material. We ... [more ▼]
The basement membrane (BM) is the first barrier encountered by tumor cells when they become invasive. Moreover, some invasive tumor clusters are surrounded by a remnant or neosynthetized BM material. We have previously reported the presence of a particular alpha chain of type IV collagen, the alpha3(IV) chain, in bronchopulmonary carcinomas. This chain was not detected in the normal bronchial epithelium, but was found around some invasive tumor cluster BM. In the present study, we examined the effects of the alpha3(IV) chain on the invasive properties of bronchial tumor cell lines, with special emphasis on their expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and its activator, membrane type 1-matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP), which is largely involved in tumor progression. Two epithelial bronchial cell lines (16HBE14o- and BZR), showing different invasive abilities, were evaluated. Using the Boyden chamber invasion assay, we demonstrated that the alpha3(IV) chain inhibits the invasive properties of BZR cells and modifies their morphology by inducing an epithelial cell shape. In the presence of the recombinant NC1 domain of the alpha3(IV) chain, the expression of MMP-2 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2) was not modified in either cell line. The NC1 alpha3(IV) domain did not modulate the MT1-MMP expression of noninvasive 16HBE14o- cells, whereas a 50% decrease of MT1-MMP mRNA was observed in invasive BZR cells. Accordingly, Western blot analyses showed a disappearance of the 45-kd MT1-MMP form when BZR cells were treated with the recombinant NC1 alpha3(IV) domain. These findings suggest that the alpha3 chain of type IV collagen may play a role in tumor invasion, at least by decreasing the expression and synthesis of MT1-MMP. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 25 (7 ULg)
Distinct pathways in the over-expression of matrix metalloproteinases in human fibroblasts by relaxation of mechanical tension.
Lambert, Charles ; Colige, Alain ; Munaut, Carine et al
in Matrix Biology (2001), 20(7), 397-408
The aim of the work was to analyze, on a comparative basis, the signaling pathways operating in the regulation of a panel of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) expressed by human dermal fibroblasts submitted ... [more ▼]
The aim of the work was to analyze, on a comparative basis, the signaling pathways operating in the regulation of a panel of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) expressed by human dermal fibroblasts submitted to mechanical stress relaxation by cytochalasin D (CD) and in a retracting collagen gel (RCG). The mRNA steady-state level of MMPs was measured by a quantitative RT-PCR procedure using a synthetic RNA as internal standard. In monolayer, most MMPs were barely detected, except MMP-2. Disruption of the actin stress fibers by CD induced a moderate increase of MMP-2 mRNA and a much larger stimulation of MMP-3, -9, -13 and -14 mRNAs. In RCG, a significant up-regulation of these MMPs was also observed although to a lower extent than in CD-treated monolayers. Among the investigated MMPs, the MMP-8 and -11 were not reproducibly detected. MMP-2 was processed to its active form both by CD and in RCG. The CD-induced up-regulation of gene expression was largely repressed by blocking protein synthesis by cycloheximide for all the MMPs, by inhibiting the tyrosine-kinases of the src family by herbimycin A for all MMPs, except MMP-2, and by inhibiting the TPA-inducible PKC isoforms by bisindoyl maleimide for all MMPs, except MMP-14. The up-regulation induced by stress relaxation in RCG was protein synthesis-dependent for MMP-2 and MMP-13, tyrosine kinases-dependent for MMP-3 and MMP-13, as previously described for MMP-1. Inhibiting TPA-inducible PKC did not affect any MMP in RCG except MMP-13, which was strongly induced. The processing of MMP-2 was tyrosine kinases-dependent but PKC-independent. Inhibitors of the ERK1,2 and p38 MAP kinases pathways diversely affected the MMPs expression. Inhibiting the Rho-kinase activity by Y-27632 was inactive. These results point to the potent regulation operated by the status of the cytoskeleton on the cell phenotype, and to distinct regulatory pathways involved in the control of different MMPs expression. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 20 (2 ULg)
Liquid crystalline ordering of procollagen as a determinant of three-dimensional extracellular matrix architecture.
; ; et al
in Journal of Molecular Biology (2000), 301(1), 11-7
The precise molecular mechanisms that determine the three-dimensional architectures of tissues remain largely unknown. Within tissues rich in extracellular matrix, collagen fibrils are frequently arranged ... [more ▼]
The precise molecular mechanisms that determine the three-dimensional architectures of tissues remain largely unknown. Within tissues rich in extracellular matrix, collagen fibrils are frequently arranged in a tissue-specific manner, as in certain liquid crystals. For example, the continuous twist between fibrils in compact bone osteons resembles a cholesteric mesophase, while in tendon, the regular, planar undulation, or "crimp", is akin to a precholesteric mesophase. Such analogies suggest that liquid crystalline organisation plays a role in the determination of tissue form, but it is hard to see how insoluble fibrils could spontaneously and specifically rearrange in this way. Collagen molecules, in dilute acid solution, are known to form nematic, precholesteric and cholesteric phases, but the relevance to physiological assembly mechanisms is unclear. In vivo, fibrillar collagens are synthesised in soluble precursor form, procollagens, with terminal propeptide extensions. Here, we show, by polarized light microscopy of highly concentrated (5-30 mg/ml) viscous drops, that procollagen molecules in physiological buffer conditions can also develop long-range nematic and precholesteric liquid crystalline ordering extending over 100 microm(2) domains, while remaining in true solution. These observations suggest the novel concept that supra-fibrillar tissue architecture is determined by the ability of soluble precursor molecules to form liquid crystalline arrays, prior to fibril assembly. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 16 (1 ULg)
Paradoxical Stimulation of Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 Expression in Ht1080 Cells by a Broad-Spectrum Hydroxamate-Based Matrix Metalloproteinase Inhibitor
Maquoi, Erik ; Munaut, Carine ; Colige, Alain et al
in Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences (1999), 878Detailed reference viewed: 16 (3 ULg)
Human Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type VII C and bovine dermatosparaxis are caused by mutations in the procollagen I N-proteinase gene.
Colige, Alain ; ; et al
in American Journal of Human Genetics (1999), 65(2), 308-17
Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) type VIIC is a recessively inherited connective-tissue disorder, characterized by extreme skin fragility, characteristic facies, joint laxity, droopy skin, umbilical hernia ... [more ▼]
Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) type VIIC is a recessively inherited connective-tissue disorder, characterized by extreme skin fragility, characteristic facies, joint laxity, droopy skin, umbilical hernia, and blue sclera. Like the animal model dermatosparaxis, EDS type VIIC results from the absence of activity of procollagen I N-proteinase (pNPI), the enzyme that excises the N-propeptide of type I and type II procollagens. The pNPI enzyme is a metalloproteinase containing properdin repeats and a cysteine-rich domain with similarities to the disintegrin domain of reprolysins. We used bovine cDNA to isolate human pNPI. The human enzyme exists in two forms: a long version similar to the bovine enzyme and a short version that contains the Zn++-binding catalytic site but lacks the entire C-terminal domain in which the properdin repeats are located. We have identified the mutations that cause EDS type VIIC in the six known affected human individuals and also in one strain of dermatosparactic calf. Five of the individuals with EDS type VIIC were homozygous for a C-->T transition that results in a premature termination codon, Q225X. Four of these five patients were homozygous at three downstream polymorphic sites. The sixth patient was homozygous for a different transition that results in a premature termination codon, W795X. In the dermatosparactic calf, the mutation is a 17-bp deletion that changes the reading frame of the message. These data provide direct evidence that EDS type VIIC and dermatosparaxis result from mutations in the pNPI gene. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 20 (1 ULg)
cDNA cloning and expression of bovine procollagen I N-proteinase: a new member of the superfamily of zinc-metalloproteinases with binding sites for cells and other matrix components.
Colige, Alain ; ; et al
in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (1997), 94(6), 2374-9
Procollagen N-proteinase (EC 220.127.116.11) cleaves the amino-propeptides in the processing of type I and type II procollagens to collagens. Deficiencies of the enzyme cause dermatosparaxis in cattle and ... [more ▼]
Procollagen N-proteinase (EC 18.104.22.168) cleaves the amino-propeptides in the processing of type I and type II procollagens to collagens. Deficiencies of the enzyme cause dermatosparaxis in cattle and sheep, and they cause type VIIC Ehlers-Danlos syndrome in humans, heritable disorders characterized by accumulation of pNcollagen and severe skin fragility. Amino acid sequences for the N-proteinase were used to obtain cDNAs from bovine skin. Three overlapping cDNAs had an ORF coding for a protein of 1205 residues. Mammalian cells stably transfected with a complete cDNA secreted an active recombinant enzyme that specifically cleaved type I procollagen. The protein contained zinc-binding sequences of the clan MB of metallopeptidases that includes procollagen C-proteinase/BMP-1. The protein also contained four repeats that are homologous to domains found in thrombospondins and in properdin and that can participate in complex intermolecular interactions such as activation of latent forms of transforming growth factor beta or the binding to sulfatides. Therefore, the enzyme may play a role in development that is independent of its role in collagen biosynthesis. This hypothesis was supported by the observation that in some tissues the levels of mRNA for the enzyme are disproportionately high relative to the apparent rate of collagen biosynthesis. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 6 (0 ULg)
Modulation of expression and assembly of vinculin during in vitro fibrillar collagen-induced angiogenesis and its reversal.
Deroanne, Christophe ; Colige, Alain ; Nusgens, Betty et al
in Experimental Cell Research (1996), 224(2), 215-23
A model of collagen-induced in vitro angiogenesis was used to investigate the modulation of expression and assembly of focal adhesion plaque-associated proteins during the process of differentiation ... [more ▼]
A model of collagen-induced in vitro angiogenesis was used to investigate the modulation of expression and assembly of focal adhesion plaque-associated proteins during the process of differentiation. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC), first attached on an adhesive substratum (gelatin-, fibronectin-, or laminin-coated dish) or adherent collagen gel and then covered by an overlaying collagen get, organized within 3-4 days in tube-like structures (TLS). Removing the overlaying collagen gel from fully differentiated HUVEC induced a reversion of the process and HUVEC returned to a monolayer pattern. Modulations of focal adhesion-associated proteins occurring in HUVEC during the in vitro differentiation process and its reversal were investigated by Western blot analysis. A significant decrease of expression of vinculin, the integrin alpha2 subunit, talin, alpha-actinin, and actin was observed in TLS whereas the amount of FVIII-related antigen did not vary as compared to control monolayer cultures. During reversal, all the reduced proteins were markedly reexpressed. Human skin fibroblasts (HSF), submitted to the same experimental conditions, did not form TLS. Most of the focal adhesion proteins in HSF were similarly modulated by an overlaying collagen gel with the exception of vinculin, which was not modified. This particular protein was therefore more thoroughly investigated. In a nondifferentiated monolayer of HUVEC, a significant proportion of vinculin was organized into a detergent-resistant juxtamembranous structure (focal adhesion plaque) which disassembled early in TLS formation and reassembled during the reversal of the process. The reduction of vinculin during TLS formation was preceded by a downregulation of its mRNA while this mRNA was upregulated during reversal of the morphotype. These results suggest that the modulations of the cytoskeletal and focal adhesion proteins and more specifically of vinculin coupled to its subcellular redistribution are critical and early events in the cascade of mechanochemical signaling during in vitro angiogenesis induced by fibrillar collagen. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 17 (4 ULg)
Characterization and partial amino acid sequencing of a 107-kDa procollagen I N-proteinase purified by affinity chromatography on immobilized type XIV collagen.
Colige, Alain ; ; et al
in Journal of Biological Chemistry (1995), 270(28), 16724-30
Procollagen I N-proteinase (EC 22.214.171.124), the enzyme that specifically processes type I and type II procollagens to collagen, was isolated from extracts of fetal calf skin. After two chromatographic ... [more ▼]
Procollagen I N-proteinase (EC 126.96.36.199), the enzyme that specifically processes type I and type II procollagens to collagen, was isolated from extracts of fetal calf skin. After two chromatographic steps on concanavalin A-Sepharose and heparin-Sepharose, the semi-purified preparation was used to produce monoclonal antibodies. One reacting antibody was found to recognize not the enzyme itself but type XIV collagen on which the enzyme was bound. This binding, highly sensitive to ionic conditions (plH, salt concentrations) but not affected by non-ionic detergents, was used for affinity chromatography that strongly improved the purification procedure. The enzyme is extensively characterized: 1) it has a molecular mass of 107 kDa as determined by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in presence of SDS and of about 130 kDa when estimated by gel filtration on a Sephacryl-S300; 2) in standard assay (pH 7.5, 0.2 M NaCl, 35 degrees C), the activation energy for reaction with amino procollagen type I was 17,000 calories per mole. In the same conditions, Km and Vmax values were, respectively, 435 and 39 nM per hour but varied strongly with pH and salt concentration; 3) the enzyme cleaved the NH2-terminal propeptide of type I procollagen at the specific site, the Pro-Gln bond in the alpha 1 type I procollagen chain; 4) the enzyme contained a high proportion of Gly, Asx, and Glx residues but no Hyp or Hyl; 5) partial amino acid sequences obtained from internal peptides of the enzyme displayed no significant homology with known sequences. The association of procollagen I N-proteinase with a FACIT (fibril-associated collagens with interrupted triple helices) collagen as found here might be of physiological significance. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 10 (6 ULg)
Specific inhibition of expression of a human collagen gene (COL1A1) with modified antisense oligonucleotides. The most effective target sites are clustered in double-stranded regions of the predicted secondary structure for the mRNA.
; ; Colige, Alain et al
in Biochemistry (1994), 33(36), 11033-9
A series of antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) were synthesized and tested to define the best target sites within an RNA transcript of collagen for effective inhibition of expression. The test system ... [more ▼]
A series of antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) were synthesized and tested to define the best target sites within an RNA transcript of collagen for effective inhibition of expression. The test system consisted of mouse NIH 3T3 fibroblasts that were stably transfected with a human minigene for procollagen I so that the cells simultaneously synthesized full-length mouse pro alpha 1 (I) chains and internally deleted human pro alpha 1 (I) chains. The sequences of the transcripts from both genes were compared, and a series of 28 ASOs were designed to target sites in which there were at least two base differences within a 20-nucleotide sequence between the human and mouse transcripts. Six of the ASOs specifically decreased the levels of pro alpha 1 (I) chain synthesized from the human gene without a decrease in the levels of pro alpha 1 (I) chains from the mouse endogenous gene. The most effective ASOs reduced the intracellular levels of human pro alpha 1 (I) chains relative to the mouse pro alpha 1 (I) chains to 37-67% of the control values. Combined addition of two effective ASOs or a second administration of the same effective ASO did not produce any additive effect. The results did not support previous suggestions that the best target sites for ASOs were sequences around initiation codons for translation, at intron-exon boundaries, or in single-stranded loops in hairpin structures. Also, the results did not support previous suggestions that the most effective ASOs are those with the highest affinities for their target sequences. Instead, the most consistent pattern in the data was that the most effective ASOs were those targeted to sequences that were predicted to form clustered double-stranded structures in RNA transcripts. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 7 (1 ULg)
Mutation analysis of coding sequences for type I procollagen in individuals with low bone density.
; Colige, Alain ; et al
in Journal of Bone and Mineral Research (1994), 9(6), 923-32
Mutations in one of the two genes encoding type I procollagen (COL1A1 and COL1A2) are frequently the cause of osteogenesis imperfecta (OI), a disorder characterized by brittle bones. Here we tested ... [more ▼]
Mutations in one of the two genes encoding type I procollagen (COL1A1 and COL1A2) are frequently the cause of osteogenesis imperfecta (OI), a disorder characterized by brittle bones. Here we tested whether patients with low bone density also have mutations in these genes. The 26 patients studied had no apparent metabolic bone disease, but most had a positive family history of osteopenia or osteoporosis. Although a diagnosis of OI was considered by the clinician in some cases, the clinical criteria for OI were not satisfied. Our strategy for mutation analysis consisted of PCR amplification of cDNA made to fibroblast mRNA using primers specific for the coding regions of COL1A1 and COL1A2. The PCR products were then sequenced directly with primers located within each PCR product. We found that 3 of 26 patients had mutations that altered the encoded amino acid. One mutation, at position alpha 2(I)-661 has been reported (Spotila et al. 1991 Proc Natl Acad Sci USA PNAS 88:5423). The other 2 patients, who were not related to each other, had a mutation that altered the proline codon at alpha 1(I)-27 to alanine. This mutation was not found in 81 normal individuals or in 37 additional osteopenic individuals. However, its effect on the biologic function of type I collagen, as well as its role in osteopenia, is uncertain. In addition to the two mutations, we found a polymorphism in codon alpha 2(I)-459. Although this polymorphism involved an amino acid substitution, it was present with equal frequency in the patient and the normal population. By analyzing this and previously reported neutral sequence variants in the COL1A2 gene, we determined that all patients expressed both alleles of the COL1A2 gene. The 12 patients who were heterozygous for a COL1A1 neutral sequence variant also expressed both alleles. Here we present all PCR primer and sequencing primer information. The results suggest that surveying a larger group of similarly selected individuals may reveal additional mutations in the COL1A1 or COL1A2 genes. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 11 (3 ULg)
Use of an antisense oligonucleotide to inhibit expression of a mutated human procollagen gene (COL1A1) in transfected mouse 3T3 cells.
Colige, Alain ; ; et al
in Biochemistry (1993), 32(1), 7-11
A series of antisense oligonucleotides were developed to inhibit specifically expression of a mutated exogenous gene for collagen without inhibiting expression of an endogenous gene for the same protein ... [more ▼]
A series of antisense oligonucleotides were developed to inhibit specifically expression of a mutated exogenous gene for collagen without inhibiting expression of an endogenous gene for the same protein. The test system consisted of mouse NIH 3T3 cells that were stably transfected with an internally deleted construct of the human gene for the pro alpha 1(I) chain of type I procollagen [Olsen et al. (1991) J. Biol. Chem. 266, 1117]. The target site was a region at the 3' end of exon 1 and the first few nucleotides of intron 1 of the exogenous human gene that differed in sequence by nine nucleotides from the sequence of the endogenous mouse gene. Expression of the two genes was assayed by Western blot with cross-reacting antibodies and by steady-state levels of mRNAs. None of the oligonucleotides were effective in concentrations up to 25 microM when administered without any carrier. However, when administered with 5 or 10 micrograms/mL lipofectin, one of the oligonucleotides in concentrations of 0.1-0.2 microM inhibited expression of the exogenous gene from 50% to 80% without significant inhibition of expression of the endogenous gene. Also, a missense version of the same oligonucleotide had no significant effect, and the inhibition observed with the most effective oligonucleotide was abolished by a single base change. Time course experiments indicated that, after a 4-h treatment, inhibition appeared at 8 h and persisted for at least 22 h.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 7 (2 ULg)
Mutations in type 1 procollagen that cause osteogenesis imperfecta: effects of the mutations on the assembly of collagen into fibrils, the basis of phenotypic variations, and potential antisense therapies.
; Colige, Alain ; et al
in Journal of Bone and Mineral Research (1993), 8 Suppl 2
Work by a large number of investigators over the last decade has established that over 90% of patients with osteogenesis imperfecta have mutations in one of the two genes for type I procollagen, that most ... [more ▼]
Work by a large number of investigators over the last decade has established that over 90% of patients with osteogenesis imperfecta have mutations in one of the two genes for type I procollagen, that most unrelated probands have different mutations in the genes, and that the mutations found in most of the serious variants of the disease cause synthesis of abnormal pro alpha chains of the protein. The results have demonstrated that synthesis of structurally abnormal but partially functional pro alpha chains can interfere with folding of the central region of the protein into a triple-helical conformation, prevent processing of the N-terminal propeptides of procollagen, or produce subtle alterations in conformation that interfere with the self-assembly of the protein into collagen fibrils. One of the unsolved mysteries about the disease is why some mutations produce severe phenotypes, whereas very similar mutations produce mild phenotypes. Recent studies in transgenic mice suggest that nongenetic factors, such as stochastic events during development, may determine the severity of the disease phenotype produced by a specific mutation. Also, recent results raised the possibility that strategies of antisense gene therapy may be effective in treating the disease some time in the future. Specific inhibition of expression of a mutated collagen gene has been obtained with antisense oligonucleotides in cell culture experiments. However, there is no means of selective delivery of antisense oligonucleotides to the appropriate tissues. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 15 (1 ULg)
Effect of cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions on the response of fibroblasts to epidermal growth factor in vitro. Expression of collagen type I, collagenase, stromelysin and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases.
Colige, Alain ; Lambert, Charles ; Nusgens, Betty et al
in Biochemical Journal (1992), 285 ( Pt 1)
Investigations of the effect of epidermal growth factor (EGF) on the expression of four genes involved in the turnover of the extracellular matrix, collagen type I, collagenase, stromelysin and tissue ... [more ▼]
Investigations of the effect of epidermal growth factor (EGF) on the expression of four genes involved in the turnover of the extracellular matrix, collagen type I, collagenase, stromelysin and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMP) were performed on four strains of skin fibroblasts in vitro. Addition of EGF to subconfluent cultures for increasing periods of time up to 5 days induced an inhibition of procollagen alpha 1(I) mRNA and a strong stimulation of collagenase (100-fold) and stromelysin (1000-fold) mRNAs, whereas the mRNA of TIMP was increased to a lesser extent (5-fold). After a 40 h pulse with EGF, these effects persisted for 24-48 h after withdrawal of the growth factor and slowly diminished thereafter to attain control values after several days. By culturing fibroblasts for increasing periods of time, different levels of confluence were obtained allowing for the deposition of an extracellular biomatrix. The steady-state level of collagenase and stromelysin mRNAs were profoundly depressed in confluent as against non-confluent cultures, whereas no major change for TIMP and procollagen alpha 1(I) mRNAs was observed. Upon treatment of these cultures with EGF for 48h, the steady-state level of collagenase, stromelysin and TIMP increased, whereas procollagen alpha 1(I) mRNA was slightly reduced. These modifications were, at least in part, dependent upon a regulation of the transcription rate, as suggested from run-off experiments. Similar states of confluence were obtained by seeding cells at increasing densities in short-term cultures in which cell-cell contact predominated. In such culture conditions, the collagenase and stromelysin mRNAs were enhanced in high as compared to low density cultures. The response to EGF was progressively decreased for collagenase, stromelysin and, to a lesser extent, TIMP mRNAs at most densities and a complete lack of response to EGF at the highest cell density was observed. Under all culture conditions the modulation of collagenase mRNA was paralleled by similar modifications of enzyme activity. These results emphasize the importance of the cell-cell contacts and cell-matrix interactions in the expression of the genes coding for metalloproteinases or their inhibitor and their modulation by growth factors. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 2 (2 ULg)
Altered Response of Progeria Fibroblasts to Epidermal Growth Factor
Colige, Alain ; Nusgens, Betty ;
in Journal of Cell Science (1991), 100((Pt 3)), 649-55
The Hutchinson-Gilford syndrome (progeria) is a rare disorder in childhood characterized by premature and accelerated aging. This study reports the effect of a potent growth factor, EGF, on the ... [more ▼]
The Hutchinson-Gilford syndrome (progeria) is a rare disorder in childhood characterized by premature and accelerated aging. This study reports the effect of a potent growth factor, EGF, on the proliferative capacities and extracellular matrix macromolecules and collagenase expression of two strains of progeria skin-derived cells. At low population doubling levels (PDL less than 10), confluent cultures of progeria fibroblasts made quiescent by lowering the concentration of serum in the medium did not respond to EGF while the mitotic activity of normal PDL-matched fibroblasts was almost maximally restored upon addition of EGF. No obvious difference between normal and low PDL progeria fibroblasts was observed in the number and in the affinity of the receptors measured by [125I]EGF binding. The synthesis of collagen and non-collagen proteins was similar in normal and affected cells at low and high serum concentration and both types of cells responded to EGF by a specific inhibition of collagen synthesis. Besides a normal level of mRNA coding for type I and type III collagens, collagenase and laminin, progeria fibroblasts expressed a high level of elastin and type IV collagen mRNA. Like normal fibroblasts, progeria cells responded to EGF by a decrease in the level of mRNA for fibrillar collagens and elastin. In contrast, a complete lack of response to EGF was observed for collagenase mRNA whereas the expression of this enzyme was strikingly induced by EGF in normal PDL-matched cells. The abnormal expression of type IV collagen was not significantly modified by EGF. At PDL greater than 10, progeria cells exhibited features of senescence. A significant reduction of collagen synthesis was observed and no further inhibition by EGF was recorded. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 17 (2 ULg)
Immunohistochemical expression of epidermal growth factor receptors in nuclei of a subpopulation of keratinocytes and sweat gland cells.
Pierard, Claudine ; Colige, Alain ; Arrese Estrada, Jorge et al
in Dermatologica (1991), 183(1), 7-9
We have raised a polyclonal antibody to the 170-kD epidermal growth factor receptor. We found an intercellular pattern of immunoreactivity in the epidermis as well as a positivity of the cytoplasm of ... [more ▼]
We have raised a polyclonal antibody to the 170-kD epidermal growth factor receptor. We found an intercellular pattern of immunoreactivity in the epidermis as well as a positivity of the cytoplasm of keratinocytes and eccrine secretory cells. In some samples, a nuclear labelling was evidenced in these type of cells. There is a close resemblance in the topographical distribution of these cells with nuclear labelling and those synthesizing DNA under phytohaemagglutinin stimulation. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 6 (1 ULg)
Abnormal gene expression in skin fibroblasts from a Hutchinson-Gilford patient.
Colige, Alain ; ; et al
in Laboratory Investigation : Journal of Technical Methods & Pathology (1991), 64(6), 799-806
We had the opportunity to investigate a new case of Hutchinson-Gilford progeria, a rare disease commonly regarded as a model in the study of aging. Two strains of fibroblasts (strains 1 and 2) were ... [more ▼]
We had the opportunity to investigate a new case of Hutchinson-Gilford progeria, a rare disease commonly regarded as a model in the study of aging. Two strains of fibroblasts (strains 1 and 2) were derived from two pieces of a skin biopsy. These two populations multiplied as normal cells at low population doubling level but senesced rapidly and stopped proliferating after 14 or 15 population doubling levels. Interestingly, an unusual pattern of growth in clusters was observed for strain 1. The level of collagen and noncollagen protein synthesis of both strains of affected fibroblasts was similar to that of normal fibroblasts as determined by [3H]proline incorporation measurement and was similarly affected by varying serum concentrations. The pattern of the main types of newly synthesized collagen polypeptides analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was similar in normal and progeria cells. The steady-state level of mRNAs coding for macromolecules of the extracellular matrix did not provide any differences between affected and control fibroblasts except for a strong increase of elastin and of alpha 1 and alpha 2 type IV procollagen mRNA mainly in strain 1 and less marked in strain 2. Interestingly, senescent progeria fibroblasts exhibited a reduced level of all the tested mRNAs, whereas collagen type IV and elastin mRNAs remained elevated. As suggested by immunofluorescence and immunoblotting studies, the increased amount of type IV mRNAs was paralleled by an enhanced production of type IV collagen by fibroblasts in vitro. Histologic examination of the skin revealed a superabundant network of abnormal elastic fibers in the reticular dermis and a thickening of basement membranes. The relationship between these alterations and aging in progeria is discussed. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 24 (2 ULg)
Response to Epidermal Growth Factor of Skin Fibroblasts from Donors of Varying Age Is Modulated by the Extracellular Matrix
Colige, Alain ; Nusgens, Betty ;
in Journal of Cellular Physiology (1990), 145(3), 450-7
The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of epidermal growth factor (EGF) on the biosynthetic activity of skin fibroblasts from donors of varying age and the modulation of their response ... [more ▼]
The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of epidermal growth factor (EGF) on the biosynthetic activity of skin fibroblasts from donors of varying age and the modulation of their response to this growth factor by culture in a three-dimensional extracellular matrix. When cultured in monolayer on plastic or at the surface of a collagen gel, EGF specifically inhibited collagen synthesis whatever the age of the donor (from 17 to 84 years, n = 11). This inhibition was paralleled by a significant decrease in the steady-state level of procollagen type I mRNAs. When embedded in a three-dimensional floating collagen lattice, EGF stimulated the non-collagen protein (NCP) synthesis in fibroblasts from younger donors (5 out of 6) while fibroblasts from the older ones were not affected. Collagen production by fibroblasts from younger donors was not inhibited as in monolayer (some being even stimulated) while that of the older donors was inhibited as observed in monolayer. The steady-state level of procollagen type I mRNA was not modified by EGF in the three-dimensional culture. No significant difference was observed in the affinity and the number of EGF receptors of the fibroblasts on plastic or embedded in a collagen lattice between young and aged donors. Our results suggest that the environment of the cells can modulate the reactivity to EGF and reveal differences related to in vivo aging. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 42 (6 ULg)
Cultured neurons release an inhibitor of astroglia proliferation (astrostatine).
Rogister, Bernard ; Leprince, Pierre ; Bonhomme, Vincent et al
in Journal of Neuroscience Research (1990), 25(1), 58-70
Using in vitro techniques, we looked for a possible downregulation of rat astroglia proliferation by neuronal cells. We demonstrate that medium conditioned by 7-day-old rat cerebellar granule neurons or ... [more ▼]
Using in vitro techniques, we looked for a possible downregulation of rat astroglia proliferation by neuronal cells. We demonstrate that medium conditioned by 7-day-old rat cerebellar granule neurons or by 16-day-old rat embryo hippocampal neurons strongly inhibits the proliferation of cultured astroglial cells. Two neuronal cell lines, the PC12 rat pheocromocytoma and the neuro 2A (N2A) murine neuroblastoma also release such an activity. This release in N2A-conditioned medium (CM) occurs when the cells are at high density and show a low proliferation rate. This activity is present in media conditioned by neuronal cells, but not in media conditioned by normal astrocytes, by two glioma cell lines, or by one fibroblastic cell line. This proliferation inhibitor addresses normal astrocytes: the proliferation of two glioma cell lines, of a fibroblastic cell line, and of the two neuronal cell lines (PC12, N2A) is not inhibited by N2A CM. Moreover, this activity is directed against type 1 astrocytes, but not against type 2. Using three different assays, we demonstrate that DNA synthesis by astroglial cells is inhibited. N2A CM has no cytotoxic effect on astrocytes and does not modify their overall protein synthesis. Using affinity and gel filtration chromatography, we show that this activity is associated with a protein whose molecular weight ranges between 15 and 20 kDa. The possible relationship between this N2A cell-derived astroglia proliferation inhibitor and other types of potential glial proliferation inhibitors has been investigated. A brain glycoprotein immunologically related to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) was reported to inhibit astroglial cell proliferation in vitro. Using polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies against EGFR, we were unable to immunoprecipitate the astrocyte proliferation inhibitor in N2A CM or to demonstrate by immunoblotting the presence of an EGFR-like immunoreactivity in the N2A CM or in the active chromatographic fractions of N2A CM. Transforming growth factor beta (TGF beta) is a well-known modulator of the proliferation of various cell types and was shown to be present in N2A CM. Using a polyclonal anti-TGF beta antibody that recognizes TGF beta on Western blots of N2A CM, we were unable to immunoprecipitate the astrocyte proliferation inhibitor of N2A CM. It seems thus far that the neuronal astroglia proliferation inhibitor is a new protein for which we propose the name astrostatine. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 30 (12 ULg)