References of "Cloes, Marc"
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See detailThe leisure context. A forgotten topic of sport pedagogy
Cloes, Marc ULg

in Albuquerque, Alberto; Pinheiro, Claudia; Resende, Rui (Eds.) A Formaçao de Formadores em Educaçao Fisica e Desporto. Perspectivas Internacionais Tendëncias atuais (2014)

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See detailLaura. Enduring – or enjoying – endurance training.
Cloes, Marc ULg; Hody, Stéphanie ULg; Jidovtseff, Boris ULg et al

in Armour, Katheleen (Ed.) Pedagogical cases in physical education and youth sport (2014)

This chapter presents a pedagogical case presenting a 15-year-old girl who met some episodes of drop in blood pressure in the morning when beginning school. Her physical education (PE) teacher has to find ... [more ▼]

This chapter presents a pedagogical case presenting a 15-year-old girl who met some episodes of drop in blood pressure in the morning when beginning school. Her physical education (PE) teacher has to find a way to deal with such situation. Three scientists from physiology, fitness training and psychology analyze the scenario and underline the knowledge that should be used by the PE teacher in order to implement appropriate lessons. Sport pedagogists propose then a concrete contribution based on this interdisciplinary analysis. Such paper is a fantastic adventure for scholars who are invited to exchange their representations, knowledge et ideas in order to develop strong approaches. The refective process is an example for preservice education but also for all practioneers and PE teacher educators. [less ▲]

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See detailLe maître d’école et la promotion de l’activité physique
Cloes, Marc ULg

Scientific conference (2013, December 10)

School is considered as one of the main pilars of the promotion of physical activity. Beyond the physical education teachers - who are real corner stones of this multisectorial action, the classroom ... [more ▼]

School is considered as one of the main pilars of the promotion of physical activity. Beyond the physical education teachers - who are real corner stones of this multisectorial action, the classroom teachers must also be sensitized to that kind of action because they particularly influence children and can also contribute to give them healthy lifestyle. The presentation takes the representations as the common thread in order to illustrate the notions that the teachers should master and to draw their attention on their responsibilities. [less ▲]

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See detailConnaissez-vous l’activité physique?
Cloes, Marc ULg

Speech (2013)

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See detailL’activité physique Quoi? Pourquoi? Comment?
Cloes, Marc ULg

Conference (2013, October 30)

L’activité physique et la sédentarité sont deux notions qui font partie de notre vie quotidienne. Il apparait toutefois que le public ne se construit pas toujours des représentations adéquates à leur ... [more ▼]

L’activité physique et la sédentarité sont deux notions qui font partie de notre vie quotidienne. Il apparait toutefois que le public ne se construit pas toujours des représentations adéquates à leur propos alors que, parties intégrantes de notre style de vie, elles jouent un rôle fondamental dans la santé de chacun d’entre nous. L’exposé, qui se veut interactif, portera donc sur la définition des concepts avant d’aborder les effets de la pratique et d’analyser les recommandations internationales en la matière. Par son côté ludique, l’intervention permet de prendre conscience de certaines mauvaises représentations et/ou de lacunes au niveau de connaissances qui concernent la santé publique. Les échanges permettront par ailleurs de dégager des pistes d’action concrètes pouvant aisément être mises en place. [less ▲]

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See detailThe physical education teacher as a physical activity promoter
Cloes, Marc ULg

Conference (2013, October 25)

Nowadays, physical education is more and more focused on the development of an active lifestyle among the students who are supposed to become physically educated citizen throughout life. The presentation ... [more ▼]

Nowadays, physical education is more and more focused on the development of an active lifestyle among the students who are supposed to become physically educated citizen throughout life. The presentation is divided in six parts: AIESEP Statement on Sport Pedagogy; From sport educator to PA promoter: The (r)evolution of PE teachers; What about ‘Quality Physical Education’?; How to be a PA promoter?; PETE for PA promoters; Conclusions. [less ▲]

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See detailEmotional intelligence and self-efficacy among physical education teachers
Mouton, Alexandre ULg; Hansenne, Michel ULg; Delcour, Romy et al

in Journal of Teaching in Physical Education (2013), 32(4), 342-354

Research has documented a positive association between Emotional Intelligence (EI) and well-being, performance and self-efficacy. The purpose of the current study was to examine potential associations ... [more ▼]

Research has documented a positive association between Emotional Intelligence (EI) and well-being, performance and self-efficacy. The purpose of the current study was to examine potential associations between EI and self-efficacy among physical education teachers. The Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (TEIQue) and the Teacher Sense of Efficacy Scale (TSES) were administered to a sample of 119 physical education teachers. The main results show a positive association between EI and self-efficacy, and more particularly that the sociability factor of EI predicted the TSES total score. Moreover, neither age nor teaching time experience was related to EI or self-efficacy scores. These results both confirm and extend previous findings on the association between EI and self-efficacy. Suggestions are provided for specific EI training for physical education teachers. [less ▲]

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See detailAnalyse de l’interaction entraîneur-sportifs. Analyse qualitative exploratoire d’un modèle original
Remy, Elodie ULg; Manfredini, Tiber ULg; Cloes, Marc ULg

in Carnel, Béatrice; Moniotte, Julien (Eds.) Intervention, Recherche et Formation: Quels enjeux, quelles transformations? (2013, September)

Notre démarche, novatrice, s’inscrit dans une orientation sociale de la psychologie du sport. Selon Brown (2006), la psychologie sociale correspond à la compréhension d’un comportement individuel dans un ... [more ▼]

Notre démarche, novatrice, s’inscrit dans une orientation sociale de la psychologie du sport. Selon Brown (2006), la psychologie sociale correspond à la compréhension d’un comportement individuel dans un contexte social. La psychologie du sport, elle, se définit comme « l’étude de l’effet des facteurs psychologiques et émotionnels sur les performances et de l’influence de la pratique sportive sur ces mêmes facteurs » (Cox, 2005, p. 14). Notre objectif consistait à déterminer le lien entre, d’une part, ce que les coaches définissent comme leur(s) priorité(s) d’actions, ce qu’ils font concrètement et comment le vivent les sportifs et, d’autre part, ce qu’attendent ces derniers. Il s’agissait également de déterminer comment le lien entre ces quatre aspects influe sur la performance et comment la performance agit en retour sur ces aspects. Afin de développer une méthodologie rigoureuse, nous avons élaboré un modèle qui a servi de cadre de référence pour la collecte de données au sein de trois équipes de basket-ball de 1ère régionale féminine wallonne (deuxième niveau hiérarchique belge). Dans chaque site, nous avons sollicité à la fois les joueuses et les entraîneurs (interviews, focus group, observations et questionnaires). Dans la première équipe, un net décalage est mis en évidence entre le projet du coach, celui des joueuses et les moyens dont dispose le club. Il se manifeste par des comportements contradictoires et ambivalents entre joueuses et entraîneur, ce qui semble impacter considérablement la performance. La seconde équipe s’inscrit dans un cadre particulier (école de formation ne pouvant connaître ni promotion ni relégation). La jeunesse des joueuses et le style de coaching vécu comme oppressant par les plus jeunes débouche sur un climat susceptible de limiter la performance. Enfin, la troisième équipe se situe largement en-dessous du niveau attendu. Les joueuses composent avec un entraîneur démissionnaire et un préparateur physique porté aux nues dont le comportement est décrit comme affectif et protecteur. Ce constat fait obstacle à une vision objective des acteurs sur les résultats. Ces résultats plaident en faveur du modèle proposé et pour un approfondissement de l’étude des liens entre dimensions organisationnelle, groupale et individuelle dans l’étude de la performance sportive collective. [less ▲]

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See detailProfils de discordance et comportement d’élèves dans un contexte d’éducation physique belge francophone
Martel, Denis; Cloes, Marc ULg; Colina-Valdor, Xavier et al

in Carnel, Béatrice; Moniotte, Julien (Eds.) Intervention, Recherche et Formation: Quels enjeux, quelles transformations? (2013, September)

Les profils de discordance sont déterminés à partir des écarts entre l’auto-évaluation des élèves (AÉ) et leur prédiction de l’évaluation de l’éducateur physique à leur égard (PrÉ) concernant leur niveau ... [more ▼]

Les profils de discordance sont déterminés à partir des écarts entre l’auto-évaluation des élèves (AÉ) et leur prédiction de l’évaluation de l’éducateur physique à leur égard (PrÉ) concernant leur niveau de performance, leur coopération et l’intensité de leurs efforts en classe d’éducation physique et sportive (ÉPS) (Martel et al., 2011). Une étude québécoise a permis d’établir que plus les élèves s’estiment sous-évalués par leur enseignant sur ces trois dimensions, moins ils tendent à rapporter l’adoption de comportements positifs durant les cours d’ÉPS. Pour la présente étude, réalisée dans un contexte belge francophone, les objectifs étaient : (1) de déterminer les profils de discordance d’élèves (PDi), et (2) d’analyser la relation entre ces PDi et les comportements que disent adopter les élèves en ÉPS. Un total de 1271 élèves (722 filles, 549 garçons) âgés entre 11 et 20 ans, provenant des niveaux secondaires inférieur (n=857) et supérieur (n=414) d’écoles (N=4) de l’agglomération de Liège, ont volontairement participé à l’étude. Un questionnaire validé, adapté d’une version québécoise, a été complété par les élèves vers la fin de l’année scolaire en l’absence de l'éducateur physique. Les résultats, inférieurs à ceux d’autres études, révèlent que 25% des élèves expriment un profil de concordance parfaite entre leur AÉ et leur PrÉ, c’est-à-dire s’estiment évalués à leur juste valeur à la fois pour leur niveau de performance, leur coopération et leurs efforts en ÉPS. Par ailleurs, 56% des élèves s’estiment sous-évalués (discordance négative) sur une seule dimension (27,7%), deux dimensions (19,4%) ou trois dimensions (9,5%) simultanément. Enfin, les résultats confirment ceux de Martel et al. (2011), à savoir que plus les élèves se sentent sous-évalués, particulièrement ceux qui se sentent sous-évalués sur au moins deux dimensions, moins ils rapportent de comportements positifs (p< .001) que ceux qui perçoivent être davantage en accord avec leur enseignant. [less ▲]

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See detailAnalyse de parcours d'entraîneurs belges de haut niveau. Application de l'approche narrative
Theunissen, Catherine ULg; Dosquet, Thibaut; Cloes, Marc ULg

in Carnel, Béatrice; Moniotte, Julien (Eds.) Intervention, Recherche et Formation: Quels enjeux, quelles transformations? (2013, September)

Beaucoup d'entraîneurs rêvent d'une carrière dans le sport de haut niveau. Connaître les secrets de ceux qui atteignent les sommets présente un attrait indéniable pour les praticiens. Les recettes du ... [more ▼]

Beaucoup d'entraîneurs rêvent d'une carrière dans le sport de haut niveau. Connaître les secrets de ceux qui atteignent les sommets présente un attrait indéniable pour les praticiens. Les recettes du succès sont difficilement définies et la qualité d'un entraîneur ne repose généralement que sur les résultats des sportifs et la reconnaissance par les pairs (Terisse, 1998). Notre investigation vise à mettre en évidence des éléments décisifs dans le parcours d'entraîneurs belges francophones de haut niveau à travers le récit de leur vie. L'approche narrative (Lemyre & Trudel, 2004 ; Von Rotz, 2004) a été utilisée avec des entraîneurs de sports collectifs (n=4) et individuels (n=4) en laissant la liberté aux sujets de mettre en évidence les éléments de son contexte qu'il considère comme essentiels. Une analyse de contenu des interviews a ensuite été menée via un système de catégorisation des verbatims. La fidélité inter- et intra-analystes a révélé un taux d'accord satisfaisant (89 et 95%). Généralement anciens sportifs, les entraineurs de haut niveau ont le plus souvent franchi le cap par hasard. Ils ont ensuite évolué en encadrant des équipes de jeunes, ce qui leur a permis de connaitre les différentes étapes de l'apprentissage. Les rencontres avec d'autres praticiens ont alimenté leurs connaissances. Les formations suivies les ont amenés à évoluer au même titre que leur réflexion et la consultation de différents ouvrages de référence. Même s'ils déclarent afficher un caractère bien trempé, ils misent sur une compétence en psychologie pour assouplir les relations humaines tout veillant à maintenir la rigueur à la tâche. Ils ne comptent pas sur la chance et parlent plutôt de réussite en se souciant de chaque détail, pour limiter le hasard. Ces résultats sont en congruence avec Wright, Trudel & Culver (2007) qui déclarent que chaque situation vécue joue immanquablement un rôle dans la formation des entraîneurs. [less ▲]

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See detailLa problématique des dispensés au cours d’éducation physique : analyse des représentations des enseignants en Belgique francophone
Van Hoye, Martin ULg; Cloes, Marc ULg

in Carnel, Béatrice; Moniotte, Julien (Eds.) Intervention, Recherche et Formation: Quels enjeux, quelles transformations? (2013, September)

Souvent, les enseignants en éducation physique se plaignent du nombre de dispensés et/ou d'absents constaté lors de leurs leçons et l'associent à un manque de motivation. Toutefois, ces plaintes sont ... [more ▼]

Souvent, les enseignants en éducation physique se plaignent du nombre de dispensés et/ou d'absents constaté lors de leurs leçons et l'associent à un manque de motivation. Toutefois, ces plaintes sont souvent assez abstraites. C'est pourquoi, dans cette étude, nous avons tenté de concrétiser le ressenti des enseignants en les interrogeant directement. Respectant les principes de l’approche écologique, cette recherche vise donc à enrichir les connaissances relatives à la problématique des dispensés en éducation physique en se basant sur l’analyse des perceptions des enseignants. Nous avons utilisé un questionnaire afin d’identifier l’importance de la non-participation lors des leçons d’éducation physique et les variables qui en seraient responsables. Dans le cadre d’un échantillonnage de convenance, les réponses ont été collectées lors de formations continues, dans des écoles et par l’intermédiaire d’une association professionnelle. Au total, 232 réponses (50% d’hommes et de femmes ayant en moyenne 18,6 années d’ancienneté dans l’enseignement) ont été encodées dans une base de données et traitées (Statistica, StatSoft, 2010). En moyenne, selon les estimations des enseignants, 82,4% des élèves seraient actifs lors des leçons d’éducation physique. Ce chiffre varie en fonction du réseau d’enseignement dans lequel on se trouve mais également de l’ancienneté de l’enseignant, confirmant les propos de Carlier et Brunelle (1998). Les enseignants mettent également en évidence que la non-participation est essentiellement liée à des problèmes médicaux rencontrés par les élèves. Ils considèrent d’ailleurs que les excuses médicales n’étant pas couvertes par un certificat seraient même presque aussi importantes quantitativement que celles qui le sont. Enfin, l’oubli de l’équipement représente la troisième raison de non-participation des élèves mentionnée par les enseignants. D’après ces derniers, l’âge des élèves aurait peu d’influence. Plusieurs implications pratiques sont formulées à partir des résultats. [less ▲]

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See detailCurrent developments in the improvement of PE teachers’ action with overweight students
Cloes, Marc ULg

Conference (2013, August 30)

Globally, researchers regularly note the growing prevalence of weight excess and obesity among all population groups (Sassi, 2010). This trend is now considered a real epidemic. Weight gain and obesity ... [more ▼]

Globally, researchers regularly note the growing prevalence of weight excess and obesity among all population groups (Sassi, 2010). This trend is now considered a real epidemic. Weight gain and obesity are associated with several endogenous and exogenous factors among which inappropriate nutrition and sedentary lifestyle are clearly emphasized (Gahagan, 2004). Beyond the harmful consequences on individual health, the increasing proportion of overweight/obese individuals is already contributing to an increase in health care costs that will reach unmanageable proportions in few decades. Therefore, an increasing number of national and international bodies underline the need to implement effective programs designed to improve the citizen’s lifestyle. Over the last decade, the literature is replete with studies that demonstrate the positive effects of local and/or broader programs designed to address the issue of weight control and obesity prevention/treatment. Despite the encouraging data, it seems that the real impact on the society lacks consistency. It appears that multi-sectoral approaches are required. In such models, the School is identified as a determining component that should be implemented but cannot be considered as the magic remedy of a complex challenge like obesity (Fridlund Dunton et al., 2011; Lee et al., 2006). In fact, at school, each child is expected to acquire competences and knowledge that she/he will be able to use lifelong. Nevertheless, without the support of the other pillars of the society, any action undertaken at school would be a sword strike into water. Moreover, within the school, the fight against obesity needs the combined action of several partners in a multidimensional intervention. As a result of its links to the promotion of physical activity and health, physical education (PE) is logically presented as a key element in the strategies to be implemented (Tappe & Burgeson, 2004). However, for PE teachers, the growing number of overweight/obese students seems to represent a real challenge. Indeed, these students require specialized attention that, in the same time, cannot result in a stigmatization of the students’ characteristics. It first appears that PE teachers experience some difficulties in clearly identifying those students who need real intervention. Moreover, PE teachers express real concern over what can be done without causing harm to the overweight/obese student, this situation being especially relevant with the adolescent student (Cloes & Ziant, 2009; Rukavina et al., 2010). The presentation will focus on the current state of the research on PE teachers’ potential actions with overweight/obese students. The aim is to illustrate the avenues that are currently being explored. The presentation will offer a review of the steps of a research program addressing student obesity in PE developed at the University of Liege over the past several years. [less ▲]

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See detailRelationships between attitude towards physical activity and physical activity level at school
Naik, Shraddha; Pethkar, Vishnu; Cloes, Marc ULg

Conference (2013, July 07)

It would be interesting to determine if students’ attitude towards physical activity (PA) is linked to the students’ level of PA during school time as well as to verify if the school time contributes ... [more ▼]

It would be interesting to determine if students’ attitude towards physical activity (PA) is linked to the students’ level of PA during school time as well as to verify if the school time contributes significantly to the daily PA of the youth. A descriptive survey was carried out on 480 children from grade 6 (120 boys & 120 girls and grade 9 (120 boys & 120 girls randomly selected from 8 schools in Pune city (India). Their attitude towards PA and physical fitness were measured using SAPAPF (Pethkar, 2012). Pedometer determined number of steps accumulated through the school hours were measured for a week and averaged to find out the amount of PA during school-hours. Data analysis revealed that students in all four groups had positive attitude towards PA (175.20±19.32, 173.93±15.21, 173.98±17.94, 181.03±12.67) while the number of steps averaged from 3566.6 (±604.28), 4065.93 (±615.77), 2938.75 (±583.79) and 3145.95 (±588.65) for girls and boys in grade 6 and 9, respectively. A significant positive correlation between the attitude and the PA level has been found (Spearman rho correlation coefficients of .497, .623, .578, .705; p ≤0.05). However, the number of steps accumulated through the school hours was particularly far from the objectives recommended by public health bodies. Confirming findings from other contexts, comparison between school PA of girls and boys revealed that boys were more active than girls, younger students being more active than their older counterparts. The findings show that students who have a positive attitude towards PA find opportunities to be more active at school than those with a poor attitude. Moreover, school could play a more important role in providing to the students more opportunities to be physically active and to improve the attitude of some students towards PA. PE should become the corner stone of such mission. [less ▲]

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See detailSpecific caring for overweight students in physical education : Implementation of teaching strategies identified during an interdisciplinary meeting
Cloes, Marc ULg; Gianquinto, Joseph ULg; Mouton, Alexandre ULg

Conference (2013, July 05)

Literature shows that the number of overweight/obese youth grows irreparably since several decades. Their increasing presence in PE classes implies that PE teachers need to adapt their lessons, which ... [more ▼]

Literature shows that the number of overweight/obese youth grows irreparably since several decades. Their increasing presence in PE classes implies that PE teachers need to adapt their lessons, which seems not to be an easy challenge. It appeared that they lack of knowledge about the specific topic of obesity while professionals working with the people affected by weight problems are not aware about the characteristics of the teaching context. This paper is a part of a bigger study aiming to provide lines of action to the PE teachers. Based on the recommendations suggested through a half day meeting gathering physical educators and specialists of obesity, six PE teachers – five females, one male, all volunteers – agreed to implement freely teaching strategies in order to deal with their overweight/obese students. During three months, they had to fulfill a diary. At the half of this period, they were interviewed in order to explain how they were coping. At the end of this period, they attended to a track report meeting in order to share their experiences with the specialists. All teachers underlined that writing in the diary was a hard task (lack of time, difficulty to recall all events or to identify interesting information). However, the analysis of the diaries, interviews, and last interdisciplinary meeting showed that PE teachers implemented six main categories of actions: ‘Adapted endurance activities’; ‘Guidance of the adolescents to out-of-school sports activities’; ‘Contact with physicians and medical certificates’; ‘Contact with the psycho-medico-social centers of the schools’; ‘Nutrition aspects’; ‘Activities that enhance the student’. A large inter individual variability has been identified. Reported actions are divided in ‘little’ interactive decisions relying on opportunities, and projects that need a real involvement of the teacher. All actions were not effective but exchange between the subjects was hailed by each of them. [less ▲]

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See detailWeb-based interventions to promote physical activity by older adults: promising perspectives for a public health challenge
Mouton, Alexandre ULg; Cloes, Marc ULg

in Archives of Public Health (2013), 71

Regular physical activity is associated with a wide range of health benefits. As population age, promotion of physical activity should specifically target older adults, an expanding group involving ... [more ▼]

Regular physical activity is associated with a wide range of health benefits. As population age, promotion of physical activity should specifically target older adults, an expanding group involving potential higher health care costs in the near future. Innovative interventions focusing on physical activity behaviors of senior adults exposed promising results, most recently through the use of the Internet. If seniors and Internet are generally considered as two opposite concepts, arguments in favour of bringing them together in a public health perspective have been identified by the recent literature. Older adults are the fastest growing group of Internet users and are more prone than younger to use it for health-related subjects. Web-based interventions are effective in many health promotion sectors, including physical activity. This is particularly true when interventions target the environmental determinants of each senior citizen and are specifically designed for this population. Those early research findings must clearly be extended, particularly regarding to the long term effects of Webbased physical activity interventions. Solutions that will reduce the high dropout rate recorded in the existing literature must also be considered as a priority in order to ensure the development of this forward-looking field of research. [less ▲]

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See detailInternet-based physical activity promotion: Are older adults ready for this?
Mouton, Alexandre ULg; Cloes, Marc ULg

Poster (2013, July)

Despite the numerous health benefits, population physical activity (PA) levels are low and decline with age. In Belgium, people older than 60 years will represent more than a third of the entire ... [more ▼]

Despite the numerous health benefits, population physical activity (PA) levels are low and decline with age. In Belgium, people older than 60 years will represent more than a third of the entire population in 2050, with some major implications in terms of public health cost. Faced with this issue, innovative interventions to promote PA in older adults are of major interest. The Internet holds potential for delivering effective PA interventions. Besides, older adults are the largest-growing group of Internet users. Therefore, the main purpose of this study was to explore the opinion of older adults about Internet-based PA promotion. First, 75 older adults (73.75 ± 5.77 years) fulfilled a questionnaire about their PA stage of change, motivation about PA and opinion about several elements that could be included in an Internet-based PA website. Then, they were asked to participate in an unique session of “home exercising”. Finally, in a subsequent interview, they had to give their opinion about the inclusion of this kind of session in an Internet-based PA website. Only 48% of the participants met the official guidelines for PA. A regular access to the Internet was observed for 57.3% of the participants, with a significantly higher access for the younger ones (p = .014). Based on a 4-point Likert scale, the most popular topics for an Internet-based intervention were “PA social forum” (3.3/4), “PA local opportunities” (3.2/4), “PA local agenda” (3.1/4), “Benefits of PA” (3.1/4) and “PA programs” (3.1/4). According to the participants, the inclusion of “home exercising” in an internet-based PA website would be appreciated (7.85/10), adapted (8.78/10) and likely to be self-implemented at home (6.96/10). Findings suggest that an internet-based PA promotion may be acceptable for older people. Social and neighborhood environment elements appear to be essential in order to support the motivation for a regular PA practice. [less ▲]

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See detailReferee education in Wallonia - The case of the team sports with interpenetration
Van Hoye, Martin ULg; Mottard, Baptiste; Cloes, Marc ULg

Poster (2013, July)

The referees are responsible for the proper progress of sports competitions. However, it is clear that very few studies are devoted to them, particularly with regard to their training. The aim of this ... [more ▼]

The referees are responsible for the proper progress of sports competitions. However, it is clear that very few studies are devoted to them, particularly with regard to their training. The aim of this study was to analyze the Wallonian situation in five federations: basketball, football, handball, hockey and rugby. We conducted semi-structured interviews with three officials of their refereeing commission. After the analysis of the data, subjects gave a feedback on the synthesis of the interviews (Friedberg, 1994). The SONAL software (v.1.6.11; Alber, 2010) allowed us to process the data. According to our subjects, no federation is genuinely interested by referees, as they prefer to focus more on other aspects ("sport for all", "promotion of their sport", "notoriety of the national team" …). The referee courses are purely theoretical and concluded with an examination (15/15). Then, supervisors follow the referees on the field but the lack of human resources is a real problem (15/15). Only the basketball federation offers learning levels, allowing a gradual advancement. The career-long learning is based on supervisions but also on seminars. The field's experience is the most important factor (15/15) to improve (Pizerra and Laborde, 2011). We noticed also that the football federation implemented refereeing training centers while the basketball federation has established a school of refereeing. In addition, the rugby referee educators must have a certificate of the international refereeing commission while any special skills are requested in the other federations. Except in hockey, all courses are free. In the five federations, the structures are extremely different. An identical framework with different invariable levels, as in coach education (Theunissen, 2007), could facilitate the implementation of interdisciplinary training. [less ▲]

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See detailLa natation à l’école: participation des élèves en primaire et au secondaire
Cloes, Marc ULg

Conference (2013, May 15)

Swimming represents one of the most popular physical activities that are practiced by the children and the adolescents in Wallonia and Brussels. Paradoxically, their participation to the school swimming ... [more ▼]

Swimming represents one of the most popular physical activities that are practiced by the children and the adolescents in Wallonia and Brussels. Paradoxically, their participation to the school swimming lessons is clearly lower. Is it still necessary to maintain swimming courses at school? This presentation underlines that it would be unreasonable to remove the swimming courses from the school curricula. However, it would be essential to implement some dispositions in order to enrich the experiences lived by the students. [less ▲]

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See detailYouth leaders’ representations about the role of youth organizations in physical activity promotion
Cloes, Marc ULg; Wilkin, Sophie

Poster (2013, May)

Purpose. Multisectorial actions are needed to fight against sedentariness. Youth organizations (YO) gather thousands of children and adolescents each weekend. Most of them propose to develop all ... [more ▼]

Purpose. Multisectorial actions are needed to fight against sedentariness. Youth organizations (YO) gather thousands of children and adolescents each weekend. Most of them propose to develop all dimensions of the individuals and to contribute to the education of the youth. Unfortunately, very few studies are available to confirm if this is the case. The purpose of this study was to determine if the youth leaders consider that they play a role in physical activity (PA) promotion. Methods. A questionnaire was developed and tested by a pilot study. It comprised four parts (Introduction, Descriptive variables; Youth leader’s representations about PA; Youth leader’s representations about the role of the YO in PA promotion). Most of the questions were Lickert scales. Answers of 232 youth leaders were analysed. They were belonging to all youth movements of the Liege area. Results. Youth leaders tended to support the idea that YO have to play a role in PA promotion: 57.3% totally agree on the fact that YO allows youth to be physically active; 40.1% consider that it is effectively the case. On the other hand, only 1.3% believes that their group attend to sports during YO’s activities and 4.7% that youth use what they learn about PA in YO in their everyday life. Conclusions This study emphasized that YO should be more involved as an determining actor in the overall PA promotion and that youth leaders should be more systematically informed and prepared about the potential role that they could play. [less ▲]

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See detailWhat are the barriers encountered by the physiotherapists in their role of physical activity promoters?
Cloes, Marc ULg; Fabre, Florian

Poster (2013, May)

Purpose. The fight against sedentariness needs multisectorial actions. Being experts in movement and exercise, physiotherapists (PT) consider themselves as ideally placed to promote, guide and prescribe ... [more ▼]

Purpose. The fight against sedentariness needs multisectorial actions. Being experts in movement and exercise, physiotherapists (PT) consider themselves as ideally placed to promote, guide and prescribe physical activity (PA). The purpose of this study was to identify the barriers that limit their PA promoting mission as well as proposals of solutions. Methods. Fifteen PT attended to a 3 hours meeting during which researchers applied the nominal group technique. After a short introduction summarizing basic notions about PA, subjects were invited to describe the problems that PTs encountered when they want to promote PA. In a second step, they selected 8 categories of barriers to be discussed. During the last part of the meeting, subgroups had to imagine solutions to deal with selected problems. Oral reports were shared. After the meeting, a written report was prepared by the researchers and validated by the subjects. Results. Out of the 13 identified categories, subject selected the following: Patients’ lack of awareness of PA’s interest for healthy living; Patients’ poor self perceptions and misrepresentations about PA; Patients’ difficulties to change their behaviour; PTs’ lack of knowledge about PA; PTs’ lack of informational resources; Patients’ lack of social support; Patients’ lack of facilities; PTs’ lack of interaction with other actors. The synthesis of the solutions was combined with written resources in a 19 pages brochure. Conclusions. This study pointed out that PTs are able to propose a plurality of ideas and approaches through a constructive group work. Such approach will be proposed in inservice education. [less ▲]

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